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    Bismarck Bismarck Presentation Transcript

        Lecture 2 Helen Grundy
    • Who was Bismarck?
      • Born in 1815 into a wealthy land-owning family.
      • 1862: Chief Minister of Prussia.
      • Secured the UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
      • 1871: Imperial Chancellor of the German Empire.
    • What was the position of the German Empire in 1871?
      • The greatest military power.
      • Major industrial power.
      • Other nations expected Germany to follow an aggressive foreign policy.
      • Bismarck aimed to reassure leaders of Europe that he was a man of peace.
      • Rule: authoritarian, militaristic.
      • Kaiser: chose the Chancellor.
    • What was the position of the German Empire in 1871?
      • The unification had led to rapid industrial expansion.
      • There was a growing pressure for overseas colonies.
    • Relations with France
      • France was a key enemy ever since the 1871 Franco-Prussian War.
      • Bismarck did not fear France alone, but feared an alliance of another major power with France would leave Germany vulnerable to attack.
      • Fear of a war on two fronts.
      • AIM: To deprive France of allies.
      • Austria-Hungary and Russia would be logical allies, but they opposed one another and this made the situation complex for Bismarck.
    • Rivalry in the Balkans
      • Russia: wanted influence in the Balkans to have access to the Meditteranean. They wanted the Turkish Empire to break up.
      • Austria-Hungary: wanted the Turkish Empire to remain strong. They feared NATIONALISM would spread into Austria-Hungary and cause the break up of Austria-Hungary.
    • Dreikaiserbund
      • Three emperors. Franz Joseph (Austria-Hungary, Tsar Alex II of Russia and William I of Germany.
      • General agreement of solidarity against social revolution.
      • Agreement of
      • conservative powers.
    • Dreikaiserbund
        What is the meaning of this cartoon?
    • The Balkans Crisis 1875-1878
      • Serbians revolted against Turkish rule.
      • Russia moved to help Serbia and this led to war between Russia and Turkey in 1877.
      • Austria-Hungary and Britain demanded a Congress of Powers and this led to the CONGRESS OF BERLIN in 1878.
      • The fate of Turkey was a matter of concern to all powers.
      • Russian domination was checked without war.
      • Some states gained independence from Turkey.
    • Europe after the Congress of Berlin
    • Bismarck and Austria-Hungary
      • Bismarck backed up Austria-Hungary over Russia (why?) and this ended the Dreikaiserbund.
      • In 1879 the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary was formed. (support one another in the event of an attack from Russia).
      • Why? Bismarck wanted to avoid Austria-Hungary forming an alliance with Britain and France.
      • “ I wanted to dig a ditch between her and the Western Powers”.
    • Renewal of Dreikaiserbund 1881
      • Bismarck hoped to rebuild relations with Russia.
      • June 1881 the League of the Three Emperors was renewed.
      • If one of the three powers was at war with a fourth power then the other two would stay neutral.
      • Enabled Austria-Hungary to expand into Bosnia and Herzegovina and Russia to infleunce Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.
      • The treaty meant Russia would not join France against Germany.
    • Why? Dreikaiserbund 1881
      • It bound Austria-Hungary and Russia in an agreement.
      • Bismarck would now not have to choose which of the two nations to support.
      • Try to be one of three, so long as the world is governed by an unstable equilibrium of five great powers
    • The Triple Alliance
      • Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
      • Negotiations began in 1881 and the agreement finalised in 1882.
      • Italy were a mutual enemy of
      • France, although not
      • a “great” power.
    • Bismarck runs into problems
      • Bismarck's alliances began to contradict one another.
      • 1883 Austria-Hungary and Germany promise to efend Rumania and Rumania. BUT this clashes with agreement with Russia.
      • The Triple Alliance assumes a war with Russia, yet the League of Three Emperors is based on Austria-Hungary and Russia co-operation!
    • The Balkans (again!) 1885
      • Bulgaria did not want to be under Russian influence.
      • They wanted to form an alliance with Eastern Rumelia.
      • Britain and Austria-Hungary support Bulgaria.
      • Russia kidnap the Bulgarian prince! He is forced to abdicate.
      • Bismarck is now forced to choose sides.
      • He backs up Austria-Hungary and the League of Three Emperors ends (again!).
    • Meditteranean Agreements 1887
      • Italy, Britain and Austria-Hungary.
      • Mutual support against a fourth power.
      • The agreement was altered and the focus was against Russia.
      • Bismarck: relief that the burden of opposing Russia was now a shared concern.
    • The Reinsurance Treaty 1887
      • Bismarck still wished to win back Russian support (why?)
      • This Treaty had to be worded to fit around all of his other agreements.
      • Neutrality if either country was attacked by a third power.
      • BUT.....this agreement did not hold if Germany attacked France or Russia attacked Austria-Hungary. (How does this cause problems with the Dual Alliance?).
      • In 1888 published the terms of the Dual Alliance (why?)
    • Bismarck's Europe by 1890
      • Russia had not formed an agreement with France.
      • Period of peace.
      • In 1888 Kaiser William II became ruler of Germany.
      • Bismarck resigned in 1890 due to clashes with the new Kaiser.
      • Bismarck was credited with keeping peace in Europe for two decades.
    • BISMARCK QUOTES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvTeokFH8mA