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  1. 1. EUROPE: THE ROLE OF BISMARCK <ul>Lecture 2 Helen Grundy </ul>
  2. 2. Who was Bismarck? <ul><li>Born in 1815 into a wealthy land-owning family.
  3. 3. 1862: Chief Minister of Prussia.
  4. 4. Secured the UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
  5. 5. 1871: Imperial Chancellor of the German Empire. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What was the position of the German Empire in 1871? <ul><li>The greatest military power.
  7. 7. Major industrial power.
  8. 8. Other nations expected Germany to follow an aggressive foreign policy.
  9. 9. Bismarck aimed to reassure leaders of Europe that he was a man of peace.
  10. 10. Rule: authoritarian, militaristic.
  11. 11. Kaiser: chose the Chancellor. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What was the position of the German Empire in 1871? <ul><li>The unification had led to rapid industrial expansion.
  13. 13. There was a growing pressure for overseas colonies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Relations with France <ul><li>France was a key enemy ever since the 1871 Franco-Prussian War.
  15. 15. Bismarck did not fear France alone, but feared an alliance of another major power with France would leave Germany vulnerable to attack.
  16. 16. Fear of a war on two fronts.
  17. 17. AIM: To deprive France of allies.
  18. 18. Austria-Hungary and Russia would be logical allies, but they opposed one another and this made the situation complex for Bismarck. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rivalry in the Balkans <ul><li>Russia: wanted influence in the Balkans to have access to the Meditteranean. They wanted the Turkish Empire to break up.
  20. 20. Austria-Hungary: wanted the Turkish Empire to remain strong. They feared NATIONALISM would spread into Austria-Hungary and cause the break up of Austria-Hungary.
  22. 22. Dreikaiserbund <ul><li>Three emperors. Franz Joseph (Austria-Hungary, Tsar Alex II of Russia and William I of Germany.
  23. 23. General agreement of solidarity against social revolution.
  24. 24. Agreement of
  25. 25. conservative powers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dreikaiserbund <ul>What is the meaning of this cartoon? </ul>
  27. 27. The Balkans Crisis 1875-1878 <ul><li>Serbians revolted against Turkish rule.
  28. 28. Russia moved to help Serbia and this led to war between Russia and Turkey in 1877.
  29. 29. Austria-Hungary and Britain demanded a Congress of Powers and this led to the CONGRESS OF BERLIN in 1878.
  30. 30. The fate of Turkey was a matter of concern to all powers.
  31. 31. Russian domination was checked without war.
  32. 32. Some states gained independence from Turkey. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Europe after the Congress of Berlin
  34. 34. Bismarck and Austria-Hungary <ul><li>Bismarck backed up Austria-Hungary over Russia (why?) and this ended the Dreikaiserbund.
  35. 35. In 1879 the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary was formed. (support one another in the event of an attack from Russia).
  36. 36. Why? Bismarck wanted to avoid Austria-Hungary forming an alliance with Britain and France.
  37. 37. “ I wanted to dig a ditch between her and the Western Powers”. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Renewal of Dreikaiserbund 1881 <ul><li>Bismarck hoped to rebuild relations with Russia.
  39. 39. June 1881 the League of the Three Emperors was renewed.
  40. 40. If one of the three powers was at war with a fourth power then the other two would stay neutral.
  41. 41. Enabled Austria-Hungary to expand into Bosnia and Herzegovina and Russia to infleunce Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.
  42. 42. The treaty meant Russia would not join France against Germany. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Why? Dreikaiserbund 1881 <ul><li>It bound Austria-Hungary and Russia in an agreement.
  44. 44. Bismarck would now not have to choose which of the two nations to support.
  45. 45. Try to be one of three, so long as the world is governed by an unstable equilibrium of five great powers </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Triple Alliance <ul><li>Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
  47. 47. Negotiations began in 1881 and the agreement finalised in 1882.
  48. 48. Italy were a mutual enemy of
  49. 49. France, although not
  50. 50. a “great” power. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Bismarck runs into problems <ul><li>Bismarck's alliances began to contradict one another.
  52. 52. 1883 Austria-Hungary and Germany promise to efend Rumania and Rumania. BUT this clashes with agreement with Russia.
  53. 53. The Triple Alliance assumes a war with Russia, yet the League of Three Emperors is based on Austria-Hungary and Russia co-operation! </li></ul>
  54. 54. The Balkans (again!) 1885 <ul><li>Bulgaria did not want to be under Russian influence.
  55. 55. They wanted to form an alliance with Eastern Rumelia.
  56. 56. Britain and Austria-Hungary support Bulgaria.
  57. 57. Russia kidnap the Bulgarian prince! He is forced to abdicate.
  58. 58. Bismarck is now forced to choose sides.
  59. 59. He backs up Austria-Hungary and the League of Three Emperors ends (again!). </li></ul>
  60. 60. Meditteranean Agreements 1887 <ul><li>Italy, Britain and Austria-Hungary.
  61. 61. Mutual support against a fourth power.
  62. 62. The agreement was altered and the focus was against Russia.
  63. 63. Bismarck: relief that the burden of opposing Russia was now a shared concern. </li></ul>
  64. 64. The Reinsurance Treaty 1887 <ul><li>Bismarck still wished to win back Russian support (why?)
  65. 65. This Treaty had to be worded to fit around all of his other agreements.
  66. 66. Neutrality if either country was attacked by a third power.
  67. 67. BUT.....this agreement did not hold if Germany attacked France or Russia attacked Austria-Hungary. (How does this cause problems with the Dual Alliance?).
  68. 68. In 1888 published the terms of the Dual Alliance (why?) </li></ul>
  69. 69. Bismarck's Europe by 1890 <ul><li>Russia had not formed an agreement with France.
  70. 70. Period of peace.
  71. 71. In 1888 Kaiser William II became ruler of Germany.
  72. 72. Bismarck resigned in 1890 due to clashes with the new Kaiser.
  73. 73. Bismarck was credited with keeping peace in Europe for two decades. </li></ul>