keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. I send them over land and sea, I send them east and west; But after they have worked for me, I give them all a rest. I let them rest from nine till five, For I am busy then, As well as breakfast, lunch, and tea, For they are hungry men. But different folk have different views; I know a person small She keeps ten million serving-men, Who get no rest at all! She sends em abroad on her own affairs, From the second she opens her eyes One million Hows, Two million Wheres, And seven million Whys!
Work Measurement for Operational Effectiveness Section 1 Timing Basics
Process – A series of activities directed toward a particular aim
Example – book a loan
Deliverable - A work product produced by a business domain business process, or activity for use in a subsequent business domain, process, or activity. Deliverables are ultimately provided to customers outside of the boundaries of the business domain, and are therefore the reasons a business domain exists
Example – a direct loan contract
Think Deliverable! Activity Inbound Deliverable What happened to the deliverable? Outbound Deliverable
Kipling’s six honest men who taught him all he knew
Eliminate unnecessary activity Why? 1. What is the purpose? Action Expected Followed by Question Combine or change person Why? 4. Who should do this? Simplify or improve method Why? 5. How should this be done? Combine or change time or sequence Why? 3. When should this be done? Combine or change place Why? 2. Where should this be done?
Study of an operation or series of operations involving people, equipment, and the processes for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of specific operations or groups of operations so that improvements can be developed which will raise productivity, reduce costs, improve quality, and attain other objectives.
A Workflow model is a representation of a Business Process in terms of its component Activities, and the flow of work among these Activities. A Workflow model concentrates on the flow of work through the business for a single output (i.e. product or service), or a single input (e.g. handling of an order). Once created, a Workflow model can be simulated to analyze process performance in terms of cost, timing and resource constraints .
Since Processes often cross organizational boundaries, the Workflow model depicts the organizational components performing each Activity and the Workflow (Deliverables and/or Events) between the Activities. The Workflow model serves as the basis for redesigning the Process, or redesigning the organizational structure to better support the Process.
The standard time is the time required by the average worker , working at a normal pace , to complete a specific activity or sub-activity, using a prescribed method , with allowances for personal, fatigue, and delay
“However, most allowances are estimated as a percentage of the total day, that is a 15 percent allowance should provide .15x480 minutes, or 72.0 minutes of nonproductive time per day. In order to apply 72.0 nonproductive minutes to 480 minute day, the percentage of normal is expressed:
or 17.65% and Not 15%. The standard should then be adjusted 17.65%.”
Smith, Work Measurement, Grid Publishing, Columbus Ohio, 1978, page 53.
When you define more then one element in an activity, the end of one element must be the beginning of the next element.
Get the most elements as is practical and possible so you can add and subtract them and keep the validity of the time study.
Sample Elemental Breakdown (One cycle = one case 24 bottles) 1 Transfer case to conveyor 6 12 Load bottles in case 5 1 If necessary discard defective in RH 4b 1 If necessary discard defective in LH 4a 13 Twist bottles in fingers to inspect 3 13 Reach to conveyor, grasp bottles (1 per hand) 2 1 Get empty case and place on packing stand 1 Freq. Per Cycle Description Element
Stopwatch Operation Total Elapsed Time End of element button Elemental (lap) Time End of cycle button Start of cycle button