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WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
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WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS

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  • 1. Remote Sensing & IGARSS<br />A Look Back, A Look Ahead<br />Karen St.Germain<br />With Significant Contributions From:<br />Paul Smits, David Kunkee, David Glackin, Steffan Fritz,<br />Chris Roelfsema, Stuart Phinn & Liam Gumley<br />July 2010<br />1<br />
  • 2. The Early Years – G-GE<br /><ul><li>A small society called the Geoscience Electronics Group (G-GE) had formed and was busy broadening its scope
  • 3. From 1961 to 1964 the society grew from its early emphasis on seismic activity
  • 4. In 1964 established the first journal dedicated to natural phenomena and the electronic instrumentation to measure them
  • 5. “Transactions on Geoscience Electronics”
  • 6. By November 1968, the society was poised again to expand its scope through a call to arms – lead article entitled “Oceanographic Instrumentation: A Crisis of National Neglect,” by Harvey D. Kushner
  • 7. Having established a presence in the fields of geophysics and oceanography, the society quickly moved into meteorology
  • 8. By 1969, the young society was ready to plan its first Symposium and the predecessor of IGARSS came into existence (held annually for 3 years)
  • 9. 376 Attendees
  • 10. 63 Papers
  • 11. 13 Technical Sessions covering oceanographic and meteorological remote sensing, seismology instrumentation, and environmental polution
  • 12. The society expanded its scope one more time in 1973 to include data processing techniques, pattern recognition, and physics of underlying phenomenlogy</li></ul>2<br />
  • 13. The Early Years: NIMBUS<br />3<br /><ul><li>At the same time, the NIMBUS program was developing new experimental techniques for weather observation
  • 14. Nimbus 5 (December 1972) and Nimbus 6 (June 1975) launched two microwave instruments
  • 15. Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosphere (PI Dr. Thomas Wilheit)
  • 16. Microwave Spectrometer (NEMS) for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles, water vapor, cloud liquid water and surface temperature (PI Dr. David Staelin)
  • 17. Nimbus 7 (October 1978)launched the first Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for sea surface temperature and near-surface (PI Dr. Per Gloerson)</li></li></ul><li>Mid-1970s: Microwaves Get Traction!!!<br /><ul><li>The success of the NIMBUS program and a few early Skylab experiments indicate that there is a way to get a global view of the oceans
  • 18. Everyonewants in on the action and a Users Working Group was established
  • 19. The Navy (Office of the Oceanographer, Fleet Numerical, Navy Surface Weapons, Naval Research Lab, Office of Naval Research, and the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center)
  • 20. NOAA (Atlantic Oceanic Marine Lab, Weather Center, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Marine Fisheries
  • 21. Defense Mapping Agency
  • 22. US Geological Survey
  • 23. The US Coast Guard
  • 24. The Department of the Interior
  • 25. Commercial Interests (shipping, fishing, mining, oil, and gas)
  • 26. Requirements were developed and SeaSat – a NASA/JPL demonstration mission, was born</li></ul>4<br />
  • 27. SeaSat – A Microwave Mission<br /><ul><li>Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) – 6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, and 37 GHz
  • 28. Ocean Wind Speed, Temperature
  • 29. Atmospheric Water Vapor and Rain Rate
  • 30. Polar Ice Cover
  • 31. Ocean Topography and Wave Height
  • 32. Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) – 14.6 GHz
  • 33. Ocean Wind Speed and Direction
  • 34. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) – 1.275 GHz
  • 35. Ocean Surface Imagery (wave patterns)
  • 36. Sea Ice Imagery
  • 37. Coastal Region and Land Imagery
  • 38. Radar Altimeter (ALT) – 13.5 GHz
  • 39. Launch !!!!!
  • 40. June 26, 1978</li></ul>Seasat was to provide the first truly global view of the World Oceans<br />5<br />
  • 41. SeaSat – A Microwave Mission<br /><ul><li>After a glorious 3 ½ months on orbit
  • 42. Catastrophic failure of the electronic power system
  • 43. BUT Seasat provided a wealth of data
  • 44. SASS demonstrated the capabilities of a scatterometer to measure ocean winds
  • 45. ALT and its predecessors demonstrated the capability of spaceborne altimeters to observe the global marine geoid
  • 46. SAR demonstrated the unique potential to provide information about the health of the planet and its biodiversity
  • 47. SMMR demonstrated the ability of scanning microwave radiometers to provide a wealth of ocean surface, land surface, and atmosphere products</li></ul>In its short life, Seasat demonstrated that a global view was possible<br />6<br />
  • 48. Meanwhile back at the G-GE<br />7<br /><ul><li>In 1979, the Administrative Committee voted
  • 49. Change the name of G-GE to the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS)
  • 50. Change the name of the journal to Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • 51. This change was driven by FawwazUlaby, then a new member of the AdCom, in recognition of the strong linkage between the various geoscientific disciplines and the powerful techniques of remote sensing
  • 52. Remote sensing was broadly defined to include space borne & airborne observations, as well as seismic recording devices and sonar ocean floor mappers
  • 53. In 1980, now GRSS President FawwazUlaby proposed reinstating the annual symposium called IGARSS
  • 54. Held in Washington DC, June 8-10, 1981
  • 55. Strong international participation
  • 56. Sponsor sessions in all of the technical areas of interest to the society
  • 57. In an effort to drive the international participation, IGARSS’82 was held in Munich, and the attendance held at 359</li></li></ul><li>IGARSS in the 1980s<br /><ul><li>In 1981, there were 2 full sessions dedicated to the SMMR on Nimbus-7 (launched October 1978, just as Seasat failed)
  • 58. Throughout the 80’s IGARSS was propelling the community toward the operational viability of the capabilities demonstrated by Seasat and its predecessors
  • 59. In 1985, the Navy launched Geosat – the follow-on to ALT
  • 60. In 1987, the Air Force launched SSM/I – the follow-on to SMMR
  • 61. In 1991, the European Space Agency launched ERS-1 – the follow-on to SASS
  • 62. Between 1985 and 1995, no fewer than 7 Synthetic Aperature Radar missions were launched – all following on the Seasat SAR
  • 63. By the time Vince Salomonson welcomed attendees to IGARSS 1990, the society had a full blown success on their hands
  • 64. Grown to 10 parallel sessions over 4 days
  • 65. Covering topics frominstrumentation techniques, to atmospheric observations, to early Global Change papers
  • 66. Increasing focus on routine production of global data products, supporting both operational and science missions</li></ul>8<br />
  • 67. The Second Decade of IGARSS ushers in new operational capabilities and the advent of continuous global data<br /><ul><li>In 1990, Remote Sensing was still largely a government led and funded activity
  • 68. The 90s ushered in a broader focus within IGARSS
  • 69. The emergence of Remote Sensing as a tool for National/International Policy –making
  • 70. NASA once again pushed the state of the art with its Earth Observing System</li></ul>1998: NASA Earth Observing <br />System Launches Terra !<br />9<br />
  • 71. IGARSS 2000<br /><ul><li>Plenary Session Speakers announced the critical role of remote sensing in enforcing the Kyoto Protocol
  • 72. A new role for Remote Sensing
  • 73. The MODIS instrument on EOS Terra storms onto the IGARSS stage</li></ul>10<br />
  • 74. Relationship of Remote Sensing to “Ground Truth” & Campaigns<br />11<br /><ul><li>Throughout the first 35 years of the field, Remote Sensing measurements were compared to in situ measurements
  • 75. The bias toward believing that which we can put our hands on is evident in our choice of language “Ground Truth”</li></ul>Graduate<br />Student<br />And, of course…<br />
  • 76. 2001-2010<br />12<br /><ul><li>2002: EOS Aqua Launch!
  • 77. AMSR brings low frequency radiometry back into the forefront
  • 78. 2003: WindSat on Coriolis Launch !
  • 79. First space borne demonstration of wind vector capability from passive microwave
  • 80. Rapid increase in internet capacity and data standardization through GIS enables new approaches to data sharing
  • 81. 2005: Google Earth released
  • 82. 2007: First Iphone introduced</li></li></ul><li>2010 and Beyond: Citizen Scientists Add a New Dimension!<br />13<br /><ul><li>Growth in Citizen Science interest increases available “work force”
  • 83. Smartphones enable data collection & upload
  • 84. Webtools enable worldwide collaboration
  • 85. Digital photography enables inexpensive “truth” data
  • 86. Facts:
  • 87. 250 Terabytes of high resolution images received from Earth Observation Satellites each day in 2009
  • 88. 1.18 billion mobile cell phones sold worldwide in 2008
  • 89. 400 million downloads of Google Earth – users contribute geospatial information
  • 90. Sensors of all types are being integrated in garments and mobile units are commercially available
  • 91. Atmospheric gas-level
  • 92. Ultraviolet radiation
  • 93. Heart rate
  • 94. Humidity
  • 95. Temperature
  • 96. Noise Level</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Coral Reef Habitat Mapping: Enabling Community Mapping and Monitoring <br />Dr. Chris Roelfsema and Prof. Stuart Phinn, University of Queensland<br />Need: <br />Map coral reef habitats with high spatial resolution imagery and detailed field data.<br />The challenge:<br />Need for calibration &validation data; as coral reefs are remote, wet and cover large areas, so field data collection is challenging.<br />Part of the solution:<br />- Georeferenced photo snorkel/dive transect method <br />- Assistance needs to be provided to communities to build data collection and analysis<br />1 km<br />
  • 97. 15<br />Coral Reef Habitat Mapping<br />Training in: <br /><ul><li>field data collection & analysis, to volunteers, rangers, students, researchers, technicians & dive instructors
  • 98. image processing to locally based remote sensing technicians</li></ul>Outcomes for user & community:<br /><ul><li> Capacity building & ownership
  • 99. Assessment of imagery + habitat map overlaid with georeferenced photos</li></ul>Imagery and photo transects<br />Habitat map<br />
  • 100. GEO-Wiki<br />16<br />Dr. Steffen Fritz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)<br /><ul><li> Volunteers view both cropland and forest disagreement maps derived from three recent global land cover datasets GLC-2000, MODIS and GlobCover
  • 101. Select and visualize high resolution images with Google Earth & upload or view geo-tagged field pictures (e.g., from Panoramio.com, Confluence.org)
  • 102. Determine which land cover type is found on the ground and decide which dataset is correct</li></li></ul><li>1.Go to: igarss.geo-wiki.org<br />2.<br />3..<br />17<br />– For Official Use Only – <br />Predecisional, Deliberative Information - Not for Public Release <br />
  • 103. SatCam application for iPhone<br />Dr. Liam Gumley, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, <br />Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison<br />SatCam allows the user community to take part in satellite cloud product validation by collecting coordinated sky, ground, and space observations.<br />
  • 104. SatCam Observation Example<br />
  • 105. Globo AmazoniaA Project by TV Globo, the largest network in Brazilwww.globoamazonia.com<br />41 million reports in 3 months<br />500,000 downloads of Orkut application<br />Illegal Logging<br />
  • 106. Globo Amazonia: Real impact<br />Senator uses evidence provided by Internet protestors to put forward legislation <br />
  • 107. Discussion<br /><ul><li>What will the next 10 years bring ???
  • 108. Boom of micro satellites
  • 109. Commercial Earth observing capacity increases dramatically
  • 110. Governments change their roles from actively contributing to the EO capacity to overseeing and safeguarding the space infrastructures
  • 111. Near-real time access to space and in-situ sensor data for scientists and public alike
  • 112. Gaming industry takes on the VGI and Community Remote Sensing challenge</li></ul>22<br />

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