Remote Sensing & IGARSS<br />A Look Back, A Look Ahead<br />Karen St.Germain<br />With Significant Contributions From:<br ...
The Early Years – G-GE<br /><ul><li>A small society called the Geoscience Electronics Group (G-GE) had formed and was busy...
From 1961 to 1964 the society grew from its early emphasis on seismic activity
In 1964 established the first journal dedicated to natural phenomena and the electronic instrumentation to measure them
“Transactions on Geoscience Electronics”
By November 1968, the society was poised again to expand its scope through a call to arms – lead article entitled “Oceanog...
Having established a presence in the fields of geophysics and oceanography, the society quickly moved into meteorology
By 1969, the young society was ready to plan its first Symposium and the predecessor of IGARSS came into existence (held a...
376 Attendees
63 Papers
13 Technical Sessions covering oceanographic and meteorological remote sensing, seismology instrumentation, and environmen...
The society expanded its scope one more time in 1973 to include data processing techniques, pattern recognition, and physi...
The Early Years: NIMBUS<br />3<br /><ul><li>At the same time, the NIMBUS program was developing new experimental technique...
Nimbus 5 (December 1972) and Nimbus 6 (June 1975) launched two microwave instruments
Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosph...
Microwave Spectrometer (NEMS) for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles, water vapor, cloud liquid water and surface...
Nimbus 7 (October 1978)launched the first Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for sea surface temperature an...
Everyonewants in on the action and a Users Working Group was established
The Navy (Office of the Oceanographer, Fleet Numerical, Navy Surface Weapons, Naval Research Lab, Office of Naval Research...
NOAA (Atlantic Oceanic Marine Lab, Weather Center, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Marine Fisheries
Defense Mapping Agency
US Geological Survey
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WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS

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WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS

  1. 1. Remote Sensing & IGARSS<br />A Look Back, A Look Ahead<br />Karen St.Germain<br />With Significant Contributions From:<br />Paul Smits, David Kunkee, David Glackin, Steffan Fritz,<br />Chris Roelfsema, Stuart Phinn & Liam Gumley<br />July 2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. The Early Years – G-GE<br /><ul><li>A small society called the Geoscience Electronics Group (G-GE) had formed and was busy broadening its scope
  3. 3. From 1961 to 1964 the society grew from its early emphasis on seismic activity
  4. 4. In 1964 established the first journal dedicated to natural phenomena and the electronic instrumentation to measure them
  5. 5. “Transactions on Geoscience Electronics”
  6. 6. By November 1968, the society was poised again to expand its scope through a call to arms – lead article entitled “Oceanographic Instrumentation: A Crisis of National Neglect,” by Harvey D. Kushner
  7. 7. Having established a presence in the fields of geophysics and oceanography, the society quickly moved into meteorology
  8. 8. By 1969, the young society was ready to plan its first Symposium and the predecessor of IGARSS came into existence (held annually for 3 years)
  9. 9. 376 Attendees
  10. 10. 63 Papers
  11. 11. 13 Technical Sessions covering oceanographic and meteorological remote sensing, seismology instrumentation, and environmental polution
  12. 12. The society expanded its scope one more time in 1973 to include data processing techniques, pattern recognition, and physics of underlying phenomenlogy</li></ul>2<br />
  13. 13. The Early Years: NIMBUS<br />3<br /><ul><li>At the same time, the NIMBUS program was developing new experimental techniques for weather observation
  14. 14. Nimbus 5 (December 1972) and Nimbus 6 (June 1975) launched two microwave instruments
  15. 15. Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosphere (PI Dr. Thomas Wilheit)
  16. 16. Microwave Spectrometer (NEMS) for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles, water vapor, cloud liquid water and surface temperature (PI Dr. David Staelin)
  17. 17. Nimbus 7 (October 1978)launched the first Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for sea surface temperature and near-surface (PI Dr. Per Gloerson)</li></li></ul><li>Mid-1970s: Microwaves Get Traction!!!<br /><ul><li>The success of the NIMBUS program and a few early Skylab experiments indicate that there is a way to get a global view of the oceans
  18. 18. Everyonewants in on the action and a Users Working Group was established
  19. 19. The Navy (Office of the Oceanographer, Fleet Numerical, Navy Surface Weapons, Naval Research Lab, Office of Naval Research, and the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center)
  20. 20. NOAA (Atlantic Oceanic Marine Lab, Weather Center, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Marine Fisheries
  21. 21. Defense Mapping Agency
  22. 22. US Geological Survey
  23. 23. The US Coast Guard
  24. 24. The Department of the Interior
  25. 25. Commercial Interests (shipping, fishing, mining, oil, and gas)
  26. 26. Requirements were developed and SeaSat – a NASA/JPL demonstration mission, was born</li></ul>4<br />
  27. 27. SeaSat – A Microwave Mission<br /><ul><li>Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) – 6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, and 37 GHz
  28. 28. Ocean Wind Speed, Temperature
  29. 29. Atmospheric Water Vapor and Rain Rate
  30. 30. Polar Ice Cover
  31. 31. Ocean Topography and Wave Height
  32. 32. Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) – 14.6 GHz
  33. 33. Ocean Wind Speed and Direction
  34. 34. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) – 1.275 GHz
  35. 35. Ocean Surface Imagery (wave patterns)
  36. 36. Sea Ice Imagery
  37. 37. Coastal Region and Land Imagery
  38. 38. Radar Altimeter (ALT) – 13.5 GHz
  39. 39. Launch !!!!!
  40. 40. June 26, 1978</li></ul>Seasat was to provide the first truly global view of the World Oceans<br />5<br />
  41. 41. SeaSat – A Microwave Mission<br /><ul><li>After a glorious 3 ½ months on orbit
  42. 42. Catastrophic failure of the electronic power system
  43. 43. BUT Seasat provided a wealth of data
  44. 44. SASS demonstrated the capabilities of a scatterometer to measure ocean winds
  45. 45. ALT and its predecessors demonstrated the capability of spaceborne altimeters to observe the global marine geoid
  46. 46. SAR demonstrated the unique potential to provide information about the health of the planet and its biodiversity
  47. 47. SMMR demonstrated the ability of scanning microwave radiometers to provide a wealth of ocean surface, land surface, and atmosphere products</li></ul>In its short life, Seasat demonstrated that a global view was possible<br />6<br />
  48. 48. Meanwhile back at the G-GE<br />7<br /><ul><li>In 1979, the Administrative Committee voted
  49. 49. Change the name of G-GE to the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS)
  50. 50. Change the name of the journal to Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  51. 51. This change was driven by FawwazUlaby, then a new member of the AdCom, in recognition of the strong linkage between the various geoscientific disciplines and the powerful techniques of remote sensing
  52. 52. Remote sensing was broadly defined to include space borne & airborne observations, as well as seismic recording devices and sonar ocean floor mappers
  53. 53. In 1980, now GRSS President FawwazUlaby proposed reinstating the annual symposium called IGARSS
  54. 54. Held in Washington DC, June 8-10, 1981
  55. 55. Strong international participation
  56. 56. Sponsor sessions in all of the technical areas of interest to the society
  57. 57. In an effort to drive the international participation, IGARSS’82 was held in Munich, and the attendance held at 359</li></li></ul><li>IGARSS in the 1980s<br /><ul><li>In 1981, there were 2 full sessions dedicated to the SMMR on Nimbus-7 (launched October 1978, just as Seasat failed)
  58. 58. Throughout the 80’s IGARSS was propelling the community toward the operational viability of the capabilities demonstrated by Seasat and its predecessors
  59. 59. In 1985, the Navy launched Geosat – the follow-on to ALT
  60. 60. In 1987, the Air Force launched SSM/I – the follow-on to SMMR
  61. 61. In 1991, the European Space Agency launched ERS-1 – the follow-on to SASS
  62. 62. Between 1985 and 1995, no fewer than 7 Synthetic Aperature Radar missions were launched – all following on the Seasat SAR
  63. 63. By the time Vince Salomonson welcomed attendees to IGARSS 1990, the society had a full blown success on their hands
  64. 64. Grown to 10 parallel sessions over 4 days
  65. 65. Covering topics frominstrumentation techniques, to atmospheric observations, to early Global Change papers
  66. 66. Increasing focus on routine production of global data products, supporting both operational and science missions</li></ul>8<br />
  67. 67. The Second Decade of IGARSS ushers in new operational capabilities and the advent of continuous global data<br /><ul><li>In 1990, Remote Sensing was still largely a government led and funded activity
  68. 68. The 90s ushered in a broader focus within IGARSS
  69. 69. The emergence of Remote Sensing as a tool for National/International Policy –making
  70. 70. NASA once again pushed the state of the art with its Earth Observing System</li></ul>1998: NASA Earth Observing <br />System Launches Terra !<br />9<br />
  71. 71. IGARSS 2000<br /><ul><li>Plenary Session Speakers announced the critical role of remote sensing in enforcing the Kyoto Protocol
  72. 72. A new role for Remote Sensing
  73. 73. The MODIS instrument on EOS Terra storms onto the IGARSS stage</li></ul>10<br />
  74. 74. Relationship of Remote Sensing to “Ground Truth” & Campaigns<br />11<br /><ul><li>Throughout the first 35 years of the field, Remote Sensing measurements were compared to in situ measurements
  75. 75. The bias toward believing that which we can put our hands on is evident in our choice of language “Ground Truth”</li></ul>Graduate<br />Student<br />And, of course…<br />
  76. 76. 2001-2010<br />12<br /><ul><li>2002: EOS Aqua Launch!
  77. 77. AMSR brings low frequency radiometry back into the forefront
  78. 78. 2003: WindSat on Coriolis Launch !
  79. 79. First space borne demonstration of wind vector capability from passive microwave
  80. 80. Rapid increase in internet capacity and data standardization through GIS enables new approaches to data sharing
  81. 81. 2005: Google Earth released
  82. 82. 2007: First Iphone introduced</li></li></ul><li>2010 and Beyond: Citizen Scientists Add a New Dimension!<br />13<br /><ul><li>Growth in Citizen Science interest increases available “work force”
  83. 83. Smartphones enable data collection & upload
  84. 84. Webtools enable worldwide collaboration
  85. 85. Digital photography enables inexpensive “truth” data
  86. 86. Facts:
  87. 87. 250 Terabytes of high resolution images received from Earth Observation Satellites each day in 2009
  88. 88. 1.18 billion mobile cell phones sold worldwide in 2008
  89. 89. 400 million downloads of Google Earth – users contribute geospatial information
  90. 90. Sensors of all types are being integrated in garments and mobile units are commercially available
  91. 91. Atmospheric gas-level
  92. 92. Ultraviolet radiation
  93. 93. Heart rate
  94. 94. Humidity
  95. 95. Temperature
  96. 96. Noise Level</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Coral Reef Habitat Mapping: Enabling Community Mapping and Monitoring <br />Dr. Chris Roelfsema and Prof. Stuart Phinn, University of Queensland<br />Need: <br />Map coral reef habitats with high spatial resolution imagery and detailed field data.<br />The challenge:<br />Need for calibration &validation data; as coral reefs are remote, wet and cover large areas, so field data collection is challenging.<br />Part of the solution:<br />- Georeferenced photo snorkel/dive transect method <br />- Assistance needs to be provided to communities to build data collection and analysis<br />1 km<br />
  97. 97. 15<br />Coral Reef Habitat Mapping<br />Training in: <br /><ul><li>field data collection & analysis, to volunteers, rangers, students, researchers, technicians & dive instructors
  98. 98. image processing to locally based remote sensing technicians</li></ul>Outcomes for user & community:<br /><ul><li> Capacity building & ownership
  99. 99. Assessment of imagery + habitat map overlaid with georeferenced photos</li></ul>Imagery and photo transects<br />Habitat map<br />
  100. 100. GEO-Wiki<br />16<br />Dr. Steffen Fritz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)<br /><ul><li> Volunteers view both cropland and forest disagreement maps derived from three recent global land cover datasets GLC-2000, MODIS and GlobCover
  101. 101. Select and visualize high resolution images with Google Earth & upload or view geo-tagged field pictures (e.g., from Panoramio.com, Confluence.org)
  102. 102. Determine which land cover type is found on the ground and decide which dataset is correct</li></li></ul><li>1.Go to: igarss.geo-wiki.org<br />2.<br />3..<br />17<br />– For Official Use Only – <br />Predecisional, Deliberative Information - Not for Public Release <br />
  103. 103. SatCam application for iPhone<br />Dr. Liam Gumley, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, <br />Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison<br />SatCam allows the user community to take part in satellite cloud product validation by collecting coordinated sky, ground, and space observations.<br />
  104. 104. SatCam Observation Example<br />
  105. 105. Globo AmazoniaA Project by TV Globo, the largest network in Brazilwww.globoamazonia.com<br />41 million reports in 3 months<br />500,000 downloads of Orkut application<br />Illegal Logging<br />
  106. 106. Globo Amazonia: Real impact<br />Senator uses evidence provided by Internet protestors to put forward legislation <br />
  107. 107. Discussion<br /><ul><li>What will the next 10 years bring ???
  108. 108. Boom of micro satellites
  109. 109. Commercial Earth observing capacity increases dramatically
  110. 110. Governments change their roles from actively contributing to the EO capacity to overseeing and safeguarding the space infrastructures
  111. 111. Near-real time access to space and in-situ sensor data for scientists and public alike
  112. 112. Gaming industry takes on the VGI and Community Remote Sensing challenge</li></ul>22<br />
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