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WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
 

WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS

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    WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS WE4.L10.1: OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN 2010: CONNECTING GLOBAL AND LOCAL OBSERVATIONS Presentation Transcript

    • Remote Sensing & IGARSS
      A Look Back, A Look Ahead
      Karen St.Germain
      With Significant Contributions From:
      Paul Smits, David Kunkee, David Glackin, Steffan Fritz,
      Chris Roelfsema, Stuart Phinn & Liam Gumley
      July 2010
      1
    • The Early Years – G-GE
      • A small society called the Geoscience Electronics Group (G-GE) had formed and was busy broadening its scope
      • From 1961 to 1964 the society grew from its early emphasis on seismic activity
      • In 1964 established the first journal dedicated to natural phenomena and the electronic instrumentation to measure them
      • “Transactions on Geoscience Electronics”
      • By November 1968, the society was poised again to expand its scope through a call to arms – lead article entitled “Oceanographic Instrumentation: A Crisis of National Neglect,” by Harvey D. Kushner
      • Having established a presence in the fields of geophysics and oceanography, the society quickly moved into meteorology
      • By 1969, the young society was ready to plan its first Symposium and the predecessor of IGARSS came into existence (held annually for 3 years)
      • 376 Attendees
      • 63 Papers
      • 13 Technical Sessions covering oceanographic and meteorological remote sensing, seismology instrumentation, and environmental polution
      • The society expanded its scope one more time in 1973 to include data processing techniques, pattern recognition, and physics of underlying phenomenlogy
      2
    • The Early Years: NIMBUS
      3
      • At the same time, the NIMBUS program was developing new experimental techniques for weather observation
      • Nimbus 5 (December 1972) and Nimbus 6 (June 1975) launched two microwave instruments
      • Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosphere (PI Dr. Thomas Wilheit)
      • Microwave Spectrometer (NEMS) for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles, water vapor, cloud liquid water and surface temperature (PI Dr. David Staelin)
      • Nimbus 7 (October 1978)launched the first Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for sea surface temperature and near-surface (PI Dr. Per Gloerson)
    • Mid-1970s: Microwaves Get Traction!!!
      • The success of the NIMBUS program and a few early Skylab experiments indicate that there is a way to get a global view of the oceans
      • Everyonewants in on the action and a Users Working Group was established
      • The Navy (Office of the Oceanographer, Fleet Numerical, Navy Surface Weapons, Naval Research Lab, Office of Naval Research, and the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center)
      • NOAA (Atlantic Oceanic Marine Lab, Weather Center, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Marine Fisheries
      • Defense Mapping Agency
      • US Geological Survey
      • The US Coast Guard
      • The Department of the Interior
      • Commercial Interests (shipping, fishing, mining, oil, and gas)
      • Requirements were developed and SeaSat – a NASA/JPL demonstration mission, was born
      4
    • SeaSat – A Microwave Mission
      • Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) – 6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, and 37 GHz
      • Ocean Wind Speed, Temperature
      • Atmospheric Water Vapor and Rain Rate
      • Polar Ice Cover
      • Ocean Topography and Wave Height
      • Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) – 14.6 GHz
      • Ocean Wind Speed and Direction
      • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) – 1.275 GHz
      • Ocean Surface Imagery (wave patterns)
      • Sea Ice Imagery
      • Coastal Region and Land Imagery
      • Radar Altimeter (ALT) – 13.5 GHz
      • Launch !!!!!
      • June 26, 1978
      Seasat was to provide the first truly global view of the World Oceans
      5
    • SeaSat – A Microwave Mission
      • After a glorious 3 ½ months on orbit
      • Catastrophic failure of the electronic power system
      • BUT Seasat provided a wealth of data
      • SASS demonstrated the capabilities of a scatterometer to measure ocean winds
      • ALT and its predecessors demonstrated the capability of spaceborne altimeters to observe the global marine geoid
      • SAR demonstrated the unique potential to provide information about the health of the planet and its biodiversity
      • SMMR demonstrated the ability of scanning microwave radiometers to provide a wealth of ocean surface, land surface, and atmosphere products
      In its short life, Seasat demonstrated that a global view was possible
      6
    • Meanwhile back at the G-GE
      7
      • In 1979, the Administrative Committee voted
      • Change the name of G-GE to the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS)
      • Change the name of the journal to Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
      • This change was driven by FawwazUlaby, then a new member of the AdCom, in recognition of the strong linkage between the various geoscientific disciplines and the powerful techniques of remote sensing
      • Remote sensing was broadly defined to include space borne & airborne observations, as well as seismic recording devices and sonar ocean floor mappers
      • In 1980, now GRSS President FawwazUlaby proposed reinstating the annual symposium called IGARSS
      • Held in Washington DC, June 8-10, 1981
      • Strong international participation
      • Sponsor sessions in all of the technical areas of interest to the society
      • In an effort to drive the international participation, IGARSS’82 was held in Munich, and the attendance held at 359
    • IGARSS in the 1980s
      • In 1981, there were 2 full sessions dedicated to the SMMR on Nimbus-7 (launched October 1978, just as Seasat failed)
      • Throughout the 80’s IGARSS was propelling the community toward the operational viability of the capabilities demonstrated by Seasat and its predecessors
      • In 1985, the Navy launched Geosat – the follow-on to ALT
      • In 1987, the Air Force launched SSM/I – the follow-on to SMMR
      • In 1991, the European Space Agency launched ERS-1 – the follow-on to SASS
      • Between 1985 and 1995, no fewer than 7 Synthetic Aperature Radar missions were launched – all following on the Seasat SAR
      • By the time Vince Salomonson welcomed attendees to IGARSS 1990, the society had a full blown success on their hands
      • Grown to 10 parallel sessions over 4 days
      • Covering topics frominstrumentation techniques, to atmospheric observations, to early Global Change papers
      • Increasing focus on routine production of global data products, supporting both operational and science missions
      8
    • The Second Decade of IGARSS ushers in new operational capabilities and the advent of continuous global data
      • In 1990, Remote Sensing was still largely a government led and funded activity
      • The 90s ushered in a broader focus within IGARSS
      • The emergence of Remote Sensing as a tool for National/International Policy –making
      • NASA once again pushed the state of the art with its Earth Observing System
      1998: NASA Earth Observing
      System Launches Terra !
      9
    • IGARSS 2000
      • Plenary Session Speakers announced the critical role of remote sensing in enforcing the Kyoto Protocol
      • A new role for Remote Sensing
      • The MODIS instrument on EOS Terra storms onto the IGARSS stage
      10
    • Relationship of Remote Sensing to “Ground Truth” & Campaigns
      11
      • Throughout the first 35 years of the field, Remote Sensing measurements were compared to in situ measurements
      • The bias toward believing that which we can put our hands on is evident in our choice of language “Ground Truth”
      Graduate
      Student
      And, of course…
    • 2001-2010
      12
      • 2002: EOS Aqua Launch!
      • AMSR brings low frequency radiometry back into the forefront
      • 2003: WindSat on Coriolis Launch !
      • First space borne demonstration of wind vector capability from passive microwave
      • Rapid increase in internet capacity and data standardization through GIS enables new approaches to data sharing
      • 2005: Google Earth released
      • 2007: First Iphone introduced
    • 2010 and Beyond: Citizen Scientists Add a New Dimension!
      13
      • Growth in Citizen Science interest increases available “work force”
      • Smartphones enable data collection & upload
      • Webtools enable worldwide collaboration
      • Digital photography enables inexpensive “truth” data
      • Facts:
      • 250 Terabytes of high resolution images received from Earth Observation Satellites each day in 2009
      • 1.18 billion mobile cell phones sold worldwide in 2008
      • 400 million downloads of Google Earth – users contribute geospatial information
      • Sensors of all types are being integrated in garments and mobile units are commercially available
      • Atmospheric gas-level
      • Ultraviolet radiation
      • Heart rate
      • Humidity
      • Temperature
      • Noise Level
    • 14
      Coral Reef Habitat Mapping: Enabling Community Mapping and Monitoring
      Dr. Chris Roelfsema and Prof. Stuart Phinn, University of Queensland
      Need:
      Map coral reef habitats with high spatial resolution imagery and detailed field data.
      The challenge:
      Need for calibration &validation data; as coral reefs are remote, wet and cover large areas, so field data collection is challenging.
      Part of the solution:
      - Georeferenced photo snorkel/dive transect method
      - Assistance needs to be provided to communities to build data collection and analysis
      1 km
    • 15
      Coral Reef Habitat Mapping
      Training in:
      • field data collection & analysis, to volunteers, rangers, students, researchers, technicians & dive instructors
      • image processing to locally based remote sensing technicians
      Outcomes for user & community:
      • Capacity building & ownership
      • Assessment of imagery + habitat map overlaid with georeferenced photos
      Imagery and photo transects
      Habitat map
    • GEO-Wiki
      16
      Dr. Steffen Fritz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
      • Volunteers view both cropland and forest disagreement maps derived from three recent global land cover datasets GLC-2000, MODIS and GlobCover
      • Select and visualize high resolution images with Google Earth & upload or view geo-tagged field pictures (e.g., from Panoramio.com, Confluence.org)
      • Determine which land cover type is found on the ground and decide which dataset is correct
    • 1.Go to: igarss.geo-wiki.org
      2.
      3..
      17
      – For Official Use Only –
      Predecisional, Deliberative Information - Not for Public Release
    • SatCam application for iPhone
      Dr. Liam Gumley, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies,
      Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
      SatCam allows the user community to take part in satellite cloud product validation by collecting coordinated sky, ground, and space observations.
    • SatCam Observation Example
    • Globo AmazoniaA Project by TV Globo, the largest network in Brazilwww.globoamazonia.com
      41 million reports in 3 months
      500,000 downloads of Orkut application
      Illegal Logging
    • Globo Amazonia: Real impact
      Senator uses evidence provided by Internet protestors to put forward legislation
    • Discussion
      • What will the next 10 years bring ???
      • Boom of micro satellites
      • Commercial Earth observing capacity increases dramatically
      • Governments change their roles from actively contributing to the EO capacity to overseeing and safeguarding the space infrastructures
      • Near-real time access to space and in-situ sensor data for scientists and public alike
      • Gaming industry takes on the VGI and Community Remote Sensing challenge
      22