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WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE
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WE3.L10.4: KIYO TOMIYASU, CO-SEISMIC SLIP AND THE KRAFLA VOLCANO: REFLECTIONS ON INSAR AND EARTH SCIENCE

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  • There are already several very successful methods for estimating time-variable deformation fields from stacks of radar interferograms. Today, I will provide a variation on these existing approaches. These variations are heavily influenced by a geophysical bias of how the Earth deforms. The methods we use borrow from standard practices in GPS time series analysis as well as from ideas common in seismic tomography. In essence, this is space/time deformation tomography designed to provide the best estimate of deformation everywhere at all times.
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    1. Kiyo Tomiyasu, Co-Seismic Slip, and the Krafla Volcano: Reflections on InSAR and Earth Science<br />Paul A. Rosen<br />Jet Propulsion Laboratory<br />California Institute of Technology<br />Special Session Honoring the Achievements of KiyoTomiyasu<br />IGARSS 2010<br />Honolulu, Hawaii<br />
    2. Background<br />
    3. Outline<br />Trends in Interferometric SAR (InSAR) for Earth Science<br />Geosynchronous InSAR Concept<br />Presentation of 90th Birthday Celebratory Plaque of Appreciation to Kiyo Tomiyasu from JPL<br />
    4. Interferometric SAR for Measuring Earth Surface Change<br />
    5. Trends in Observational Techniques for Earth Science<br />Frequent sampling in time<br />Fine spatial resolution<br />Time series / PS analysis<br />Extraction of geophysical parameters automatically<br />Exploitation of data for rapid response to events<br />Anticipated mean access times<br />for upcoming systems<br />Interferogram <br />stack<br />U<br /> Mean Access Time (Day)<br /> ∞ 4 2 1.3 1<br />time<br />
    6. A multi-scale approach to InSAR time series analysis<br />M. Simons, E. Hetland, P. Muse, Y. N. Lin & C. DiCaprio<br />Interferogram <br />stack<br />U<br />A geophysical perspective on deformation tomography<br />Example: Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland<br />time<br />
    7. Motivation<br />Assume that in the future we will have:<br /><ul><li>Frequent repeats (short DT)
    8. Good orbits with small baselines
    9. Ubiquitous high coherence</li></ul>Challenge for the future:<br /><ul><li>How to deal with O(103) interferograms
    10. How to use Cd - Invert all pixels simultaneously?</li></ul>1000 igramsx 1000 x 1000 pixels = 1 billion data<br /><ul><li>Computational tractability</li></ul>Approach: MInTS= Multi-scale InSAR Time Series<br />Time domain: A generalized physical parameterization (GPS-like)<br />Space domain: Wavelets – use all data simultaneously<br />
    11. MInTS Methodology<br /> Interpolate unwrapping holes in each interferogram where needed (temporary)<br /> Wavelet decomposition of each interferogram<br /> For later weighting purposes, track relative extent to which each wavelet coefficient is associated with actual data versus interpolated data<br /> Time series analysis on wavelet coefficients<br /> Physical parameterization + splines for unknown signals - all constrained by weighted wavelet coefficients of observed interferograms<br /> Recombine to get total deformation history<br />
    12. Example: Iceland Northern Volcanic Zone – Instantaneous Velocity<br />
    13. Example: Iceland Northern Volcanic Zone – Instantaneous Velocity (nonlinear)<br />
    14. Summary: Iceland Northern Volcanic Zone – Instantaneous Velocity<br />
    15. MInTS gives us continuous time, but does not yet combine multiple LOS to get 3D displacements. For the moment, we adopt a simple 2D reconstruction approach on a profile and neglect any rift parallel motion along the profile. Note asymmetries.<br />
    16. Rift zone models compared to data<br />
    17. Geosynchronous SARAn approach to observing the evolution of Earth’s surface<br />
    18. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Radar;for Tectonic Mapping, Disaster Management and Measurements of Vegetation and Soil MoistureIGARSS, Sydney, July 9–13, 2001<br />Søren N. Madsen, Wendy Edelstein, Leo D. DiDomenico<br />Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of TechnologyJohn LaBrecqueNASA Headquarters<br />
    19. 16<br />Previous Work<br />Tomiyasu K.:“Synthetic Aperture Radar in Geosynchronous Orbit,” Dig. Int. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symp., U. Maryland, 42–45, May 1978“Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging from an Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-21(3), 324–328 (1983)<br />Holt, B. & Hilland, J.“Rapid-Repeat SAR Imaging of the Ocean Surface: Are Daily Observations Possible?” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Dig., 21(1), 162–169, 2000<br />
    20. 17<br />GeoSync SAR Orbit and Measurement Description<br />Orbit<br />35789 km altitude (geosynchronous)<br />60˚ inclination (not geostationary)<br />1 day repeat<br />Instrument<br />L-band SAR<br />Continuous strip mapping, interferometricScanSAR, or spotlight operation<br />30 m diameter antenna aperture (electronically scanned array)<br />Distributed T/R modules on membrane<br />Nadir pointed, all steering electronic (only ±8º required side to side)<br />Radar and spacecraft bus integrated on inflatable/rigidizable structure<br />5500 km accessible ground swath on either side of nadir<br />100% instrument duty cycle (always in view of land)<br />
    21. 18<br />Operational Modes Highly Flexible<br />Operational modes<br />Stripmap SAR with 400 km swath width:<br />10 m resolution @ 4–5 looks<br />Suited for high-resolution mapping<br />ScanSAR over 5500 km swaths on either side of nadir track:<br />50 m @ 4–5 looks <br />Daily continental coverage<br />Squint-scanned SAR (beam hops to +45˚, broadside, –45˚):<br />3–D displacement mapping of extended areas in a single day <br />Useful for tectonic studies<br />Spotlight SAR (beam dwells on single target area for long time):<br />High resolution in azimuth, semi-continuous coverage<br />Suitable for disaster management<br />High resolution stepped frequency SAR (step frequency within 80 MHz band on successive passes then combine coherently to get high resolution without losing SNR or increasing data rate):<br />2 m ground range resolution, 2m azimuth resolution at far range<br />6-10 m resolution at near range<br />Data rates and volumes<br />Data rate 220 Mbits/sec per 20 MHz channel<br />2.4 TB/day with nearly 100% instrument duty cycle<br />
    22. 19<br />GeoSync Instrument Concept<br /><ul><li>L-band single-polarization (HH) SAR
    23. 30m diameter antenna aperture
    24. 65 KW peak transmit power
    25. 724 kg total instrument mass
    26. 28 KW DC instrument power</li></ul>Propulsion Modules (x2)<br />Thin-film<br />Solar Arrays<br />Horizontal booms (x12)<br />L-band <br />RF membrane antenna aperture<br />Spacecraft Bus<br />Telescoping booms (x2)<br />
    27. 20<br />GeoSync Constellations & Coverage<br />Constellation of 10 satellites in 5 groups (2 satellites per “figure-8” ground track)<br />Most of populated parts of Earth visible nearly continuously<br />Max duration of gaps in coverage less than 2 hours for 90 % of surface<br />3-D displacement accuracy for select target areas < 1 cm with 24 hours of observations<br />Maximum coverage gap<br />Maximum 3D displacement error<br />Relative Accuracy<br />Minutes<br />
    28. Innovation<br />New concepts for geosynchronous deformation observations<br />New ideas in enabling technologies<br />Seismology from Space<br />Improving Earthquake Forecasting<br />
    29. Celebratory Plaque<br />To<br />Kiyo Tomiyasu<br />With greatest appreciation on your ninetieth birthday for a lifetime of innovation in remote sensing<br />Signed by Charles Elachi, Director<br />Jet Propulsion Laboratory<br />

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