0
A Tribute to the Pioneer Work of Kiyo Tomiyasu
The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
                  G. Krie...
First Civilian SAR Satellite: Seasat




                             Launch               June 26, 1978       Wavelength ...
First Civilian SAR Satellite: Seasat




                             Launch               June 26, 1978       Wavelength ...
SAR Missions since 1978 (selection)




        SEASAT                         ERS-1/2                                 J-E...
Earthquakes      Volcanoes                                    Land & Sea Ice




  Ocean       Land Environment           ...
Future SAR Systems: Motivation

         Application Areas for SAR Data                                     Future Require...
Future SAR Systems: Motivation

  The Many Ingenious Ideas of Kiyo Tomiyasu                          Future Requirements
 ...
(IEEE EASCON, 1978)




             The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
   IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Ho...
TanDEM-X




          The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achiev...
TanDEM-X Launch, June 21, 2010
          The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session H...
The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
(Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)




                                      October
 ...
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
 (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)
20 km




                               38 km of ...
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
(Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)




                                    The Future ...
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
(Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)
hamb = 3 m
Beff = 2.6 km
x = 20 m x 20 m
h  10...
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
(Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)
hamb = 3 m
Beff = 2.6 km
x = 20 m x 20 m
h  10...
First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM
(Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic)
hamb = 3 m
Beff = 2.6 km
x = 20 m x 20 m
h  10...
Measurement of Height Changes

           “Double Differential SAR Interferometry”
     e.g. difference between two single...
Single-Pass InSAR for Ice Monitoring




   High uncertainty about future sea level rise
       IPCC’07 height increase 28...
Single-Pass InSAR for Ice Monitoring




        • Börner et al., “SIGNAL: SAR for Ice, Glacier ...”
               Thurs...
Measurement of                                                                      Polarimetric SAR
Vegetation Height    ...
Measurement of 3-D
Vegetation Structure

  Combination of Multiple
  Single-Pass Interferograms


 pass 1             pass...
The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
Tomography: A Revolution in Medical Diagnostics and Research




                                   The Future of Spacebor...
The Next Revolution: Functional Brain Imaging




                            The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture ...
The Next Revolution: Functional Brain Imaging




             4-D SAR Imaging
               monitoring internal
        ...
4-D SAR Imaging
monitoring internal
structure changes
         in
forests, ice, snow,
permafrost soils, ...




          ...
Use of Compact Antennas

              ambiguities                     Rx 3           Rx 2            Rx 1                ...
Multistatic Sparse Array

Linear Beamforming:                                              s3(x,t )                       ...
Sparse Apertures and Reconfigurable Arrays




                           The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Rada...
Frequent
Monitoring




          The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring...
Kiyo
                                   Tomiyasu




 (IEEE Ant. & Prop. Symp., 1978)                               (IEEE ...
GEO-LEO SAR: NESZ Example

                                                          Wavelength                           ...
Antenna Footprint Comparison


                      LEO
                           er
                    receiv
        ...
Multiple Beams on Receive




       Tx       Rx




                                 The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic A...
Digital Beamforming on Receive

    Transmitter
                                                 Multiple
                ...
Global Monitoring

        High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging
                Usage of Tx Power




                      ...
Echolocation
                         in Bats




19.12.2005   Vortragstitel         38
19.12.2005   Vortragstitel   39
Pinna Movement for Angular "Scan on Receive"




 19.12.2005        Vortragstitel         40
The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
19.12.2005   Vortragstitel   42
19.12.2005   Vortragstitel   43
19.12.2005   Vortragstitel   44
DBF-SAR with Reflector Antennas




                            
MEOSAR

3 revisits / day
(for 1 satellite)




huge
simultaneous
access area


                                           ...
Adaptive & Cognitive MIMO SAR Systems

  maximize information gain for                                                    ...
The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
Kiyo Tomiyasu




Best wishes and many congratulations!
                         The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Apertu...
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WE3.L10.3: THE FUTURE OF SPACEBORNE SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

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Transcript of "WE3.L10.3: THE FUTURE OF SPACEBORNE SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR"

  1. 1. A Tribute to the Pioneer Work of Kiyo Tomiyasu The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar G. Krieger, A. Moreira Microwaves and Radar Institute German Aerospace Center (DLR)
  2. 2. First Civilian SAR Satellite: Seasat Launch June 26, 1978 Wavelength 0,235 m Altitude ~780 km Bandwidth 19 MHz Weight 2300 kg Antenna 10,74 m x Size 2,16 m Incident Angle ~ 23° Swath Width 100 km Resolution 25 m x 25 m The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  3. 3. First Civilian SAR Satellite: Seasat Launch June 26, 1978 Wavelength 0,235 m Altitude ~780 km Bandwidth 19 MHz Weight 2300 kg Antenna 10,74 m x Size 2,16 m Incident Angle ~ 23° Swath Width 100 km Resolution 25 m x 25 m The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  4. 4. SAR Missions since 1978 (selection) SEASAT ERS-1/2 J-ERS-1 SIR-C/X-SAR NASA/JPL (USA) European Space Agency (ESA) Japanese Space Agency (NASDA) NASA/JPL, L- and C-Band (quad) L-Band, 1978 C-Band, L-Band, 1992-1998 DLR / ASI, X-band 1991-2000 & 1995-today April and October 1994 RADARSAT-1 SRTM ENVISAT / ASAR ALOS / PALSAR Canadian Space Agency (CSA) NASA/JPL (C-Band), DLR (X-Band) European Space Agency (ESA) Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) C-Band, 1995-today February 2000 C-Band (dual), 2002-today L-Band (quad), 2005 SAR Lupe CosmoSkymed TerraSAR-X RADARSAT-2 BWB Germany ASI / Alenia German Aerospace Center (DLR) / Astrium Canadian Space Agency (CSA) X-Band, 2006 X-Band (dual), 2007 X-Band (quad), 2007 C-Band (quad), 2007 The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  5. 5. Earthquakes Volcanoes Land & Sea Ice Ocean Land Environment Subsidence Traffic Disaster Reconnaissance The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  6. 6. Future SAR Systems: Motivation Application Areas for SAR Data Future Requirements Earthquakes Volcanoes Land & Sea Ice • wider coverage and shorter revisit times • higher geometric and radiometric resolution • new data products from Ocean Land Environment Subsidence coherent combinations of SAR images: - Delta-DEMs (ice mass balance, ...) - 3-D volume imaging Traffic Disaster Reconnaissance (forest structure, ...) - 4-D tomography (biomass dynamics, …) • reliable data supply • cost efficiency The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  7. 7. Future SAR Systems: Motivation The Many Ingenious Ideas of Kiyo Tomiyasu Future Requirements • wider coverage and shorter revisit times • higher geometric and radiometric resolution • new data products from coherent combinations of SAR images: - Delta-DEMs (ice mass balance, ...) - 3-D volume imaging (forest structure, ...) - 4-D tomography (biomass dynamics, …) • reliable data supply • cost efficiency The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  8. 8. (IEEE EASCON, 1978) The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  9. 9. TanDEM-X The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  10. 10. TanDEM-X Launch, June 21, 2010 The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  11. 11. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  12. 12. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) October Revolution Island The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  13. 13. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) 20 km 38 km of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar The Future IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  14. 14. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  15. 15. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) hamb = 3 m Beff = 2.6 km x = 20 m x 20 m h  10 cm The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  16. 16. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) hamb = 3 m Beff = 2.6 km x = 20 m x 20 m h  10 cm The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  17. 17. First TanDEM-X Interferogram & DEM (Large Baseline Pursuit Monostatic) hamb = 3 m Beff = 2.6 km x = 20 m x 20 m h  10 cm • TanDEM-X Special Session:  Thursday, 8:20 – 10:00 am • Prats et al., “Taxi: A versatile processing ...,”  Friday, 9:40 – 10:45 am • www.dlr.de The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  18. 18. Measurement of Height Changes “Double Differential SAR Interferometry” e.g. difference between two single-pass cross-track interferograms pass 1 Bistatic 1 Bistatic Strip map Strip map B ==3000 m B 3000 m x ==12 m h(t1) x 12 m pass 2 2 h < 10 cm h(t2)   h ~ 2 - 1 coherence between passes not mandatory  Grounding line detection, vegetation growth, snow/ice accumulation, … ? The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  19. 19. Single-Pass InSAR for Ice Monitoring High uncertainty about future sea level rise IPCC’07 height increase 28 - 43 cm, now 1.4 m major uncertainty: stability of polar ice sheets Large Baseline Single-Pass InSAR provides high resolution also in complex terrain avoids gaps of laser & radar altimetry systems allows accurate observation of temporal evolution Vorhaben TanDEM-X Nutzung
  20. 20. Single-Pass InSAR for Ice Monitoring • Börner et al., “SIGNAL: SAR for Ice, Glacier ...”  Thursday, 9:40 – 10:45 am High uncertainty about future sea level rise IPCC’07 height increase 28 - 43 cm, now 1.4 m major uncertainty: stability of polar ice sheets Large Baseline Single-Pass InSAR provides high resolution also in complex terrain avoids gaps of laser & radar altimetry systems allows accurate observation of temporal evolution Vorhaben TanDEM-X Nutzung
  21. 21. Measurement of Polarimetric SAR Vegetation Height Interferometry (Pol-InSAR) m 30 ~ Estimation of the vertical structure of volume scatterers: Vertical structure components are resolved by means of their polarimetric signature; The (height) location of the resolved structural components is estimated by interferometric measurements. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  22. 22. Measurement of 3-D Vegetation Structure Combination of Multiple Single-Pass Interferograms pass 1 pass k pass N … … * * * Reconstruction of Scattering Profile (van Cittert-Zernike theorem) The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  23. 23. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  24. 24. Tomography: A Revolution in Medical Diagnostics and Research The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  25. 25. The Next Revolution: Functional Brain Imaging The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  26. 26. The Next Revolution: Functional Brain Imaging 4-D SAR Imaging monitoring internal structure changes The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  27. 27. 4-D SAR Imaging monitoring internal structure changes in forests, ice, snow, permafrost soils, ... The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  28. 28. Use of Compact Antennas ambiguities Rx 3 Rx 2 Rx 1 Tx v P1  f  P2  f  ambiguities suppressed P3  f  The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  29. 29. Multistatic Sparse Array Linear Beamforming: s3(x,t ) Interferometry: s2(x,t ) sN (x,t ) • ambiguity s1(x,t ) • cross-track (DEM, suppression Pol-InSAR) • wide swath • coherence imaging tomography • tomography • along-track (ocean • MTI (e.g. STAP) currents, MTI) • super-resolution si ( x,t ) s j ( x,t ) • interference suppression SAR SAR SAR SAR SAR SAR s1( x,t ) sN (x,t ) SAR SAR Proc. SAR SAR Proc. Challenge: Proc. Proc. Proc. Proc. Proc. Proc. Proc. Proc. Optimum Combination N xx x h (x,t, x',t' )  s (x',t' )  dx'dt' Nonlinear Approach x i i s1( x,t ) sN ( x,t ) x i 1 f s1( x,t ),..., sN ( x,t ) Interf. Comb. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  30. 30. Sparse Apertures and Reconfigurable Arrays The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  31. 31. Frequent Monitoring The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  32. 32. Kiyo Tomiyasu (IEEE Ant. & Prop. Symp., 1978) (IEEE EASCON, 1978) GEO+LEO GEO The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  33. 33. GEO-LEO SAR: NESZ Example Wavelength 3.1 cm Max. Bandwidth 300 MHz Average Transmit Power 1000 W Antenna Size Tx 100 m2 Antenna Size Rx 6 m2 Noise Figure + Losses 5 dB Receiver Altitude 400 km Ground Resolution 3m Max. Res. Cell Diameter 6m nadir-looking SAR enables synergy with other instruments (e.g. optical sensors, altimeters, ....) res< 6m 200 km 200 km 200 km Br<300MHz The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  34. 34. Antenna Footprint Comparison LEO er receiv te satelli Receiver Footprint   10 km (X-Band, dant=2m, inc<40°) Transmitter Footprint 125 km x 250 km (X-Band, dant=10m, =48°) transmitter The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  35. 35. Multiple Beams on Receive Tx Rx The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  36. 36. Digital Beamforming on Receive Transmitter Multiple Receiver beams with adaptable antenna patterns Mixing x x x x x Analog A A A A A Digital D D D D D Conversion Digital Signal Digital Beam Forming Processing Focusing and Higher-Level SAR Processing Processing The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  37. 37. Global Monitoring High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging Usage of Tx Power gain improved by more than 10 dB The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  38. 38. Echolocation in Bats 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 38
  39. 39. 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 39
  40. 40. Pinna Movement for Angular "Scan on Receive" 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 40
  41. 41. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  42. 42. 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 42
  43. 43. 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 43
  44. 44. 19.12.2005 Vortragstitel 44
  45. 45. DBF-SAR with Reflector Antennas 
  46. 46. MEOSAR 3 revisits / day (for 1 satellite) huge simultaneous access area multi- frequency capability system concept based on advanced DBF architecture The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  47. 47. Adaptive & Cognitive MIMO SAR Systems maximize information gain for salient features a given power & data budget beam trigger DBF on waveform receive encoding Spotlight Zoom Wide Area HRWS Search Stripmap environment optimized distribution of system resources of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar The Future IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  48. 48. The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
  49. 49. Kiyo Tomiyasu Best wishes and many congratulations! The Future of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar IGARSS 2010 - Special Session Honoring the Achievements of Kiyo Tomiyasu
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