WE2.L10.1: LANDSAT DATA PRODUCTS, FREE AND CLEAR
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WE2.L10.1: LANDSAT DATA PRODUCTS, FREE AND CLEAR

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  • The PIE receives the OLI, TIRS, and ancillary data, merges these data into a mission data stream, identifies the mission data intervals scheduled for collection, performs a lossless compression of the OLI (TIRS data will not be compressed) scheduled intervals using the Rice algorithm (see References), and then sends the compressed OLI data and the uncompressed TIRS data to an on-board solid-state recorder (SSR) capable of storing 3.14 terabits (Tbits) of data. The PIE also identifies those image intervals scheduled for real time transmission to the LDCM Ground Network (LGN) or to international cooperator ground receiving stations, compresses those intervals, and then sends the data to the observatory’s X-band transmitter for a real time down link. The data transmitted to the International Cooperator stations is also copied by the PIE and sent to the on-board SSR for playback to the LGN. Recall that OLI and TIRS collect data coincidently and therefore the mission data streams from the PIE to the SSR or to the X-band transmitter contains both OLI and TIRS data as well as ancillary data.

WE2.L10.1: LANDSAT DATA PRODUCTS, FREE AND CLEAR Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Landsat Data Products Free & Clear James R. Irons NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Project Scientist NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 21046 USA Thomas R. Loveland USGS Landsat Science Team Leader John L. Dwyer USGS Project Scientist, LDCM Ground System USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57198-0001 USA LDCM SRR/MDR/PNAR 22-24 April 2008 July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 2. History of the Landsat Program 2012 July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI Gov’t Operations Gov’t Operations Commercial Operations
  • 3. 38-yr Landsat Data Archive
    • As of February 28, 2010
    • ETM+: Landsat 7
      • 1,016,250 scenes
      • 944TB
      • Archive grows by 260 GB Daily
    • TM: Landsat 4 & Landsat 5
      • 848,429 scenes
      • 212TB
      • Archive Grows by 40 GB Daily
    • MSS: Landsat 1 through 5
      • 513,866 scenes
      • 15 TB of Data
    • Data are archived and distributed by USGS EROS Center, Sioux Falls, SD
      • Over 2 million scenes in the archive
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 4. ETM+ Scenes Archived in 2007
    • Landsat 7 provides systematic coverage of the global land surface on a seasonal basis via a long term acquisition plan (LTAP)
    • No other nation’s satellite system is designed or operated to achieve even annual global coverage at the Landsat scale
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 5. Data Policy Revolution
    • USGS EROS has historically distributed Landsat data products to the general public on a non-discriminatory basis at the “cost of fulfilling a user request (COFUR)”
      • $600 per Landsat 7 ETM+ scene
    • April 21, 2008 USGS Technical Announcement:
      • “ By February 2009, any Landsat archive scene selected by a user will be processed, at no charge , automatically to a standard product recipe and staged for electronic retrieval.”
    • Data distribution rate increased by a factor greater than 60
      • EROS began distributing free Landsat data on Oct. 01, 2008
      • EROS distributed 1.1 M free scenes by Oct. 01, 2009 and passed 2 M scenes by March 13, 2010
        • Previous annual maximum distribution was 20,000 scenes in 2001
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 6. Monthly EROS Landsat Data Distribution July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 7. Single TM/ETM+ Product Recipe
    • Product type: orthorectified / terrain corrected
      • L1T - Level-1T (precision, terrain correction)
      • L1Gt – Level-1 Gt (systematic, terrain correction
    • Pixel size:15m (pan) / 30m (Vis/NIR/SWIR) / 30m (TIR)
      • TIR pixels resampled from 120 m (TM) or 60 m (ETM+) pixels
    • Media type: Electronic
    • Output format: GeoTIFF
    • Map projection: UTM (Polar Stereographic for Antarctica)
    • Orientation: North up
    • Resampling: Cubic convolution
    • (Gap-filled Landsat 7 ETM+ data products are no longer offered)
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 8. Single MSS Product Recipe
    • Product type: Level 1G (L1G)
      • No Terrain Correction or Ground Control
        • Geographic registrations based on satellite/sensor attitude, ephemeris, and alighment data
      • L1T and L1Gt MSS products will be available beginning in September
    • Pixel size: 60 m
      • Resampled from 80 m pixels
    • Media type: Electronic
    • Output format: GeoTIFF
    • Map projection: UTM (Polar Stereographic for Antarctica)
    • Orientation: North up
    • Resampling: Cubic convolution
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 9. Impact of Free Data LandTrendr: Landsat-based Detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery – Kennedy and Cohen, Landsat Science Team - 2010 July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 10.
    • Maintain spatial detail from Landsat, create temporal density from MODIS
      • STARFM (Gao et al, TGARS)
      • STAARCH (Hilker et al, RSE)
    • Image compositing (Landsat and MODIS)
      • Hansen (Congo), Roy (USA)
    Fusion of Landsat and MODIS Data July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI May June July August September
  • 11. July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI Mike Wulder Canadian Forest Service
  • 12. Landsat 7 & Landsat 7 Status
    • Landsat 7 - 6 years beyond design life
      • 1999 Launch
      • Spacecraft
        • Gyro 3 Failure (Shut down May 5, 2004)
          • Working additional improvements for software gyro
        • Other Spacecraft Issues (non-critical)
          • Solid State Recorder – 4 memory boards
          • Electrical Power Subsystem – shunt #14 and shunt #6
          • Fuel Line Thermostat
      • ETM+
        • Scan Line Corrector Failure (May 31, 2003)
        • Bumper Mode Operations (April 1, 2007)
    • Landsat 5 - 23 years beyond design life
      • 1984 Launch
      • Spacecraft
        • Battery 2 Anomaly (On-going) – Oct 2007
        • Star Tracker Issue – June 2007
        • Solar Array Drive
          • Fixed array operations – Aug 2006
      • TM
        • Functioning normally in bumper-mode
      • Current Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) problems
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 13. Future Landat Data Products Courtesy of Orbital
    • The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is under development for a December, 2012 launch
      • Developed as a NASA / USGS partnership
      • LDCM conducted a successful critical design review (CDR) May 25 – 27, 2010
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 14. Operational Land Imager (OLI)
    • Collects 400 scenes per day using pushbroom design
      • Coincident with TIRS data collection
    • Covers a 185 km swath
    • Collects data for nine shortwave spectral bands
      • Provides continuity with seven TM and ETM+ shortwave spectral bands
      • Adds two new bands
    • Provides a 30 m spatial resolution
      • 15 m panchromatic band
    • Collects calibration data
      • Internal cal lamps, shutter collects, solar panel, lunar views, vicarious field campaigns
    Courtesy of BATC July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 15. OLI & ETM+ Spectral Bands July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 16. Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)
    • Collects 400 scenes per day using a pushbroom design
      • Coincident with OLI data collection
    • Covers a 185 km swath
    • Collects data for two long-wave spectral bands
      • Provides continuity with one TM/ETM+ thermal band
    • Provides a 100 m spatial resolution
    • Collects calibration data
      • Space view, internal blackbody
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 17. TIRS and ETM+ Spectral Bands
      • 120 m resolution TIRS requirement deemed sufficient to resolve most center-pivot irrigation fields in U.S. West - typically 400 to 800 m in diameter – TIRS design provides for 100 m resolution
      • Landsat 4 & 5 TM’s provided 120 m thermal images for a single thermal band
      • Landsat 7 ETM+ provided 60 m thermal images for a single thermal band
      • A two band instrument will enable atmospheric correction so that more accurate surface temperatures can be derived.
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI L7 ETM+ Thermal Band LDCM TIRS Band Requirements Band 6 60 m LWIR 10.00 - 12.50 100 m LWIR 10.30 – 11.30 Band 10 100 m LWIR 11.50 – 12.50 Band 11
  • 18. Standard LDCM Data Products
    • LDCM standard Level-1T data products will be consistent with heritage Landsat product specifications – backward compatibility
      • OLI and TIRS data will distributed as a combined product. Pixel size:15m/30m/30m
      • Quality Assurance (QA) “band” will be included
      • Media type: Electronic
      • Product type: Level-1T (precision, terrain correction)
      • Output format: GeoTIFF
      • Map projection: UTM (Polar Stereographic for Antarctica)
      • Orientation: North up
      • Resampling: Cubic convolution
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 19. Confidence Levels 00 = none or unset 01 = 0-33% confidence 10 = 34-66% confidence 11 = 67-100% confidence Browse image with Cloud Mask Quality Assessment Band
    • 16-bit QB rolls off of the Online Cache with the L1 Product
    • 8-bit QB available with the Full Resolution Browse
    **- Set for highest Confidence Level (11) At-launch bits July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI Bit Description Bit Description 0 Designated Fill 8 Vegetation Confidence 1 Dropped Frame 9 2 Terrain Occlusion 10 Snow/Ice Confidence 3 <Artifact X*> 11 4 Water Confidence 12 Cirrus Confidence 5 13 6 <Type #6 Confidence*> 14 Cloud Confidence 7 15 Bit Description 0 Designated Fill 1 Dropped Frame 2 Terrain Occlusion 3 Water** 4 Vegetation** 5 Snow/Ice** 6 Cirrus** 7 Cloud**
  • 20. Desired Future Landsat Data Products
    • Surface Reflectance / Temperature Products
      • Example – using the LEDAPS ((Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) of Masek et al.
        • Based on MODIS/6S radiative transfer approach
          • water vapor from NCEP re-analysis data
          • ozone from TOMS, EP-TOMS
          • topographic-dependent Rayleigh correction
          • Aerosol optical thickness estimated from imagery using the Kaufmann et al (1997) “Dense, dark vegetation” approach
    • Essential Climate Variables
      • Land Cover
      • Land Cover Change
      • Biomass
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 21. Atmospheric Correction 1990’s Landsat-5 mosaic 100 km TOA reflectance Surface reflectance BOREAS Study Region 100 km July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI 100 km
  • 22. LEDAPS Forest Disturbance (1990-2000) 0 >40 % 5km cell disturbed Masek et al., RSE, 2008 MODIS forests July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI
  • 23. Conclusion
    • The USGS policy of free Landsat data distribution is fostering rapid advancements in the capacity and capability to map land cover and land use change (e.g. forest disturbance) over multiple decades on a global scale for climate and carbon research
    • Free and open data policies are the first step towards community remote sensing and a global earth observation system of systems
      • New Landsat data policy followed by recent, welcome ESA announcement of free GMES / Sentinel-2 data policy at Living Planet Symposium
      • Enables projects such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) forest carbon tracking initiative
    • The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will be the first Landsat satellite launched into the era of free data
      • LDCM will continue the legacy of global Landsat data collection with free and open data distribution by USGS
    July 28, 2010 IGARSS'10, Honolulu, HI