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  • What I would like to talk to you about this afternoon is our contribution to algorithm development for the SMAP mission. Specifically, I will present to you an overview of our field activities in support of this research, with a summary of data collected from our first of 4 planned field campaigns completed just 2 weeks ago. But first I would like to acknowledge my co-investigators on the project
  • I would also like to acknowledge all the participants to the first field experiment. Hiding amongst them are Peggy, Rajat, Elisha, Andreas, Anna, etc; with representation from USA, Italy, Singapore, Australia …
  • The objectives of these campaigns and this research project specifically are to acquire field data that simulates as closely as possible in terms of incidence angle and radar/radiometer footprint ratios the data we will get from SMAP, so that we can develop and validate the retrieval algorithms. Consequently we want to …
  • The strategy of this project is to undertake a series of short campaigns across a season rather than to undertake a single long campaign and hope we get the desired conditions.
  • We have established a monitoring network on the SMAP grid
  • Mention that Rocco’s sites are even newer and have only surface SM and different temperature configuration
  • Note that we can simulate the footprint ratios of SMOS; all other simulators at present have the same footprint sizes for radar and radiometer.
  • Here we can see the footprint sizes/coverages and requirements for flight track planning to obtain full coverage
  • Sky, box, water
  • Location of calibrators
  • Mention that Rocco’s sites are even newer and have only surface SM and different temperature configuration
  • Mention that Rocco’s sites are even newer and have only surface SM and different temperature configuration
  • useful for identifying the presence or absence of dew, and verifying the assumptions that i) effective temperature has not changed throughout the course of the aircraft measurements; ii) vegetation and soil temperature are in equilibrium; and iii) soil moisture has not changed significantly during ground sampling


  • 1. SMAPex: Soil Moisture Active Passive EXperiment Jeffrey Walker Department of Civil Engineering Rocco Panciera 1 , Dongryeol Ryu 1 , Doug Gray 2 , Heath Yardley 2 and Tom Jackson 3 1 University of Melbourne 2 Adelaide University 3 United States Department of Agriculture
  • 2.  
  • 3. Objectives
    • Radar-only soil moisture retrieval (3km)
      • Verify baseline algorithms proposed for SMAP
    • Radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval (40km)
      • Use the SMAP radar information on surface roughness and vegetation structure (3km) to aid the soil moisture retrieval from the SMAP radiometer (40km)
    • Active Passive soil moisture product (10km)
      • Use the high resolution (3km) but noisy SMAP radar observations to downscale the accurate but low resolution (40km) radiometer footprint
    Simulated fields of a) 3km truth soil moisture and retrieved soil moisture for b) 40km passive microwave observations, c) 3km radar observations and d) 3km merged passive microwave and radar observations (Zhan et al., 2006).
  • 4. Strategy Melbourne Sydney SMAPEx 5-10 Jul ’10
    • 4 SMAPEx airborne field campaigns (across a seasonal cycle)
    • 1-week long campaigns
    • Airborne prototype SMAP data with ground observations of soil moisture and ancillary data
    • Entire SMAP pixel in semi-arid/irrigated climate
    Sum. Autumn Winter Spring S. 1-7 Dec ‘10 March ’11?? Oct ’11?? Melbourne
  • 5. The SMAP test-bed Irrigated crop Dryland pasture dryland crop 0-5cm L3_SM_40km L3_HiRes L3_AP_SM SMAP grids SM sites 0-90cm only
  • 6. Monitoring network Permanent sites Semi-Permanent sites
  • 7. Airborne instruments PLMR: Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer Frequency/bandwidth: 1.413GHz/24MHz Polarisations: V and H Resolution: ~1km at 10,000ft flying height, Incidence angles: +/- 7 ° , +/-21.5 ° , +/- 38.5 ° across track Antenna type: 8x8 patch array PLIS: Polarimetric L-band Imaging SAR: Frequency/bandwidth:1.26GHz/30MHz Polarisations: VV, VH, HV and HH Resolution: ~10m Incidence angles 15º -45º on both sides of aircraft Antenna type: 2x2 patch array L-band Radar L-band Radiometer) 6 x Vis/NIR/SWIR/TIR
  • 8. Coverage PLIS cross-track resolution
  • 9. Radiometer calibration
  • 10. Radar calibration PRC: Passive radar calibrator PARC: Polarimetric active radar calibrator
  • 11. Radar calibration PARC PRC
  • 12. SMAPex: The concept Study Area: One SMAP radiometer pixel (34km x 38km) with 29 monitoring sites Focus areas YA & YB: Two SMAP active passive product pixels (~9km x 9km) with 13 monitoring sites ea. Ground Sampling: Six SMAP radar pixels (~3km x 3km) YA YB
  • 13. Flight strategy Main Flights Ancillary Flights Flight Type Aim Area Ground Res. Regional
    • SMAP active/passive retrieval
    • SMAP downscaling
    34km x 38km 1km (P) 10m (A) Target
    • SMAP radar algorithm development
    • Comparison of active and passive obs.
    9km x 9km 100m (P) 10m (A) Flight Type Aim Area Ground Res. Multiangle Effect of incidence and azimuth angle on radar 1km x 6km (2 strips) 1km (P) 10m (A) PALSAR Transect Comparison PLIS vs PALSAR 8km x 22km 1km (P) 10m (A)
  • 14. Radar data PARCS
  • 15. Radiometer data (h-pol, 38deg)
  • 16. Ground sampling strategy 3km Regional Sampling Monitoring site 250m spacing measurements 3km Target Sampling Monitoring site 50m spacing transects 3km 3km 50m spacing measurements 500m
  • 17. Supplementary data Supplementary Station Soil Gravimetric Samples Surface Roughness
  • 18. Ground validation data
  • 19. Ground validation data HDAS soil moisture vegetation type vegetation height dew amount Vegetation water content biomass type LAI spectral crop row spacing/orientation
  • 20. Vegetation sampling strategy Monitoring site 3km 3km x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Vegetation type 1 Vegetation type 3 Vegetation type 2 5 vegetation samples ( x ) per dominant vegetation type
  • 21. Ground soil moisture data Tue Thur Sat Wed Fri
  • 22. Volunteers welcome!