Soil Moisture Active Passive
(SMAP) Calibration and Validation
   Plan and Current Activities
   T. J. Jackson, M. Cosh, R...
Outline
• General aspects of the SMAP Cal/Val Plan
  – Objectives
  – Timeline
  – Pre-launch vs. post-launch validation a...
SMAP Cal/Val Objective
        Approach



• A Cal/Val Plan is a SMAP mission requirement.
  – Objective: calibrate and va...
SMAP Cal/Val Timeline
        L1C_TB

                                  Must reach a conclusion by
                       ...
SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch vs. Post-launch
                Approach



                  On-ground                         A...
SMAP Cal/Val: Post-launch Resources
    Approach




• Ground-based (in situ, tower, and aircraft)
• Products from other s...
SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch
             Approach


•   ATBD identified activities   •   Algorithm testbed
    that will impr...
SMAP Ground-Based Validation
• SMAP will rely on in situ observations as one of
  the tools used to validate the L2, L3, a...
SMAP Ground-Based Validation
• Existing networks are a key resource/partner in SMAP
  validation (No cost, mostly real tim...
SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites
• Basic science requirements (suggestions!)
   – Represent the 10 km product area
  ...
Example of a SMAP Soil Moisture Core
Validation Site (J. Walker Univ. Monash)
                        Augmenting an
      ...
SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites
• Logistical requirements
  –   Near real time availability of data
  –   Site is ac...
SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites
• SMAP project priorities
  – An area that is homogeneous or has a uniform
    mixtu...
SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites
• Next Steps
  – Survey candidate sites.
  – Evaluate the effectiveness of the ongoi...
SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch
             Approach


•   ATBD identified activities   •   Satellite Products
    that will imp...
CanEx SM 2010: CSA and NASA

• Primary mission objectives: (1) validation of SMOS
  brightness temperature and soil moistu...
CanEx Permanent In Situ Networks


                             Environment
                               Canada
        ...
CanEx SMOS Pixel Centers and Aircraft Coverage
SMOS products are
at ~40 km
resolution and
gridded at ~16 km.



Aircraft l...
CanEx Campaign Soil Moisture Sites
Ground sampling
sites included most
permanent sites, the
BERMS temporary
network, and  ...
CanEx Campaign Aircraft
             NASA G-III                   UAVSAR: L-band fully polarimetric
                      ...
CanEx Summary
    Date       Saskatoon       Prince Albert    Aircraft Flights   Satellite Coverage         Note
         ...
CanEx Campaign Ground Conditions




Wettest Spring…ever

Waterlogged soils resulted in limited
planting and tillage
CanEx Kenaston Area

Composite radar image
(HH-red, VV-blue, HV-
green)




     65o




            25o              June...
SMAP Major Field Campaigns
                                             ver. 07/10

                                      ...
SMAP Cal/Val Key Points

• Pre-launch Cal/Val is driven by the Algorithm teams
  and the post-launch mission requirements....
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TH3.L10.4: SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION PLAN AND CURRENT ACTIVITIES

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TH3.L10.4: SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION PLAN AND CURRENT ACTIVITIES

  1. 1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Calibration and Validation Plan and Current Activities T. J. Jackson, M. Cosh, R. Bindlish, W. Crow, USDA ARS HRSL A. Colliander, E. Njoku, K. McDonald; NASA JPL J. S. Kimball; University of Montana S. Belair; Environment Canada J. Walker, R. Panciera; University of Melbourne P. O'Neill; NASA GSFC July 29, 2010
  2. 2. Outline • General aspects of the SMAP Cal/Val Plan – Objectives – Timeline – Pre-launch vs. post-launch validation activities • Ground-based (In Situ) validation – Core Validation Sites • Field experiments – CanEx SM 2010
  3. 3. SMAP Cal/Val Objective Approach • A Cal/Val Plan is a SMAP mission requirement. – Objective: calibrate and validate Level 1 through Level 4 algorithms and products relative to the mission requirements. – Mission requirements include quantitative specifications of accuracy associated with each mission product • Example: Provide estimates of the 0-5 cm soil moisture with an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3 at a resolution of 10 km.
  4. 4. SMAP Cal/Val Timeline L1C_TB Must reach a conclusion by this point. • Current plans are for SMAP to complete an In-Orbit Checkout (IOC) period within 60 days after launchbeing ready and Demands • Following the IOC period, the SMAP Project will complete an timely delivery of validation data. initial Cal/Val of the data products (6 months for Level 1 products and 12 months for Levels 2, 3, and 4). • Cal/Val will continue throughout the mission to monitor performance and assist in the improvement of algorithms. Level 2/3/4 2/3/4 2/3/4
  5. 5. SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch vs. Post-launch Approach On-ground Ancillary data, SDS calibration data, in-orbit calibration masks, external model outputs, • Pre-launch Cal/Val is focused on data, etc, etc. L1 L3,L4 validating that there are means in place Instru Geophys. Instrument ment counts calibration TB, σ0 param. retrieval SM (sf+rz), F/T, NEE to fulfill the mission objectives. In particular – ATBD identified activities that will Pre-launch Cal/Val Activities improve algorithms and products. – Establish infrastructure necessary for SDS On-ground Ancillary data, post-launch Cal/Val. calibration data, masks, external in-orbit calibration model outputs, data, etc, etc. • Post-launch Cal/Val is focused on Instru ment Instrument calibration L1 Geophys. param. L3,L4 SM (sf+rz), validating that the science products counts TB, σ0 retrieval F/T, NEE meet their quantified requirements, and Feedback Feedback on improving the algorithms and Post-launch Cal/Val Activities quality of products over the mission life. (schematic diagram of data processing flow; SDS = Science Data System)
  6. 6. SMAP Cal/Val: Post-launch Resources Approach • Ground-based (in situ, tower, and aircraft) • Products from other satellites • Model products
  7. 7. SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch Approach • ATBD identified activities • Algorithm testbed that will improve • Satellite products algorithms and products – AMSR-E, SMOS, Aquarius • Field campaigns – Past • SGP, SMEX…. • SMAPVEX08 Bindlish, Misra – Ongoing • Canadian campaign (CanEx) • Australia campaign (SMAPEx) Walker • San Joaquin Valley experiment – Future • Establish infrastructure • In situ sensor testbed Cosh necessary for post-launch • Scaling methodologies Cal/Val • Tower and aircraft SMAP simulators • Core validation sites/collaboration
  8. 8. SMAP Ground-Based Validation • SMAP will rely on in situ observations as one of the tools used to validate the L2, L3, and L4 products. – The logistics and costs require that we exploit partnerships to the maximum extent. – These must be ready to go before launch. – What infrastructure do we need to establish now?
  9. 9. SMAP Ground-Based Validation • Existing networks are a key resource/partner in SMAP validation (No cost, mostly real time, and public domain). – These are typically sparse…scaling is the key issue. – Standards and compatibility are also concerns. • Dense networks with nested scales are needed: Core Validation Sites (CVS). – Some exist but more are needed. – These should meet some criteria that will facilitate SMAP product validation. – Some form of agreement establishing collaboration with the SMAP project.
  10. 10. SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites • Basic science requirements (suggestions!) – Represent the 10 km product area • Also consider providing 40 km and 3 km scales – Provide the equivalent of volumetric soil moisture obtained using the gravimetric method (Calibrated) • Establish that it provides a measure of the 0-5 cm layer • Also consider providing the 0-100 cm layer – Multiple sampling locations within the site that can be used to accurately estimate the product grid average • Statistical confidence must be established – Supporting meteorological instrumentation – Supporting ancillary data sets such as soils, land use, and vegetation biomass
  11. 11. Example of a SMAP Soil Moisture Core Validation Site (J. Walker Univ. Monash) Augmenting an existing radiometer scale network to support SMAP SMAP Radiometer Pixel – 34x38km SMAP Radar pixels ~ 3x3km SMAP joint radiometer/radar soil moisture – 9x9km Existing stations New stations
  12. 12. SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites • Logistical requirements – Near real time availability of data – Site is accessible to researchers – Existing site facilities – Heritage of scientific studies to build from – Long term commitment by the sponsor/host – Agreement with SMAP project • Setting up a process now.
  13. 13. SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites • SMAP project priorities – An area that is homogeneous or has a uniform mixture of land covers at the product scale – Represents an extensive or important biome – Complement the overall set of sites – Operational by 2012
  14. 14. SMAP Cal/Val SM Core Validation Sites • Next Steps – Survey candidate sites. – Evaluate the effectiveness of the ongoing SMOS validation program. – Decide on appropriate mechanism for collaboration. – Workshop
  15. 15. SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-launch Approach • ATBD identified activities • Satellite Products that will improve – AMSR-E, SMOS, Aquarius algorithms and products • Field Campaigns – Past • SGP, SMEX…. • SMAPVEX08 – Ongoing Just completed • Canadian campaign (CanEx) • Australia campaign (SMAPEx) • San Joaquin Valley experiment – Future • SMAPVEX ?? • Establish infrastructure • In situ sensor testbed necessary for post-launch • Tower and aircraft SMAP simulators Cal/Val • Core validation sites • Collaboration
  16. 16. CanEx SM 2010: CSA and NASA • Primary mission objectives: (1) validation of SMOS brightness temperature and soil moisture products and (2) concurrent time series of active and passive microwave observations for SMAP passive, active, and combined soil moisture algorithms. • Flight dates: – June 2-15 Kenaston (KEN) (7 dates) (agricultural) – June 16 BERMS (1 date) (forest) • Other mission considerations – Both domains include two independent SMOS grid footprints. – Coordination with SMOS over passes. – Calibration and scaling of permanent in situ networks
  17. 17. CanEx Permanent In Situ Networks Environment Canada BERMS • Close to desired SMAP Core University of Guelph Validation site requirements Environment Canada Kenaston
  18. 18. CanEx SMOS Pixel Centers and Aircraft Coverage SMOS products are at ~40 km resolution and gridded at ~16 km. Aircraft logistics limit the size of the coverage domain. Each area includes ~ 2 independent pixels (~33 by 70 km).
  19. 19. CanEx Campaign Soil Moisture Sites Ground sampling sites included most permanent sites, the BERMS temporary network, and 50 additional sites selected to be representative of BERMS Temporary domain, provide Network spatial coverage, • Will provide a and support longer record for multiple scaling SMOS/BERMS and objectives. to establish scaling of the limited permanent 59 network.
  20. 20. CanEx Campaign Aircraft NASA G-III UAVSAR: L-band fully polarimetric radar (Swath 20 km, resolution 6 m). Multiple lines were required to provide coverage between 35 and 45o. Environment Canada Twin Otter L-band dual polarization radiometer, 40o (single beam, resolution 3 km). Multiple lines were required to provide coverage . 6.9, 19, 37 and 89 GHz radiometers, 53o (single beam, res. are 1.3 km for 6.9 GHz and 0.8 km for the others)
  21. 21. CanEx Summary Date Saskatoon Prince Albert Aircraft Flights Satellite Coverage Note Daily Rainfall Daily Rainfall Site (mm) (mm) May 22-30 67.3 68.4 June 1 Significant Rain 2 0.7 KEN SMOS 3 9.8 14.8 SMOS 4 2.2 5 6.8 KEN SMOS 6 0.2 KEN 7 5.5 2.8 Re-wetting 8 16.9 7.2 SMOS Partial Twin Otter 9 KEN 10 5.5 4.0 SMOS 11 13.2 12 13 0.4 KEN SMOS 14 0.1 KEN 15 0.3 KEN SMOS Only UAVSAR 16 0.2 BERMS SMOS
  22. 22. CanEx Campaign Ground Conditions Wettest Spring…ever Waterlogged soils resulted in limited planting and tillage
  23. 23. CanEx Kenaston Area Composite radar image (HH-red, VV-blue, HV- green) 65o 25o June 5, 2010
  24. 24. SMAP Major Field Campaigns ver. 07/10 • SMAPVEX08 Year/ 1 2 3 4 Quarter – High priority design/algorithm issues • SMAPEx (Australia) 2008 SMAPVEX08 – 4 one-week campaigns to span four seasons 2009 SMOS – Aircraft Radar/Radiometer 2010 • CanEx-SM (Canada) SMAPEx SMAPEx – Two-week soil moisture campaign CanEx-SM – Aircraft Radar/Radiometer 2011 Aquarius GCOM-W SMAPEx CanEx-FT • CanEx-FT (Canada) 2012 SAOCOM – Two-week freeze/thaw campaign SMAPVEX12 – Aircraft Radar/Radiometer 2013 • SMAPVEX12 – Major hydrology campaign 2014 SMAP – Long duration – Aircraft Radar/Radiometer 2015 SMAPVEX15 SMAPVEX15 SMAPVEX15 • SMAPVEX15 – Extended campaign for both SM and FT – Long duration Satellite Launch in Red – Aircraft Radar/Radiometer
  25. 25. SMAP Cal/Val Key Points • Pre-launch Cal/Val is driven by the Algorithm teams and the post-launch mission requirements. • Timeline has a major impact! • Core Validation Sites must be established. • Field campaigns – Recent field campaigns have exploited partnerships. – CanEx, SJV, and SMAPEx have all been successful. – Planning for a 2011 freeze-thaw activity is beginning. – Broad input is needed for the next campaign. • Cal/Val Workshop Week of May 3-5, 2011 (S. Calif.).

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