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TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW
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TH3.L10.1: THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION: OVERVIEW

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  • Oct. 23, 2008
  • Transcript

    • 1. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission: Overview Peggy O’Neill, NASA GSFC Dara Entekhabi, MIT Eni Njoku, JPL Kent Kellogg, JPL
    • 2. Mission Context
      • SMAP was initiated by NASA as a new start mission in February 2008
      • SMAP is now in Phase B as of February 2010
      • The target launch date for SMAP is November 2014 (subject to budgetary constraints)
      “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the next Decade and Beyond” (National Research Council, 2007) http://www.nap.edu SMAP is one of four Tier-1 missions recommended by the U.S. NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey Tier 1: Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) ICESAT II DESDynI CLARREO Tier 2: SWOT HYSPIRI ASCENDS GEO-CAFE ACE Tier 3: LIST PATH GRACE-II SCLP GACM 3D-WINDS
    • 3. Science Objectives SMAP will provide high-resolution, frequent-revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state to enable science and applications users to:
        • Understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles
        • Estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface
        • Quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes
        • Enhance weather and climate forecast skill
        • Develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability
      Freeze/thaw state
    • 4. Predictability of seasonal climate is dependent on boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST) and soil moisture – soil moisture is particularly important over continental interiors. Difference in Summer Rainfall: 1993 (flood) minus 1988 (drought) years Observations Prediction driven by SST and soil moisture Prediction driven just by SST -5 0 +5 Rainfall Difference [mm/day] (Schubert et al., 2002) New space-based soil moisture observations and data assimilation modeling can improve forecasts of local storms and seasonal climate anomalies With Realistic Soil Moisture 24-Hours Ahead High-Resolution Atmospheric Model Forecasts Observed Rainfall 0000Z to 0400Z 13/7/96 (Chen et al., 2001) Buffalo Creek Basin High resolution soil moisture data will improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) over continents by accurately initializing land surface states Without Realistic Soil Moisture NWP Rainfall Prediction Seasonal Climate Predictability Value of Soil Moisture Data to Weather and Climate
    • 5.  
    • 6. Measurement Approach
      • Instruments:
        • Radiometer: L-band (1.4 GHz)
          • V, H, 3 rd & 4 th Stokes parameters
          • 40 km resolution
          • Moderate resolution soil moisture (high accuracy )
        • Radar: L-band (1.26 GHz)
          • VV, HH, HV polarizations
          • 3 km resolution (SAR mode); 30 x 5 km resolution (real-aperture mode)
          • High resolution soil moisture (moderate accuracy) and Freeze/Thaw state detection
        • Shared Antenna
          • 6-m diameter deployable mesh antenna
          • Conical scan at 14.6 rpm
          • Constant incidence angle: 40 degrees
          • -- 1000 km-wide swath
          • -- Swath and orbit enable 2-3 day global revisit
      • Orbit :
        • -- Sun-synchronous, 6 am/pm,
        • 680 km altitude
        • -- 8-day exact repeat
      • Mission Operations:
      • -- 3-year baseline mission
      • -- Launch in November 2014
    • 7.
      • Radiometer
        • Provided by GSFC
        • Leverages off Aquarius radiometer design
        • Includes RFI mitigation (spectral filtering)
      • Common 6 m spinning reflector
        • Enables global coverage in 2-3 days
        • Spin Assembly and Reflector Boom Assembly have extensive heritage
      • Radar
        • Provided by JPL
        • Leverages off past JPL L-band science radar designs
        • RFI mitigation through tunable frequencies & ground processing
      Radiometer is spun-side mounted to reduce losses Radar is fixed-mounted to reduce spun inertia SPUN INSTRUMENT ASSEMBLY Instrument Overview [Talk # 2 this session – Spencer et al. on instruments] [Talk # 3 this session – Johnson et al. on RFI]
    • 8. * Mean latency under normal operating conditions. Latency defined as time from data acquisition by instrument to availability to designated archive. The SMAP project will make a best effort to reduce these latencies. SMAP Data Products Table (Publicly Available) Data Product Short Name Short Description Spatial Resolution Grid Spacing Latency* L1A_Radar Radar raw data in time order NA NA 12 hours L1A_Radiometer Radiometer raw data in time order NA NA 12 hours L1B_S0_LoRes Low resolution radar σ o in time order 5x30 km NA 12 hours L1B_TB Radiometer T B in time order 40 km NA 12 hours L1C_S0_HiRes High resolution radar σ o (half orbit, gridded) 1x1 km to 1x30 km 1 km 12 hours L1C_TB Radiometer T B (half orbit, gridded) 40 km 36 km 12 hours L2_SM_P Soil moisture (radiometer, half orbit) 40 km 36 km 24 hours L2_SM_A/P Soil moisture (radar/radiometer, half orbit) 9 km 9 km 24 hours L3_F/T_A Freeze/thaw state (radar, daily composite) 3 km 3 km 48 hours L3_SM_P Soil moisture (radiometer, daily composite) 40 km 36 km 48 hours L3_SM_A/P Soil moisture (radar/radiometer, daily composite) 9 km 9 km 48 hours L4_SM Soil moisture (surface & root zone) 9 km 9 km 7 days L4_C Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) 9 km 1 km 14 days
    • 9. L3_SM_A/P Combined Soil Moisture Product (9 km) L2_SM_P Radiometer Soil Moisture Product (36 km) L2_SM_A Radar Soil Moisture Product (3 km) L1C_S0_Hi-Res Radar Backscatter Product (1-3 km) L1C_TB Radiometer Brightness Temperature Product (36 km) Algorithm Evaluation In Progress Using SMAP End-to-End Science Simulation Testbed
    • 10. Level 4 Soil Moisture and Carbon Simulated Products Volumetric Soil Moisture (%) Level 4 Soil Moisture (Surface and Root Zone estimates) Mean Daily Net CO 2 Exchange
    • 11. SMAP Applications
      • A primary goal of the SMAP Mission is to engage SMAP end users and build broad support for SMAP applications through a transparent and inclusive process
      • Toward that goal, the SMAP Mission:
        • formed the SMAP Applications Working Group
        • currently over 150 members
        • open to everyone, register at http://smap.jpl.nasa.gov/science/applicWG
        • held the 1 st SMAP Applications Workshop, Sept 9-10, 2009 at NOAA Silver Spring MD
          • will form the basis for the SMAP Applications Plan
      • Presentation this morning on “ Fostering Application Opportunities for the NASA SMAP Mission”
    • 12. Potential Applications Identified at the SMAP Applications Workshop, Sept 2009 [Talk #5 this session – Crow et al. on SMAP testbed] SMAP OBJECTIVES POTENTIAL SMAP APPLICATIONS Weather Natural Disasters Climate Variability & Change Agriculture & Forestry Human Health Ecology Water Resources Ocean Resources Soil moisture and freeze-thaw information for water, energy and carbon cycle processes More accurate weather forecasts; prediction of severe rainfall; operational severe weather forecasts; mobility and visibility Drought early warning decision support; key variable in floods and landslides; operational flood forecast; lake and river ice breakup; desertification Extend climate prediction capability; Linkages between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles; land / atmos. fluxes Predictions of agricultural productivity; famine early warning; Monitoring agricultural drought Landscape epidemiology; heat stress and drought monitoring; insect infestation; emergency response plans Carbon source/sink monitoring; Ecosystems forecasts; monitoring vegetation and water relationships over land Global water balance; estimates of streamflow & river discharge; more effective management Sea-ice mapping for navigation, especially in coastal zones; temporal changes in ocean salinity Fire susceptibility; global flood mapping; heat-wave forecasting Crop management at the farm scale; Input to fuel loading models Monitoring wetlands resources and bird migration Monitoring variability of water stored in lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and river channels Ocean wind speed and direction, related to hurricane monitoring = likely mission application = potential mission application
    • 13. Engagement w/Community
      • Community workshops held and planned:
        • 1 st SMAP Algorithms & Cal/Val Workshop: June 9-11, 2009, Oxnard, CA
        • 1 st SMAP Applications Workshop: September 9-10, 2009, Silver Spring, MD
        • 2 nd SMAP Algorithms Workshop: March 5, 2010, Wash., DC (after MicroRad 2010)
        • 2 nd Cal/Val Workshop in May 2011
        • -- http://smap.jpl.nasa.gov/science/workshops/
        • SMAP Applications Plan (draft) in preparation
        • (Contact: [email_address] or susan.moran@ars.usda.gov )
      • SMAP Cal/Val Plan (draft) in preparation, incorporating recent inputs from:
        • SMAP Cal/Val Working Group activities (In Situ Testbed, Core Sites)
        • Workshop tentatively scheduled for May 2011 in Oxnard
        • Coordination with other international programs and missions (CSA, SMOS, Aquarius)
        • (Contact: T. Jackson - tom.jackson@ars.usda.gov)
    • 14. Approach
      • ATBDs have identified activities that will improve SMAP algorithms:
      • Satellite Products – AMSR-E, SMOS, Aquarius
      • Field Campaigns
      • -- Past: SGP, SMEX, SMAPVEX08 . . .
      • -- Ongoing: CanEx (Canada), SMAPEx (Australia), SJV (California)
      • -- Future: SMAPVEX
      • Establish infrastructure necessary for post-launch Cal/Val:
      • In situ sensor testbed, tower & aircraft SMAP simulators, core validation sites
      • Other collaboration [Talk #4 this session – Jackson et al. on cal/val]
      SMAP Cal/Val: Pre-Launch Activities CanEX (wet) – June 2010 SMAPEx-1 (winter) – July 2010 SJV (orchards) – Summer 2010
    • 15. Synergistic Data and Experience from SMOS and Aquarius
      • SMAP complements SMOS and Aquarius:
        • Extends global L-band radiometry beyond these missions (yields long-duration land hydroclimate soil moisture datasets)
        • Significantly increases the spatial resolution of soil moisture data
        • Adds characterization of freeze thaw state for carbon cycle science
        • Adds substantial instrument and processing mitigations to reduce science degradation and loss from terrestrial RFI
      • SMAP benefits from strong mutual science team members’ engagements in missions
        • SMOS & Aquarius data are important for SMAP’s algorithm development
        • SMAP will collaborate in and extend SMOS & Aquarius Cal-Val campaigns
        • SMOS and Aquarius will provide valuable data on the global terrestrial RFI environment which is useful to SMAP
      SMOS (ESA) 2009 Launch Aquarius 2011 LRD SMAP 2014 LRD Mission LRD Measurement Instrument Complement Resolution/Revisit SMOS Nov ’09 Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity L-band Radiometer 50 km / 3 days Aquarius Apr ’11 Ocean Salinity Soil Moisture (experimental) L-band Radiometer, Scatterometer 100 km / 7 days SMAP Nov’14 * Soil Moisture Freeze/Thaw State L-band Radiometer, SAR (unfocused) 10 km / 2-3 days
    • 16. Summary
      • SMAP provides high-resolution and frequent-revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state that has:
        • Science value for Water, Carbon and Energy Cycles
        • Applications benefits in Operational Weather, Flood & Drought Monitoring, other areas
        • Addresses priority questions on Climate and Climate Change
        • NOAA, DoD, USDA, others are actively engaged with SMAP to develop an Applications Plan for using SMAP data after launch
        • Science Definition Team has international participation: Canadian, British, Australian, French & Italian representatives
      • SMAP will take advantage of precursor data from ESA’s SMOS mission
        • SMOS radiometer-derived soil moisture at 40 km resolution will aid in SMAP algorithm development and global RFI assessment and mitigation
      • CSA is partnering with SMAP for science, Cal/Val, and Applications development

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