Decomposition in East and Vertical velocities Vertical velocity field Easting velocity field east west up down Ascending and descending results both cover the crater area and other parts of the island: wherever the two data are simultaneously available, a decomposition from ascending and descending displacement to easting and vertical components is possible, on a grid of 100x100 meters resolution
Displacement Time Series, examples
Displacement Time Series, examples
Landslides detection and monitoring Identifying landslides: Piedmont Piedmont landslides
Sentinel 1 A/B 22 years later 12 days revisit cycle
SAR interferometry 20 years later
(1991 – 2011)
How about ground motion recovery?
Target selection for coherence optimization
Shorter revisit times with constellations
The path delay measurement is reliable to
the mm, for a reasonable spatial resolution
Densifying the set of reference targets (Persistent Scatterers)
Covariance matrices of multipass SAR Rows and columns correspond to progressive times Examples for: Persistent Scatterers (that terminate) Progressive decorrelation Seasonal effects
SqueeSAR uses nearly all interferograms, weighted with their coherence (see above). Phase linking is then carried out, estimating the sequence of the N-1 phases using the N(N-1)/2 interferograms. seasonal Markov
Squeezing all the information: Squeesar
An example: the InSalah Case (Algeria)
The InSalah Gas storage project is the first CO 2 sequestration effort in an active reservoir.
1 million CO 2 tons are reinjected into the subsurface each year.
PSInSAR estimated volume and pressure changes, and finally the permeability within the reservoir.
Elastic Model Definition
Apertures (dislocations) and volumetric variations along a fault plane
Inversion using the Poisson ratio in the overburden
Fault plane position
Center of fault
Inversion results UD component Measures Model
Inversion results EW component Measures Model
Arrival time and Trajectories
Pressure changes -> propagating fronts
We use the time derivative of the pressure
From the time arrivals -> permeability
A. Rucci, D. W. Vasco, Fluid pressure arrival time tomography, SEG 2009, Houston
Arrival time Trajectories
The reject across the fault
Cosmo Skymed data: Total change: 1.8mm 28kt/mm
We can map surface deformations into permeability changes; the InSalah story is condensed in 1 cm surface motion 1 mm sensitivity is achieved today with reduced resolution, but can improve with numerical atmospheric models. The revisit time is paramount
Effects of motion direction
The UD component is practically LOS
The SNR of the EW component is just a few dB down
The NS component can only be retrieved with speckle correlation. The dispersion σ d , referred to the azimuthal resolution is, for N looks:
MAI: Multiple Aperture Interferometry
However, if the wide Doppler range of Sentinel - 1 (±0.7 0 ) is fully used say for SPOT instead than TOPS scan, then the equivalent azimut resolution is δ eq :
With say 1500 looks (4500m 2 ), the dispersion of the ground motion estimates along the NS direction could be of the order of 1 cm. Multiple Aperture Interferometry proposes to use wide Doppler ranges to achieve a very high equivalent azimuth resolution, even if not completely filling the entire Doppler band (pass band speckle correlation ).  De Zan F., 2011, Coherent Shift Estimation for Stacks of SAR Images, GRSL to appear
We still have to solve efficiently the problem of the Atmospheric Phase Screen that biases the outcomes
APS estimation procedure Model Parameters DEM
Mathematical modeling of the APS Characterized by a variogram K,A,B,C LMS from the data Z from a DEM 4-parameter model
Typical example of atmospheric data
APS from Ground Based RADAR GBSAR measures APS fluctuations from ms to months (range = 4 km). The t a power law (Kolmogorov) has been verified on variograms from t > 1 s APS has considerably less power during night time APS in short time APS in long time σ φ =1 rad 2hours ~ 40km mm 2 mm 2
K values: synoptic view Ascending Descending
What we can do today with good control of the Atmospheric Phase Screen
Closer to any PS, the estimate of the APS improves: in a circle of PS with diameter D (m), the mean square APS reduces q times, q is lower than D q max q
In the case of interferogram chaining, if there is a limited coherence γ from one take to the next, the measured phase is: L = number of looks (> 4); N = number of takes in the observation time σ atm = dispersion of the APS; w1, w2 noises with unit variance Signal and noise grow with the number of takes Even if γ =0.3, just 6 looks are equivalent to a PS, as the coherence is limited only by APS and not by decorrelation.
MM5 has a strong “random” component and a more stable stratification estimation. WRF performs better, further work is needed. Meris has shown positive results in flat deserted areas, but not in our case studies. GPS has a success rate of 50%. The connection between InSAR and the other methodologies lies in the stationary term estimation. Permanent Scatterers (or interferogram chaining) are still the best way to accurately estimate the APS.
The competition: Optical and GPS levelling: Approximate results
A recent survey comparison for an accelerator design in Japan
Photon-counting detector with an accuracy of 20 ps (3.3 mm two way) Max point rate ~ 1000 pts/sec. Low atmospheric effects Photon counting devices
Recent, forthcoming , and proposed satellites:
- X band: 4xCSK, 2xTSX, Kompsat , TSX, 2xCSK2
- C band: Rsat2 , Sentinel - 1 A/B; 3xRCM
- L band: 2xSAOCOM, Palsar 2, Desdyni, TSL
- The proposal for a geosynchronous SAR (EOPUS)
C band data have shown their effectiveness
X band data are good for urban applications
L band data are useful for forest studies
P band data, only, reach ground (tomography)
GEO synchronous S AR for A tmosphere and T errain observation Prof. A . Broquetas – UPC Univesitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Electromagnetic and Photonic Eng. Group Dr. D. D’Aria - ARESYS Prof. N. Casagli, G. Righini – Università degli studi di Firenze, Dept. of Earth Sciences Prof. S . Hobbs – Cranfield University, Cranfield Space Research Centre Prof. A. Monti Guarnieri, Prof. F. Rocca – Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Electronic and Inf. Science Prof.sa R. Ferretti – University of L’Aquila, CETEMPS Prof. M. Nazzareno Pierdicca – Sapienza University of Roma, Dept. of Electronic Engineering Prof. G. Wadge – University of Reading, Environmental Systems Science Centre Prof. Dr. H Rott – University of Innsbruck Dr. C. Svara, Dr. A. Torre – Thales Alenia Space Italia Earth Explorer EE8 proposal: COM3/EE8/32 GEOSAT
The geosynchronous concept is as old as SAR [ K. Tomiyasu, 1978] ; however, it has never been realized.
To make it feasible we might use:
The 2.4 kW - TWT developed for CoreH 2 0
Long integration times (up to 12 hours), stable targets, PS
Quick looks every 20’ to measure and compensate the APS
The problem: water vapor fluctuations
Water vapor changes defocus the scene , unless controlled and compensated. Examples and statistical analysis made by:
Terrasar-X (PSINSAR), GPS, Ground based radar, MM5
GEOSAR for Atmosphere Medi terranean Hurric ane ECMWF medium-scale maps
Yielding high spatial (200 x 10 m) and temporal (20’) resolution water-vapor maps for:
Correction of tropospheric delays for GPS and SAR
GEOSAT: The Wide Beam GEOSAT may be a guest payload on Italian Space Agency (ASI) SIGMA missions, placed appox 9 o longitude . Look direction would then be close to SN for Europe. Backgound mission wide beam over central Europe (2000 km). NESZ = -19 dB, 0.5x 0.5km resolution, 20’ revisit. Fine resolution 10 x 10 m (twice daily revisit). Applications: WV maps, glaciers, urban.
GEOSAT coverage: the SPOT beam Geoseismic risk in Europe Number of Lanslides in Europe
A 700 km SPOT beam centered on Naples, would be used for monitoring:
MEDIterranean hurriCANE and Water vapor (thus extending southward the wide beam),
Many many landlsides
Any TV antenna becomes a good reflector 80 cm antenna SNR = 21 dB (12 hours); SNR=2 dB (10 mins) 47 Millions of users parabolas in Europe (2002) Number of home satellite antennas 1999 millions 2002 millions 1999-2002 Increase % total population % millions % millions and Pacific 19.5 17.5 -11 -2.1 1 1 and US 13.7 20.1 47 6.4 4 6 EUROPE 33.8 43.6 26 8.7 4 5 Latin America and the 1.6 2.7 62 1.0 0 1 North Africa and the 8.9 11.9 29 2.6 3 4 0.0 0.0 177 0.0 0.0 0 Sub Saharan 0.4 1.2 83 0.3 0 0 World 77.9 96.8 22 16.8 1 2
GEOSAT could provide short time (20 min to hours) monitoring for:
atmospheric and hydrogeological effects volcanoes and glaciers
It would have:
wide-swath and SPOT beams
complementarity to LEO for revisit, look angle
compatibility with Telecom, as a guest payload.
For ground motion applications, spatial resolution is not essential, but short revisit time and good vertical precision are paramount
With a dense and long set of PS (desert areas), we are already much below the millimeter error. In the future, NWP and GPS may help.
The geosynchronous satellite could help to obtain continuous observation.
Optical and GPS systems, at the moment, do not offer either spatial continuity or sufficient precision.