Mt. Etna Volcanic Plume from Aster and Hyperion data by Asi-Srv modules C. Spinetti, M.F. Buongiorno, M. Silvestri, S. Zoffoli Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Italy Picture by Italian Astronauts Nespoli from ISS, Etna 14-1-2011
Volcanic emissions in atmosphere Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
Volcanic Plumes components Water Vapour R anges between 70-90 % of plume component ; Carbonic Gas Every year about 130 millions tons of CO 2 are emitted by volcanoes ; Sulfur Dioxide Every year about 1 million tons of SO 2 are emitted by volcanoes ; Solid and liquid Particles Solid particles can ranges in size from m to nm (aerosol). Liquid particles are formed by eterogeneous nucleation and condensation of H2SO4 into liquid particles of aerosol Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
The project philosophy is to implement specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS EO/non EO integrated products in the volcanic activity phases defined within Civil Protection operations:
Knowledge and prevention (K&P)
Post Crisis (PC)
Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011 Funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with the aims to develop a system for near real time analysis of Earth Observations data for volcanic risk management.
Logical Architecture Products publication Web browser DATA REPOSITORY End user WMS Server Processing chains Scientific Operators Gis desktop EO Raw data User Level Sources Level Product Archive and validation Non-EOdata Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011 Direct download
TEST SITES ASI - 21/10/2004 Studio di fattibilità - Rischio Vulcanico - PRR Frequent monitoring with ground networks used to validate and integrate EO products. Vesuvio Campi Flegrei Sites selection compatible with the spatial resolution of EO operative systems Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011 Picture courtesy of B. Benchke 14-6-2011 Etna Aster 3D
EO Data used to S/S Surveillance and Early Warning of eruptions Volcanic plume measurements using EO data: the SRV modules Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011 Modules Products Satellite - Sensor Satellite Revisit Time Map Products spatial resolution VAOT LAOT Aerosol Optical Thickness TERRA ASTER EO-1 HYPERION TERRA AQUA MODIS 16 gg 16 gg 2 gg 15 m 30 m 1 km WV H2O Content (g/cm2) EO-1 HYPERION 16 gg 30 m SO2 SO2 Flux (Kg/s) FLAME Ground remote sensing network Continuous - SO2 SO2 Content (g/m2) ASTER 16 gg 90 m
Processor Data level scheme MODULES Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
Module Logic workflow For each sensor a data series of remote sensed data have been processed By means of specific algorithm and using Auxiliary and Ancillary… … the parameter is obtained Before to post on the GIS each raster needs to be converted in a ESRI like vector.. From raw data to plume parameter Product Vectorfile RTM Simulation Maps Calibration Georeferentiation Surface reflectance Vertical profile Plume altitude Optical particle parameters Convolution with sensor response function Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
VAOT module is based on volcanic aerosol retrieval technique (Spinetti et 2003 and Spinetti and Buongiorno 2007) adapted to analyze Aster and Hyperion. The module output is a map of plume Aerosol Optical Thickness @ 550 nm with medium-high spatial resolution 15m and 30m
WV Module is based on CIBR technique (Carerre and Conel, 1994; Spinetti et al., 2004) using the H2O Hyperion absorption band @1125 nm in the atmospheric spectrum curve. The module output is a map of columnar content of plume water vapour.
Modules has been developed to be “user-driven” . A huge effort has been done to achive the semi-automatic way in order to produce results easly and in short time.
Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
AOT_Hy 24-9-2001 09:34GMT AOT mean 0.30+-0.09 AOTmin0.05+-0.02 AOTmax 1.10+-0.33 Plume area 2.25km2 Plume direction NE EO1-Hyperion VAOT 550nm@30m EO-1 - Hyperion 24 Sept 2001 Module input Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
WV 25-10-2006 The map on 25 October 2006 shows a plume structure divided in 3 dinstinct areas of high content in the summit corresponding to the 4 summit craters. The map on 9 July 2007 shows a dispersed plume over the summit area without any preferential direction. The map on 8 October 2009 shows a water vapour plume well South directed. EO1-Hyperion WV @30m WV 9-7-2007 8-10-2009
Test period EO-1 Hyperion Time series Swath width 7.5 km Time series of total 142 data between acquisition period June 2001 to September 2010 17 Sept 2005 Out of scene GIS Product provided 49 VAOT maps (90% of selected 34% of acquisition) 23 WV maps (46%) Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
TERRA – ASTER Time series Time series of total 262 data between acquisition period data from April 2000 to August 2010 Swath width 60 km GIS Product provided: 32 VAOT maps (69% of selected 12% of acquisition) Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
Aster and Hyperion Time series results VAOT 2000-2010 28 gen 06 16 sett 02 13 July 01 2008-2009 eruption 16 Sept 07 2006 eruption 2004 – 2005 eruption 2002 – 2003 eruption 2001 eruption 13 July 01 4 May 00 Impact index AOT max* area
SO2 flux FLAME-DOAS ground network First SO2 measurements by COSPEC on 1970! From 2005 automatic UV-Doas ground network has been developed. station scans Data analysis FLAME-Etna network Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011 ENIC ECUR EILI EVEN EMIL
Flame daily average flux SO2 2000-2010 (Caltabiano et al., 2011; Salerno et al., 2007) 13 July 01 16 Sept 07 4 May 00 WV_Hy Product 16-9-2007 09:32GMT WV mean 0.33+-0.01 (g/m2) WV min 0.03+-0.01 (g/m2) WV max 0.8+-0.01 (g/m2) Plume area 1.25km2 Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
12-13 January 2011 Paroxysm 11 -1-2011 9:16 UTC 11 -1-2011 12:36 UTC Input : Dati Modis Terra e Aqua Output: AOT@550nm 1km
Modules of the SRV system has been developed in order to be used in near real time for monitoring purpose.
The VAOT and WV provide information on the degassing status of Etna in the early warning risk management phase.
Outup maps with 15 to 30 m of resolution give the AOT and vapour content and the plume structure indicating in some cases which crater is the most active.
The analysis of time series indicates high values of AOT correlated with large plume area during an eruption and before an explosive activity as 2000 2001 and 2007 paroxysm. The high values of Aot on a large area indicate aerosol formation that are correlate with high SO2 flux and water vapour .
The satellite revisiting time is critical to monitoring purpose to derive product maps.
Conclusions Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011
Thank You Etna paroxysm 25-7-2011 Spinetti et al, IGARSS 23-30 July 2011