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  • 1. MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-POLARIZATION AND ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS OF BARE SOIL, SNOW AND WATER ICE MICROWAVE REFLECTION AND EMISSION BY C-, Ku-, AND Ka-BAND, COMBINED SCATTEROMETER-RADIOMETER SYSTEMS Artashes Arakelyan, Astghik Hambaryan, Vardan Hambaryan, Vanik Karyan, Mushegh Manukyan, Melanya Grigoryan, Gagik Hovhannisyan, Arsen Arakelyan, Marine Simonyan and Mariam Krdyan ECOSERV Remote Observation Centre Co. Ltd. www.ecoservroc.com 2 G. Njdeh Str., #24, Yerevan, 375006, ARMENIA Phone: (374 10) 421 877/425 088; Fax: (374 10) 421 877 emails: arakelyanak@yahoo.com; ecoservroc@yahoo.com
  • 2. Abstract
    • In this presentation the results of simultaneous and spatially coincident, multi-polarization measurements of snow, bare soil and fresh water ice microwave reflective (radar backscattering coefficient) and emissive (brightness temperature) characteristics angular dependences at 5.6GHz, 15GHz and 37GHz will be represented. As well as structural and operational features of ArtAr-5.6 (C-band), ArtAr-15 (Ku-band) and ArtAr-37 (Ka-band), dual-polarization, combined scatterometric-radiometric systems will be discussed.
  • 3. Utilized Devices Multi-polarization, combined scatterometric radiometric systems ArtAr-5.6 ArtAr-15 ArtAr-37
  • 4.
    • C and Ku-band systems has three operational modes for their transmitters, suitable for short (5m-50m), middle (30m-250m) and long distance (150m-2500m and more) applications from flying, moving or stationary fixed measuring platforms.
    • Ka-band system has only short (5m-50m) range application mode for its transmitter, suitable for low altitude moving or stationary fixed measuring platforms
  • 5.
    • Time division channeling is used for each system’s scatterometer and radiometer functioning, to provide required electromagnetic decoupling.
    Time diagrams of the systems’ operation T P Transmission of a p ulse at v or h pol. Radar reception at vv and vh pol. or at hh and hv pol. Radiometric reception at v and h pol. T P u T S – T T Time for receivers protection T P r T S T B T T T R For a single pulse case t Radar reception at vv and vh pol. T P Transmission of a train of p ulses at v or h pol. Radiometric reception at v and h pol. Time for receivers protection T S T R e T P u T P r T B T T For a case of a train of N pulses T R t Transmission of a p ulse of the train at v or h pol.
  • 6. The main technical characteristics of the used devices ~-126dB/W ~-126dB/W ~-126dB/W Radar channel’s sensitivity ~0.3K ~0.15K < 0.1K Radar channel’s sensitivity at 1s ~ 800MHz ~ 600MHz ~ 500MHz Radiometer receivers bandwidth ~40MHz ~40MHz ~40MHz Radar receiver’s bandwidth ~2dB ~2dB ~2dB Radar receivers noise factor 1KHz 1KHz 1KHz A train or a single pulse repetition frequency 1.6MHz 1.6MHz 1.6MHz Pulse repetition frequency within a train 35mW 75mW 250mw 1W 50mW 150mw 0.5W Radar pulse power Short distance application mode Middle distance application mode Long distance application mode a train of 8 pulses, 25ns each pulses, 25ns each of 0.1mks of 1mks a train of 8 a single pulse a single pulse Radar pulses, type and duration for: Short distance application mode Middle distance application mode Long distance application mode Horn antenna/~9 0 Parabolic antenna/~7 0 Parabolic antenna/~6 0 Antenna type / beamwidth 37GHz 15GHz 5.6GHz Central frequency Artar-37 Ka-Band Artar-15 Ku-Band Artar-5.6 C-Band
  • 7. The Experimental Site of ECOSERV ROC Company
  • 8. MEASUREMENT AND CALIBRATION FACILITIES
  • 9.  
  • 10. Calibration by Sky
  • 11. Calibration by Sky, a Chart sample, 37GHz The level when the Input Key switched off antenna at “v” pol. and at “h” pol. The Observation angle  ~ 30 0 The Observation angle  ~ 30 0 The level when the Input Key switched off antenna at “v” pol. and at “h” pol. Radiometer Caliber 18K at “v” and at “h” pol. Radiometer Calibers 18K at “v” pol. nd at “h” pol. Sky Level at “v” pol. and at “h” pol. Sky Level at “v” pol. and at “h” pol. Radiometer Caliber 18K at “h” pol. and at “v” pol. Change of Polarization from “h” to “v”
  • 12. Soil Measurements’ Chart Sample, 15GHz 14.03.2011, Experiment-4.1, Combed soil Radar channel, “vv” pol. Radar channel, “vh” pol. Radiometric channel, “v” pol. Radiometric channel, “h” pol. Radar Calibers Radar Channels “0” Level Radiometer Calibers 18K Combed Soil at  = 80 0 Combed Soil at  =80 0 Combed Soil at  =20 0 Combed Soil at  =20 0 The level when the Input Key switched off antenna The level when the Input Key switched off antenna
  • 13. Chart’s Continuation Radar Channels “0” Level Combed Soil at  =0 0 Radar channel, pol. “vv” Radar channel, pol. “vh” Radiometric channel, pol. “v” Radiometric channel, pol. “h” Combed Soil at  =0 0 Radiometer Calibers 18K The level when the Input Key’s switched off antenna Radar Calibers Combed Soil at  =0-5 0 Combed Soil at  =0-5 0 Radiometer Calibers 18K Combed Soil at  =80 0 Radar Channels “0” Level Combed Soil at  =80 0
  • 14. THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS Backscattered signal’s level Radar channel’s “0” Level Radar caliber signal’s level Radiometer caliber signal’s level Surface emission signal’s level Input Key’s emission level The value of radiometric calibers 18K or so Input Key’s physical temperature Input Key’s emissivity
  • 15. Semi- Dry Snow, thickness ~ 7.5cm t snow ~ -1 0 C, t air ~ 1 0 C Semi- Dry Snow, thickness ~ 7.5cm t snow ~ -1 0 C, t air ~ 1 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 Wet Snow, thickness ~ 7.5cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 2 0 C Wet Snow, thickness ~ 7.5cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 2 0 C 5.6GHz, March. 2010 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 16. Dry Snow, thickness ~ 13 .5cm t snow ~ - 2 0 C, t air ~ -6 0 C Dry Snow, thickness ~ 13 .5cm t snow ~ - 2 0 C, t air ~ -6 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 Semi- Dry, thickness ~ 14 .5cm t snow ~ - 0.5 0 C, t air ~ -1 0 C Semi- Dry, thickness ~ 14 .5cm t snow ~ - 0.5 0 C, t air ~ -1 0 C 37GHz, 2 Feb. 2011 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 17. Dry Snow, thickness ~ 9 cm t snow ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -2 0 C Dry Snow, thickness ~ 9 cm t snow ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -2 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 37GHz, 4 Feb. 2011 Dry Snow, thickness ~ 8.5 cm t snow ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -5 0 C Dry Snow, thickness ~ 8.5 cm t snow ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -5 0 C , dB , K , dB , K
  • 18. Wet Snow, thickness ~ 7 .5cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 2 0 C Wet Snow, thickness ~ 7 .5cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 2 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 Wet Snow, thickness ~ 2-3 cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 5.5 0 C Wet Snow, thickness ~ 2-3 cm t snow ~ - 0 0 C, t air ~ 5.5 0 C 37GHz, 9 Feb. 2011 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 19. 37GHz, 11 Feb. 2011 Soil and dry stems of vegetation , soil moisture m m=21%, t air ~ 5 0 C , t so il ~ 3-4 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 2 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 2 0 C Soil and dry stems of vegetation , soil moisture m m=21%, t air ~ 5 0 C , t so il ~ 3-4 0 C 37GHz, 16 Feb. 2011 , dB , dB , K , K
  • 20. S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=11%, t air ~ 8 0 C , t so il ~ 5 0 C 37GHz, 23 Feb. 2011 S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=11%, t air ~ 8 0 C , t so il ~ 5 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=21%, t air ~ 2 0 C , t so il ~ 2 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=21%, t air ~ 2 0 C , t so il ~ 2 0 C 37GHz, 28 Feb. 2011 , dB , dB , K , dB , K
  • 21. S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 4 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 4 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 4 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 3 0 C , t so il ~ 4 0 C 37GHz, 7 March 2011 15GHz, 7 March 2011 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 22. 37GHz, 14 March 2011 15GHz, 14 March 2011 Uncombed and combed soils, soil moisture m m=23.9%, t air ~ 12 0 C , t so il ~ 8 0 C Uncombed and combed soils, soil moisture m m=23.9%, t air ~ 12 0 C , t so il ~ 8 0 C Uncombed and combed soils, soil moisture m m=23.9%, t air ~ 12 0 C , t so il ~ 8 0 C Uncombed and combed soils, soil moisture m m=23.9%, t air ~ 12 0 C , t so il ~ 8 0 C , dB , K , dB , K
  • 23. Combed soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 18 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Combed soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 18 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Combed soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 18 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Combed soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 18 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C 37GHz, 20 March 2011 15GHz, 20 March 2011 , dB , dB , K , K
  • 24. Dug soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 16 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Dug soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 16 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Dug soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 16 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C Dug soil, soil moisture m m=16.7%, t air ~ 16 0 C , t so il ~ 14 0 C 37GHz, 20 March 2011 15GHz, 20 March 2011 , dB , dB , K , K
  • 25. Fresh water i ce , thickness ~13.5cm t ice ~ -4 0 C, t air ~ -13 0 C, t water ~ 0-1 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~13.5cm t ice ~ -4 0 C, t air ~ -13 0 C, t water ~ 0-1 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 Fresh water i ce , thickness ~1 7 cm t ice ~ - 2 0 C, t air ~ -3 0 C, t water ~ 0-1 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~1 7 cm t ice ~ - 2 0 C, t air ~ -3 0 C, t water ~ 0-1 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 26. Fresh water i ce , thickness ~1 0 cm t ice ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -3 0 C, t water ~ 1-2 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~1 0 cm t ice ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ -3 0 C, t water ~ 1-2 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 7.5 cm t ice ~ -1 0 C, t air ~ 9 0 C, t water ~ 3 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 7.5 cm t ice ~ -1 0 C, t air ~ 9 0 C, t water ~ 3 0 C 5.6GHz, Feb. 2010 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 27. Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 3-4 cm t ice ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ - 5.5 0 C, t water ~ 2 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 3-4 cm t ice ~ - 1 0 C, t air ~ - 5.5 0 C, t water ~ 2 0 C 37GHz, 4 Feb. 2011 Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 2 cm t ice ~ - 0.5 0 C, t air ~ 8 0 C, t water ~ 2 0 C Fresh water i ce , thickness ~ 2 cm t ice ~ - 0.5 0 C, t air ~ 8 0 C, t water ~ 2 0 C 37GHz, 9 Feb. 2011 , dB , K , dB , K
  • 28. 37GHz, 28 Feb. 2011 Pool water surface t air ~ 2 0 C, t water ~ 4 0 C Pool water surface t air ~ 2 0 C, t water ~ 4 0 C Sky temperature, cloudy t air ~ 2 0 C, 37GHz, 28 Feb. 2011 Clear Sky temperature, t air ~ 2 0 C, Pool water surface t air ~ 2 0 C, t water ~ 4 0 C S oil and dry stems of vegetation, soil moisture m m=17%, t air ~ 2 0 C , t so il ~ 2 0 C , dB , K , K , K
  • 29. CONCLUSION
    • Thus, simultaneous and spatially coincident multi-frequency and multi-polarization measurements are an actual and significant tool to improve existed reflective and radiative transfer models of soil, snow, ice, soil vegetation and sea surface.
  • 30.
    • Such measurements are an effective way:
    • for solution of the problems applied to soil and snow moistures and temperatures precise and unambiguous retrievals.
    • for sea surface wind and wave fields parameters, sea temperature and salinity precise and unambiguous retrievals.
    • for detection and classification of soil and sea surface and sub-surface (underground) signatures and targets.
    • for soil vegetation classification and parameters evaluation, etc.
  • 31.
    • This presentation has an aim as well to attract the attention of interested researchers to the existed experimental site and microwave devices (scatterometer-radiometer systems of S, C, Ku, K and Ka-band of frequencies), and to invite them to use these devices in their field campaigns or to perform joint researches using available devices, measuring and calibration facilities of our Company .
  • 32. Acknowledgements
    • Combined radar-radiometer systems and the experimental site were developed and built due to the finances provided by International Science and Technology Center of Moscow (ISTC) and by the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) in collaboration with Cortana Corporation.
    • Authors express their gratitude to both foundations and to Cortana Corporation for their financial maintenance in planned work’s fulfillment.
  • 33. Thank you !
  • 34.