PR4 IGARSS_2011_BEZY_final.ppt

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  • 1. J.-L. Bézy , G. Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, P. Ingmann, J. Langen, B. Sierk, H. Stark, B. Veihelmann Earth Observation Directorate ESA’s GMES SENTINEL-4 and SENTINEL-5
  • 2. Outline OMI NO2 over Europe 2004-2005 KNMI/IASB/ESA Image by Pepijn Veefkind, KNMI
    • GMES Sentinels programme
    • S4/S5 Mission objectives
    • Sentinel-4
    • Sentinel-5 (p)
    • Programmatic status
  • 3. GMES Components GMES is an EU led initiative Services Component – led by EC • Produces information services in response to European policy priorities in environment and security • Relies on data from in-situ and space component In-situ component – led by EEA • Observations mostly within national responsibility, with coordination at European level Space Component – led by ESA • Sentinels - EO missions developed specifically for GMES: • Contributing Missions - EO missions built for purposes other than GMES but offering part of their capacity to GMES (EU/ESA MSs, EUMETSAT, commercial, international) GMES is a perfect example of a system of systems
  • 4. GMES dedicated missions: Sentinels 2013 A / 2015 B Sentinel 1 – SAR imaging All weather, day/night applications, interferometry 2013 A / 2017 B Sentinel 3 – Ocean and global land monitoring Wide-swath ocean color, vegetation, sea/land surface temperature, altimetry 2018+ Sentinel 4 – Geostationary atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring – flown on MTG 2013 A / 2016 B Sentinel 2 – Multi-spectral imaging Land applications: urban, forest, agriculture,.. Continuity of Landsat, SPOT 2018+ Sentinel 5 – Low-orbit atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring – flown on MetOp-SG (S5 Precursor launch in 2014)
  • 5. Environmental issues of changing atmospheric composition Climate Change and the Greenhouse Effect Nutrification of coastal waters and freshwater lakes; eutrophication Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and enhanced surface UV Acid Rain Los Angeles Smog or "summer" smog London Smog Aerosols in and downwind of regions of high population Enhanced aerosol and photo-oxidant levels due to biomass burning Increase in background tropospheric ozone Intercontinental transport of pollutants and aerosols Stability of the Atmospheric Oxidation Efficiency Information services needed for - Monitoring - Forecasting - Assessment - Mitigation
  • 6. Air pollution and its effect on human health Source: EU programme CAFE, CAFE Scenario Analysis Report Nr. 2. (Amann et al., 2004) Loss in life expectancy in months attributable to anthropogenic PM2.5 [months] “ Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to cause approximately 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year.”
  • 7. The Current Capabilities Research missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) – OMI (Aura), Scisat, Mopitt (Terra), Gosat Operational missions GOME-2, IASI (MetOp), OMPS, CRIS (JPSS)
      • High temporal and spatial resolution (more cloud free-views) space-based measurements of tropospheric (PBL) composition for application to air quality
      • High spatial/high precision monitoring of climate gases (CO 2 , CH 4 and CO) and aerosol monitoring with sensitivity to the PBL
      • High vertical resolution measurements in the UT/LS region for ozone and climate applications
    Main gaps in current / planned operational system GOME-2 SCIAMACHY OMI S4/S5 80 km 7 km
  • 8. Mission Implementation
    • Sentinel 4 will be a realised as
      • a UVN spectrometer embarked on the MTG-S platforms
      • utilisation of TIR data from the IR sounder onboard the same platforms
      • utilisation of imager data from the MTG-I platforms
    • Sentinel 5 will consist of
      • A UVNS spectrometer embarked on the post-EPS platforms
      • utilisation of data from the post-EPS IR sounder (IASI NG)
      • utilisation of post-EPS imager data (METimage)
      • utilisation of multi-directional polarisation imager if implemented
    • Mission concept for climate protocol monitoring (lower troposphere) and air quality applications
    • Implementation of S-4 and S-5 on Eumetsat platforms
  • 9. Level 2 Products Ozone vertical profile (O 3 ) Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Albedo Total ozone (O 3 ) Aerosol Formaldehyde (HCHO) Bromine monoxide (BrO) Rayleigh scat. (cloud), aerosol abs. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Glyoxal (CHOCHO) O2-O2 (cloud) Water vapour and cloud (eff. scatt. height) O-A (cloud, aerosol) Methane (CH4) Aerosol profile Carbone monoxide (CO) Wavelength (nm) SWIR VIS NIR UV Sentinel-4 1600 400 600 800 500 700 1800 2000 2200 300 200 2400 Sentinel-5 Priority A Priority B
  • 10. Level 2 Products SCIAMACHY PARASOL OMI MOPPIT SCIAMACHY Source: ONTRAQ study. (P. Levelt 2009 ) Concentration maps for Asia Air quality and tropospheric composition on a global, regional and urban scale Courtesy: J.P. Veefkind (KNMI) Courtesy: H. Eskes, KNMI
  • 11. The Instrument Challenge DOAS analysis of satellite spectra Irradiance and Radiance Measurement Derived Reflectance Note how small the NO2 features are, about 0.5% signal strength of the total signal Contributors to these Spectral Features are: polarisation scrambler, coatings, gratings, sun diffuser, straylight, gain change, … < 0.05 %! 3 nm
  • 12. Sentinel-4: GEO atmospheric mission Europe coverage in 1 hr
  • 13. S4 Images Acquisition Only illuminated areas are acquired (SZA max = 92 °) 24 daily acquisitions
  • 14. S4 Requirements
    • Spatial resolution: 8 km at 45°N
    • Coverage: Europe + Sahara
    • Repeat Cycle: 1 hr
    • Low sensitivity to polarisation (1%)
    • Low level of spectral features (0.05%)
    • High radiometric accuracy: < 3%
    • Spectral bands
    Band ID Wavelength range [nm] Spectral resolution [nm] Spectral sampling ratio UV-VIS 305 - 500 0.5 3 NIR 750 - 775 0.12 3 VIS NIR UV 400 600 800 500 700 300 Wavelength (nm)
  • 15. S4 Instrument Overview
    • Imaging Spectrometer
    • Pushbroom in E/W direction
    • N/S FOV: 3.85°
    • E/W FOR: 11.2°
    • 2 grating spectrometers
    • UV-VIS: 305 – 500 nm
    • NIR: 750 – 775 nm
    • CCD detectors cooled at 210 K
    • Scan mirror: E/W scan
    • N/S: - compensation of MTG yaw flip manoeuvre around equinox
      • - seasonal shift in latitude (up to 10 deg)
    • High performance on board calibration sources (diffusers, lamp, LED)
    • Geostationary orbit, at about 0° longitude
    • Embarked on MTG-Sounder Satellite and operated by EUMETSAT
    Ground swath Satellite motion Telescope Slit Collimator Dispersing element Re-imaging lens 2D array detector x  Spectral radiance 
  • 16. S4 Instrument Overview Earth On axis refractive telescope (Ø 80 mm) 2-axis-gimbal mirror Calibration assembly UV-VIS Spectrograph NIR Spectrograph
  • 17. Sentinel-5 Requirements
    • Spectral bands
    • Spatial resolution: 15 km in UV1 – 7 km in other bands
    • Daily global coverage
    • Low sensitivity to polarisation (0.5%)
    • Low level of spectral features (0.05%)
    • High radiometric accuracy: < 2%
    Band ID Spectral range (nm) Spectral resolution (nm) Spectral sampling Ratio UV-1 270-300 1 ≈ 3 UV-2 300-350 0.5 ≈ 3 UV-VIS 350-500 0.5 ≈ 3 NIR-1 710-750 0.4 ≈ 3 NIR-2 750-775 0.4 (T) – 0.06 (G) ≈ 3 SWIR-1 1590-1675 0.25 ≈ 2.5 SWIR-3 2305-2385 0.25 ≈ 2.5 SWIR VIS NIR UV 400 600 800 500 700 300 200 1600 1800 2000 2400 Wavelength (nm)
  • 18. S5 instrument overview
    • Imaging grating Spectrometer
    • Pushbroom in along track direction
    • Wide swath: 2,650 km (FOV: 108.4°)
    • Up to 6 grating spectrometers (4 UVN – 2 SWIR)
    • Immersed gratings used for SWIR-1/3
    • High performance on board calibration sources
    • sun-synchronous Low Earth Orbit platform at 832 km mean altitude
    • Sentinel-5 embarked on post-EPS, operated by EUMETSAT
    Swath ~ 2650 km FOV 108 deg Courtesy of SRON
  • 19. The need for a Sentinel-5 Precursor The need for a Sentinel-5 Precursor
    • 1. Continuity of data
    • Research missions (here Sciamachy, OMI, TES, Mopitt) stop ≤ 2014.
    • Sentinel-5 on post-EPS not before ~ 2018.
    • MetOp data do not satisfy S5 requirements:
    • CO and CH 4 :
      • No measurement by GOME-2;
      • IASI data have little PBL sensitivity.
    • Coarse spatial resolution
    • 2. Transition to operational scheme
    • Afternoon orbit required for AQ forecast (MetOp: 9:30h).
    • Use synergy S5 precursor – MetOp to start into observation of diurnal variation, as needed for AQ monitoring. (Will be picked up by S4 later).
    • Sentinel 5p will be a realised as a single-satellite atmospheric chemistry mission carrying a UVNS spectrometer , aiming at providing a gap-filler, within the 2014-2020 timeframe
  • 20. Programmatics Sentinel 4 Contract awarded to Astrium GmbH for €150 million to develop and build two instruments Sentinel 5 precursor Feasibility studies of the platform on-going; development phase planned for end 2011 Payload is developed by NSO (TROPOMI) with ESA contributions (SWIR, …) Sentinel 5 Feasibility studies on-going; development phase planned for 2013 30 25 20 15 10 05 35 40 MetOp A, B, C (09:30 LTDN) MetOp-SG (09:30 LTDN) , incl . S5/UVNS ENVISAT (10:00 LTDN) S5p (13:35 LTAN) MTG-I 1 MTG-I 2 MTG-I 3 MTG-I 4 MTG-S 2 , incl . S4/UVN MTG-S 1 , incl. S4/UVN G E O L E O
  • 21. Summary
    • Air pollution is a significant cause of health problems and environment damages worldwide
    • Sentinel-4 and -5 will monitor the Earth's atmosphere as part of the Europe Union's Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme
    • Mission will be embarked on MTG-S and MetOp-SG satellites for a launch in 2018+ and will be operated by EUMETSAT
  • 22. KNMI/IASB/ESA www.temis.nl Thank you