LeVine_27Jul11.ppt

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LeVine_27Jul11.ppt

  1. 1. ESTAR TO SMOS DEVELOPMENT OF INTERFEROMETRIC RADIOMETRY FOR REMOTE SENSING FROM SPACE David M. Le Vine Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>ESTAR </li></ul><ul><li>Short History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrostar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today: 2D-STAR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scene Dependent Calibration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Null feed back </li></ul></ul>ESTAR image of “Delmarva” Peninsula south of NASA’s Wallops Island Facility
  3. 3. ESTAR <ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real along track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic across track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antenna Array </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-element dipole stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H-pol only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 baselines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate viability of aperture synthesis for remote sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to SM and OS </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ESTAR Hardware
  5. 5. Walnut Gulch Watershed ESTAR Image T B vs Soil Moisture ESTAR (Solid); PBMR (open)
  6. 6. Remote Sensing Campaigns <ul><li>Soil Moisture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walnut Gulch Watershed 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Washita Watershed 1992, 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Great Plains Experiment: SGP- 97,-99 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Moisture Experiment: SMEX-02 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean Salinity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware Coastal Current Experiment, 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream Experiment, 1999 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. HYDROSTAR ESTAR in Space: Proposed to First NASA ESSP Call Deployed Resolution < 30 km ( 5.8 x 9.5 m array) Deployment of Antenna (16 Slotted Waveguide Sticks)
  8. 8. 2D-STAR <ul><li>Synthesis in two dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Array of patch antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple configurations </li></ul><ul><li>V and H-pol </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2D-STAR Installed on NASA P3-B Aircraft
  10. 10. SMEX-03: Huntsville, AL Above : Landsat, false color image of SMEX-03 site. Tennessee River at lower right. Right : 2D-STAR image during SMEX-03; H-pol (top) and V-pol (bottom)
  11. 11. Lessons Learned
  12. 12. RFI is a problem even in the restricted band at 1.413 GHz ESTAR image crossing the Chesapeake Bay near Richmond, Virginia showing effects of RFI RFI in zero spacing channel
  13. 13. Noise Injection is Stable <ul><li>Used for ESTAR zero spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Employed Basic Correlator </li></ul><ul><li>Proved to be extremely stable </li></ul>
  14. 14. ESTAR TO SMOS DEVELOPMENT OF INTERFEROMETRIC RADIOMETRY FOR REMOTE SENSING FROM SPACE David M. Le Vine Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 C. Swift, T. Jackson, A. Tanner, C. Ruf, A. Griffis, J. Isham, P. Gaiser, M. Goodberlet , M. Haken, J. Fuchs, R. Aldridge, ProSensing Staff, M. Kao, J. Good
  15. 15. BACK UP
  16. 16. Scene Dependent Artifacts <ul><li>Reconstruction noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G-matrix (anechoic chamber) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna coupling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scene dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gibbs phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESTAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coupled with incidence angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scene-dependent Inverse “filter” </li></ul></ul>

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