Terra Aqua Aura IGARSS 2010 July 28, 2010 TERRA, AQUA, AND AURA DIRECT BROADCAST- PROVIDING EARTH SCIENCE DATA FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS Angelita C. Kelly, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Patrick L. Coronado, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Warren F. Case, SGT Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Amelia Franklin, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 1
2 Purpose Provide an overview of the Earth Observing Missions Describe the EOS Direct Broadcast (DB) and DB/Direct Readout (DR) ground stations Discuss the benefits of DB and examples of how it is being used
3 Earth Observing Missions NASA and other space agencies have invested in Earth observing missions, including NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS), consisting of Terra, Aqua, andAura: Sun-synchronous polar orbits 705 km altitude 98.2 degree inclination Terra Aqua Aura
5 EOS Data EOS science data are available two ways: All science data are recorded onboard and downlinked every orbit at 150 Mbps via: TDRSS (Terra) EOS Ground Stations at Norway, Alaska, and Wallops (Aqua and Aura) The data are processed, archived, and distributed (free of charge) to users worldwide Realtime science data are sent at 15 Mbps to DB stations Terra also has a Direct Downlink (DDL) capability for the ASTER instrument, but this has not been used operationally
EOS End-to-End System Overview Flight Operations, Data Capture, Initial Processing, Backup Archive Data Transport to Data Centers/ SIPSs Mission Operations Science Operations Science Data Processing, Data Mgmt, Interoperable Data Archive, & Distribution Data Acquisition Distribution and Data Access Spacecraft Terra Tracking & Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Research Aqua Education Aura Value-Added Providers Internet EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) Data Processing White SandsComplex(WSC) (Search, order, distribution) Interagency Data Centers EOSDIS Data Centers DB data EOS Operations Center (EOC) Mission Control Earth System Models DirectBroadcast(DB) International Partners NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) Mission Services EOS PolarGround Stations Decision Support Systems Data backup Schedules Instrument Teamsand Science Investigator-ledProcessing Systems (SIPS) Direct Broadcast/ Direct Readout Stations
7 AIRS OMI MODIS CERES HSB AMSU AMSR-E What is Direct Broadcast?
Direct Broadcast (DB) is the satellite capability to transmit data in real-time to ground-based receivers. For EOS satellites, this is done almost continuously (24x7).
The latest estimate is that there are ~3,000 individual DB users associated with over 200 ground stations worldwide.
Aura Aqua Terra MODIS
8 Registered EOS Direct Broadcast Sites Worldwide
11 DB Processing Software NASA provides the International Polar OrbiterProcessingPackage (IPOPP)software free of charge to DB users for processing MODIS and AIRS/AMSU/HSB data
The operational EOS processing software algorithms developed at GSFC and JPL were modified to be compatible with DB data
IPOPP enables ground stations to create several products (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU) for near real-time applications such as environmental monitoring and forecasting, fire monitoring, etc.
Several U.S. organizations (Oregon State University, University of South Florida, Univ. of Miami, Florida International University, and University of Wisconsin) and many international organizations also provide DB processing software based on the software used by the EOS Science Teams
Provides data to Forest Service and other agencies for resource management and environmental monitoring
Provides assistance in applying the most advanced geospatial technology toward improved monitoring and mapping of natural resources
MODIS image of Wolf and Copper fires near Los Angeles provided by RSAC http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/rsac/
Examples of DB Users (2 of 5) Sri Lanka National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA)
Sri Lanka's fishery resources beyond the continental shelf waters are not fully exploited, while some coastal fishery resources are being over-exploited because of heavy expenses and lack of resources.
This Satellite-Based Fishery Forecasting System
uses EOS DB data to provide accurate information on large shoals of fish in the seas and inland waters to:
Reduce the amount of fishing occurring along the coast
Reduce the operational costs (search time and fuel) of multi-day fishing fleets
The initial experiments have shown positive results with fisheries corporation vessels netting large catches.
16 Examples of DB Users (3 of 5) Russia and nearby Territories ScanEx Network of Stations
ScanEx, a private Russian company implemented and operates several satellite stations. Their network includes 4 DB receiving stations utilizing 9 receiving antennas in Moscow, Megion, Irkutsk and Magadan
The stations collect data from more than a dozen satellites (including Aqua and Terra) covering all of Russia and the nearby territories
The MODIS DB data are used to observe the weather, map ice and vegetation, and monitor floods and fires
http://www.scanex.com/en/stations/default.asp?submenu=uniscan&id=index ScanEx Station
17 Examples of DB Users (4 of 5) Sodankylä Station, Finland
The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) helped develop the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board Aura, in cooperation with the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI).
FMI DB station produces near realtime ozone and ultraviolet OMI data products
Available via the internet 15 minutes after a pass since the end of 2004
Covers central Europe from the North Pole to the Mediterranean area.
OMI data were recently used by various volcanology centers in the U.S. and Europe following the Iceland volcano eruption.
Also receives MODIS DB data from Terra and Aqua:
Re-broadcast by the Finnish Meteorological Institute since March 2003
Delivered to other Finnish governmental institutes for scientific purposes and to NOAA’sNational Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
18 Examples of DB Users (5 of 5) Dundee Satellite Receiving Station Dundee University, UK
Systematically records satellite images on a daily basis since 1978
Maintains an up-to-date archive of images from NOAA, SeaStar, Terra, and Aqua polar orbiting satellites.
Receives and archives MODIS data providing much-improved spatial and spectral resolution. The archive is kept on tape and CD- ROM, with a photographic archive kept for quick browsing
Can supply either enhanced photographic images produced from the data, or the data itself via the internet, tape, or disk.
19 Examples of DB Data MODIS true color image displayed using Google Earth offers a different perspective of the oil slick.* *Courtesy of Liam Gumley, CIMSS
20 Examples of DB Data MODIS Observation of the Jesusita Fire near Santa Barbara, California on May 8, 2009
21 Examples of DB Data Terra MODIS image of yellow rust infection of crop lands in the Middle East – April 2010 Aqua MODIS image of the Arctic region June 28, 2010 Aqua MODIS image of the Great Escarpment, South Africa, April 2010 Aqua MODIS image of a phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Iceland – June 2010
22 Examples of DB Data Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano observed by MODIS on May 12, 2010
Able to ingest and process DB overpasses of arbitrary size
Able to produce core and regional value-added Environmental Data Record products
29 Examples of DB Users (6 of 6) Japanese Fishery Agency Information Services For The Offshore Fisheries Around Japan
The Japanese Fishery Agency is responsible for the management of fisheries resources in Japan
Management is mainly based on the total allowable catch, calculated from the allowable biological catch.
Terra and Aqua DB data help determine the time period, location, and abundance of the target fish (taking onto account migration routes), which must be recorded in near-real time.
Priority species Several species have been selected for management because of their importance and popularity as a food resource, and also because of concerns about their abundance Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) Pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) Queen crab (Chionoecetes opilio) Laboratory of Marine Bioresource and Environment Sensing , Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University , Japan