Volcano observations with ASTER and ASTER image database for volcanoes Urai, Minoru Geological Survey of Japan, AIST
Overview of ASTER instruments
Volcano monitoring with ASTER
Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan
Thermal anomaly monitoring : Sierra Negra, Galapagos Islands
ASTER image database for volcanoes
Resent volcanic hazard
Eyjafjallajokull 2010 : Over 100,000 flights cancelled
Merapi 2006 : 17,000 people were evacuated
Two people were killed by a pyroclasic flow
Pinatubo 1991 : Up to 800 people were killed
In 1992 and 1993, the average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere was reduced 0.5 to 0.6°C
Historic volcanic hazard
Tambora 1815 : 92,000 people were killed
Unzen 1792 : 15,000 people were killed
ASTER can be used for volcano observations
Topographic and geologic analysis,
Mapping volcanic products,
Eruption plume analysis,
Discolored sea water and crater lake monitoring,
Generating digital elevation models,
Surface temperature mapping,
Overview of ASTER Launch date 18DEC1999 Platform Terra satellite Orbit 16days polar orbit Observation time 10:30AM Data recorder yes Subsystems VNIR, SWIR,TIR Stereo function yes Total bands 14+1 Swath width 60km Lifetime 6 years Acquired scene Over 1,800,000 scenes
Overview of ASTER
ASTER has nadir (3N) and backward (3B) looking views.
3N and 3B compose a stereoscopic pair.
A DEM can be generated from the stereoscopic pair.
However, DEM can not be generated cloud covered area and a DEM cover s 60 km by 60 km.
SO 2 -rich plume absorb thermal emission from sea at 8.6µm
Cyan color indicates that temperature derived from band 11 is lower than others
ASTER TIR RGB : 11, 13, 14 On November 8, 2000
Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan Nadir viewing image Backward viewing image
Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan ASTER TIR MODTRAN 2D- SO 2 distribution MODTRAN Plume height SO 2 flux estimation ASTER stereo pair Wind velocity Atmospheric profile Plume height and wind velocity analysis Sea surface temperature SO 2 flux B13 B1 1
Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan The estimation of two-dimensional SO 2 distribution
Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan Distance from the vent (km) SO2 flux (ton/day) The estimation of SO 2 flux
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise
Piton de la Fournaise is one of the most active volcanoes located on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean.
There are three calderas that were formed by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano.
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise On April 2, 2007, a new 1 km long vent opened at 650 m altitude in the southern part of Grand Brule. The lava flows reached the sea. On April 5 to 6 and over the whole following day, the summit (Dolomieu) crater floor collapsed . ASTER VNIR image taken on June 8, 2005
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise October 31, 2006 April 17, 2007
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise May 6, 2007 (after eruption) June 8, 2005 (before eruption) VNIR images with 100 m contour
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise ASTER DEM difference E-W ASTER DEM profile Depression : 320 m at most Total volume : 9.6 10 7 m 3
Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise New lava deposit area : 3.85 km 2 Surface temperature distribution derived from ASTER nighttime observed on May 4, 2007 superimposed on ASTER daytime image observed on June 8, 2005
ASTER image database for volcanoes △ Rank A (104) △ Rank B (220) △ Rank C (640) Volcanoes monitored by ASTER Global volcano monitoring plan with ASTER
ASTER image database for volcanoes Google Earth Version of ASTER image database for volcanoes at http://igg01.gsj.jp/vsidb/image/vsidb.kml
ASTER image database for volcanoes Full resolution display of ASTER image database for volcanoes
Conclusions The ASTER’s ability to monitor volcanic activities, such as thermal anomalies, topographic changes, volcanic gases, among others, has been validated. A web-based ASTER Image Database Volcanoes is opened to the public (http://igg01.gsj.jp/vsidb/image/index-E.html). The database contains all ASTER images of 964 active volcanoes.