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IGARSS2011_aster_volcano_urai.ppt
 

IGARSS2011_aster_volcano_urai.ppt

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    IGARSS2011_aster_volcano_urai.ppt IGARSS2011_aster_volcano_urai.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Volcano observations with ASTER and ASTER image database for volcanoes Urai, Minoru Geological Survey of Japan, AIST
    • Topics
      • Introduction
      • Overview of ASTER instruments
      • Volcano monitoring with ASTER
        • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan
        • Thermal anomaly monitoring : Sierra Negra, Galapagos Islands
      • ASTER image database for volcanoes
      • Conclusions
    • Introduction
        • Resent volcanic hazard
        • Eyjafjallajokull 2010 : Over 100,000 flights cancelled
        • Merapi 2006 : 17,000 people were evacuated
          • Two people were killed by a pyroclasic flow
        • Pinatubo 1991 : Up to 800 people were killed
          • In 1992 and 1993, the average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere was reduced 0.5 to 0.6°C
        • Historic volcanic hazard
        • Tambora 1815 : 92,000 people were killed
        • Unzen 1792 : 15,000 people were killed
    • Introduction
        • ASTER can be used for volcano observations
        • Topographic and geologic analysis,
        • Mapping volcanic products,
        • Eruption plume analysis,
        • Discolored sea water and crater lake monitoring,
        • Generating digital elevation models,
        • Surface temperature mapping,
    • Overview of ASTER Launch date   18DEC1999 Platform Terra satellite Orbit 16days polar orbit Observation time 10:30AM Data recorder yes Subsystems VNIR, SWIR,TIR Stereo function yes Total bands 14+1 Swath width 60km Lifetime 6 years Acquired scene Over 1,800,000 scenes
    • Overview of ASTER
      • ASTER has nadir (3N) and backward (3B) looking views.
      • 3N and 3B compose a stereoscopic pair.
      • A DEM can be generated from the stereoscopic pair.
      • However, DEM can not be generated cloud covered area and a DEM cover s 60 km by 60 km.
      ASTER stereo image function. (http://www.ersdac.or.jp/GDEM/E/2.html)
    • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan
      • Miyake-jima is located about 180km south of Tokyo
      • SO 2 -rich plume absorb thermal emission from sea at 8.6µm
      • Cyan color indicates that temperature derived from band 11 is lower than others
      ASTER TIR RGB : 11, 13, 14 On November 8, 2000
    • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan Nadir viewing image Backward viewing image
    • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan ASTER TIR MODTRAN 2D- SO 2 distribution MODTRAN Plume height SO 2 flux estimation ASTER stereo pair Wind velocity Atmospheric profile Plume height and wind velocity analysis Sea surface temperature SO 2 flux B13 B1 1
    • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan The estimation of two-dimensional SO 2 distribution
    • Volcanic gas monitoring : Miyake-jima, Japan Distance from the vent (km) SO2 flux (ton/day) The estimation of SO 2 flux
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise
      • Piton de la Fournaise is one of the most active volcanoes located on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean.
      • There are three calderas that were formed by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano.
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise On April 2, 2007, a new 1 km long vent opened at 650 m altitude in the southern part of Grand Brule. The lava flows reached the sea. On April 5 to 6 and over the whole following day, the summit (Dolomieu) crater floor collapsed . ASTER VNIR image taken on June 8, 2005
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise October 31, 2006 April 17, 2007
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise May 6, 2007 (after eruption) June 8, 2005 (before eruption) VNIR images with 100 m contour
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise ASTER DEM difference E-W ASTER DEM profile Depression : 320 m at most Total volume : 9.6 10 7 m 3
    • Caldera collapse and lava flow : Piton de la Fournaise New lava deposit area : 3.85 km 2 Surface temperature distribution derived from ASTER nighttime observed on May 4, 2007 superimposed on ASTER daytime image observed on June 8, 2005
    • ASTER image database for volcanoes △ Rank A (104) △ Rank B (220) △ Rank C (640) Volcanoes monitored by ASTER Global volcano monitoring plan with ASTER
    • ASTER image database for volcanoes Google Earth Version of ASTER image database for volcanoes at http://igg01.gsj.jp/vsidb/image/vsidb.kml
    • ASTER image database for volcanoes Full resolution display of ASTER image database for volcanoes
    • Conclusions The ASTER’s ability to monitor volcanic activities, such as thermal anomalies, topographic changes, volcanic gases, among others, has been validated. A web-based ASTER Image Database Volcanoes is opened to the public (http://igg01.gsj.jp/vsidb/image/index-E.html). The database contains all ASTER images of 964 active volcanoes.