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  1. 1. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview Gary Lagerloef, ESR Sandra Torrusio, CONAE David LeVine, NASA GSFC Monica Rabolli, CONAE
  2. 2. Salinity Mission Science Understanding the Interactions Between the Ocean Circulation, Global Water Cycle and Climate by Measuring Sea Surface Salinity Global salinity patterns are linked to rainfall and evaporation Salinity affects seawater density, which in turn governs ocean circulation and climate The higher salinity of the Atlantic sustains the oceanic deep overturning circulation Salinity variations are driven by precipitation, evaporation, runoff and ice freezing and melting WOA 2001 NOAA/NODC
  3. 3. Mission Design and Sampling Strategy <ul><li>Global Coverage in 7 Days </li></ul><ul><li>4 Repeat Cycles per Month </li></ul>Sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit 6pm ascending node Altitude 657 km Beams point toward the night side to avoid sun glint Salinity Data 150km, Monthly, 0.2 (pss) Mission Requirement In Orbit Checkout Launch 3 beams 390 km wide swath. 76 x 94 km 96 x 156 km 84 x 120 km
  4. 4. Relation to Past and Future Missions SAC-C 2000 CONAE SAOCOM CONAE SMAP NASA SMOS 2009 ESA MMRS, HRTC , HSTC , DCS GOLPE , MMP IST, INES ICARE , DCS , HSC , CARMEN, ROSA, NIRST, MWR L-Band Passive Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity L-Band Passive/Active Ocean Salinity Soil Moisture (low resolution) 2011 L-Band Passive/Active Soil Moisture (hi resolution) Ocean Salinity 2013-2014 L-Band SAR Soil Moisture 2013-2014
  5. 5. <ul><li>Aquarius Salinity Microwave Instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Launch Vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Service Platform and SAC-D Science Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Operations & Ground System </li></ul>International Partnership between United States – Argentina Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory
  6. 6. The Observatory Today DCS NIRST Aquarius (primary instrument) TDP SAC-D S/P CARMEN-1 (ICARE-NG & SODAD) ROSA HSC MWR Microwave Radiometer Data Collection System High Sensitivity Camera Technology Demonstration Package Service Platform Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas-D Near InfraRed Sensor Technology Radio Occultation Sounder for the Atmosphere
  7. 7. Science Objectives of the Mission <ul><li>Other important goal of this Observatory is: </li></ul><ul><li>To study the relationship between the different measurements performed by the Mission in the framework of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate-Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrology-Soil Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources and Environmental Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergencies (fires, volcanic eruptions, flooding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These issues are in perfect concordance with the National Space Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of CONAE which promotes the development of space technology and the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of satellite information applied to the different social benefit areas mentioned. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Specific measurements <ul><ul><li>Global sea surface salinity measurements ( Aquarius ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil moisture ( Aquarius ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements of precipitable water, sea ice concentration and sea surface wind speed (which will enhance the results of Aquarius measurements) ( Microwave Radiometer-MWR ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements of water vapor , cloud liquid water. ( Microwave Radiometer-MWR ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of hot spots caused by biomass fires and volcanic eruptions, estimation of fire radiative power ( NIRST ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements of sea surface temperature (which also will enhance the results of Aquarius measurements in pilot areas) ( NIRST ). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Specific measurements <ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements of light intensity (urban areas, detection of electric storms, snow coverage, sea surveillance and aurora studies) ( HSC ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements of atmospheric temperature, pressure profiles, and water vapor content ( ROSA ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the high energy radiation environment ( ICARE ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the size distribution of micro- particles and space debris ( SODAD ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect environmental measured parameters (e.g. meteorological) ( DCS ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Footprints MWR & Aquarius Geometry: Aquarius-MWR-NIRST Footprints Aquarius, MWR & NIRST Footprint 36.5GHz Footprint 23.8GHz Outer beam Aquarius Middle beam Aquarius Inner beam Aquarius
  11. 11. Examples of MWR Applications Total Precipitable Water AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit) Product NOAA Satellite Sea Ice Cloud Liquid Water SSMI on DMSP - Surface Wind Speed
  12. 12. Examples of Optical/IR Applications NIRST: High Temperatures Events (HTE) & SST Fires in Paraná Delta-Fall 2008 From MODIS Data From SAC-C Data Volcanic Eruption: El Chaiten (Chile-2008). SST from NOAA data <ul><li>Fishery activities </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization of Habitat for marine species </li></ul><ul><li>Current studies....etc </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of Applications Fires Detection Urban Lights HSC Snow Coverage Buenos Aires Sea Surveillance
  14. 14. Examples of Applications Data Collection System (DCS) Join DCS, ROSA & Carmen CARMEN: Computer simulation of space debris distribution ROSA: Atmospheric Temperature Profile
  15. 15. Science Programe Status <ul><li>First Announcement of Opportunity (NASA & CONAE/MinCyT) selected an International Science Investigating Team for the Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory in September 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>The projects selected are: 15 USA, 15 Argentina, 9 Italy, 1 Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarius SAC-D Science Team Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buenos Aires 21-23 October 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle 19-21 July 2010. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 Ocean Salinity Science Team solicitation in NASA/ROSES 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 CONAE/MinCyT solicitation will be announced in 2011 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summary A Foundation Mission for the Decadal Survey Ocean Salinity Aquarius: First Passive/Active L-band Sensor Soil Moisture Natural Hazards Space Environment Surface Wind, Rain & Sea Ice
  17. 17. April 2011
  18. 18. BACK UP Material
  19. 19. Aquarius SAC-D Instruments Overview
  20. 20. Mission Overview