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  • PM2.5, which consists of fine particles measuring 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller. To provide some perspective, imagine a single strand of hair from your head: The average human hair has a diameter of 70 micrometers. Fine and course particles are a fraction of this size, which allows them to be easily inhaled into our lungs and respiratory tracts. Fine particles (PM2.5) especially are a concern – their very tiny size allows them travel more deeply into our lungs, increasing the potential for health risks.

    1. 1. IGARSS 2012 Munich, 24 July 2012 GMES Space Component: Programmatic Status Dr. Josef Aschbacher1 Head, ESA GMES Space Office1 We care for a safer world
    2. 2. GMES Overview 2
    3. 3. GMES dedicated missions: Sentinels Sentinel 1 – SAR imaging All weather, day/night applications, interferometry 2013 / 2015 Sentinel 2 – Multi-spectral imaging Land applications: urban, forest, agriculture,.. Continuity of Landsat, SPOT 2014 / 2016 Sentinel 3 – Ocean and global land monitoring Wide-swath ocean color, vegetation, sea/land surface temperature, altimetry 2014 / 2017 Sentinel 4 – Geostationary atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring, trans- boundary pollution 2019 Sentinel 5 / 5P – Low-orbit atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring (S5 Precursor launch in 2015) 2015, 2020 3 3 We care for a safer world
    4. 4. Users need long term perspectives 2011-13 2014-20 2021 ->Access to GCMsSentinel-1 A/B/CSentinel-1 A/B/C 2nd gen.Sentinel-2 A/B/CSentinel-2 A/B/C 2nd gen.Sentinel-3 A/B/CSentinel-3 A/B/C 2nd gen.Sentinel-4 A/B (MTG-S1/2)Sentinel-5 PrecursorSentinel-5 A/B (MetOP-SG)Jason-CS A/BJason-CS Follow-on A/B 4GSC Evolution
    5. 5. From R&D towards an operational systemEnvisat / Sentinel-1 satellite coverage in 5 days Until 2012: ENVISAT 2013+: Sentinel 1A 2015+: Sentinel 1A+B 5
    6. 6. Sentinel–2 compared to Landsat/Spot Landsat-7 SPOT-5 Sentinel-2Satellites flown/flying 7 + 1* 5 2Launch 1999* 2002 2013+ (TBC) Measurement principle scanner pushbroom pushbroomEarth coverage (days) 16 26 5Swath (km) 185 2*60 290 Multispectral bands 7 + 1 (PAN) 4 + 1 (PAN) 13Spatial sampling 10, 20, 60 15, 30 2.5, 5, 10distance (m) * LDCM mission 6 planned 2013
    7. 7. Landsat / Sentinel-2 coverage in Cameroon(10 days simulation) Landsat Landsat & Sentinel 2A Landsat & Sentinel 2A & Sentinel 2B 7
    8. 8. GMES Sentinel Data Policy Principles FREE and OPEN* * Joint Data Policy Principles adopted by ESA in ’09 * free-of-charge licenses * Some restrictions may apply (security, technical, etc.)  EU Regulation in 2012 8
    9. 9. Sentinels for SciencePrimary goal of Sentinels is to serve operational GMESneeds – BUT they will have enormous benefits for science: Sentinel data represent an invaluable resource for the science community Sentinel missions will provide continuity and improved data from ERS/Envisat/Landsat :  Better data for science  Long term data sets of unique value for science Sentinels perfectly complement dedicated science missions (e.g. ESA Explorers) 9
    10. 10. Science for Sentinels Sentinel missions have been defined with strong support of scientists, in addition to operational users (e.g. MRDs, EC Implementation groups) Science community is perfectly suited to: spearhead new GMES services ensure high quality data streams through CAL/VAL activities improve algorithms and models for the retrieval of more accurate products during operational phases combine Sentinels with GCM data 10 support evolution of next generation Sentinels
    11. 11. GMES: economic benefits “Money where it “Over the 2006-2030 period… the matters – how the EU budget benefits from all the GMES services in delivers value to full use would equal 130 bn€ (2005 you” e.c.) or around 6.9 bn€ per year” EC, MEMO/11/469, Brussels, 29 June 2011 “The Socio- Economic For 1 € spent by the European tax Benefits of payer on GMES, a public return of GMES” ESPI report 39, 10 € can be expected November 2011 11
    12. 12. Next steps• GMES EU Funding 2014-2020 – support GMES inside MFF & at sufficient level• GSC-3 – prepare third segment of space component programme for ESA C-MIN 2012/14• Sentinel data policy - shall be finalised before end 2012• Sentinel launches – from end 2013 onwards• Sentinel data – need to prepare arrival of large data volumes for user community• Sentinel data – requires major support actions (cal/val, algo dvpt, access portals, etc.) 12
    13. 13. We care for a safer world13 We care for a safer world
    14. 14. Example of Land Monitoring Service: SoilSealing TrendsBetween 1990 and 2000, at least 275ha/day were sealed off in Europe Credits: Geoland2/GMES 14
    15. 15. Example of Marine Monitoring Service: SeaSurface Height Anomalies By transporting heat and energy, ocean currents play a major Sea surface role in shaping height weather and climate anomalies on Earth Nov 2009 Data source: Altimetry missions Credits: 15
    16. 16. Phytoplankton Monitoring Service:Example of Marine is the biggest producer ofChlorophyll Mappingoxygen on Earth Harmful algal bloom in the Channel Island July 15, 2011Since 70s, toxic algae blooms haveincreased throughout the world Source data: MODIS/MERIS Credits: MyOcean/Marcoast 16
    17. 17. Example of Emergency Management Service: RapidFlooded Area Mapping Flood Area Assessment Danube Basin Galati/Braila, Romania 3 July 2010 In Europe, between 1998-2009, about • 1100 natural events and Data Source: Radarsat-2/Landsat disasters • 3 million people Credits: DLR/SAFER • 60 billion € damages 17
    18. 18. Example of Emergency Management Service:Subsidence Monitoring Subsidence from interferometry Data Source: ESA ASAR (2011) Credits: IREA/CNR In Italy, more than 50 victims/year due to landslides during the last half century [Credits: Arno Basin Authority] 18
    19. 19. Example of Climate Change Service: MonitoringArctic Sea Ice Artic Sea Ice Thickness Jan-Feb 2011 Arctic polar ice cap is shrinking by 9% 2 Data Source: Cryosat each decade: it might become ice free by Credits: CPOM/UCL/ESA the end of the century 19
    20. 20. Example of Atmospheric Monitoring Service: life Tiny particulate mattersexpectancy loss due to air pollution derived from traffic, smelting, and metal processing produce respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Life Expectancy Loss due to PM2.5 Population 2006 Credits: Geoville IIASA (processing) GSE-PROMOTE (modelling) Clean air is essential to our health 20
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