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  • Radarsat Interferometric techniques are used to predict unstable areas, triggered by permafrost melt, along the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline route. There are approximately 2000 landslides along the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline route. .The Mackenzie valley pipeline will traverse a 1300 km corridor, aimed at delivering natural gas to markets in southern Canada and United States. The pipeline - when completed - is estimated to cost $ 7 billion.
  • There is a very distinct area highlighted with the InSAR in an area underlain by coal mine workings that were abandoned in 1918. There is some surface expression of the subsidence but this provides the first reliable meaurement of the rate of settlement over the crown of the openings.

    1. 1. Geological and Geohazard Applications of RADARSAT 2 Vern Singhroy Francois Charbonneau Goran Pavlic Kevin Murnaghan Junhua Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing [email_address] Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Geohazards </li></ul><ul><li>Provide examples of RADARSAT 2 InSAR applications to monitor landslides along strategic transportation and energy corridors in Canada- focusing on different triggering mechanisms and rates of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Insights into RADARSAT 2 polarimetric scatter of exposed rock units e.g Haughton Crater, Canadian Arctic </li></ul>
    3. 3. Debris flows Landslides in Cretaceous Shale Retrogressive earthflows Rockfalls Rotational slumps Landslides in Canada Coastal Landslides
    4. 5. Mackenzie River Thunder River Radarsat-1 Summer 2006 (24 days) InSAR Monitoring of Permafrost Activity along the Mackenzie Valley pipeline corridor Inuvik Site Norman Wells Projected Pipeline Corridor Projected Pipeline Corridor -20 20 0 Deformation in slant direction (mm) N
    5. 6. Mackenzie Valley Pipeline route: Landslide regression on Permafrost Retrogressive Thaw Side on Permafrost: Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Route Coastal Landslide Daniels Harbour, NF Pipeline route Field Geotechnical Data on Landslide Regression rates
    6. 7. Monitoring a Retrogressive Thaw Slide on Permafrost using RADARSAT InSAR. Landslide Corner Reflector August 21,2006 N TR06 TR03 TR07 R1-F4F R2-U18 50mm/y -20 20 0 Deformation (mm)
    7. 8. Monitoring a Retrogressive Thaw Slide on Permafrost using RADARSAT 2 InSAR. Landslide Corner Reflector August 21,2006 N TR06 TR03 TR07 R1-F3F R1-F4F R2-U18 -20 20 0 Deformation (mm)
    8. 9. Turtle Mountain before Slide Immediately after Slide Fold in Banff Formation clearly exposed (Alberta Geological Survey) McConnell & Brock (1904): Unstable geological structure main reason of slide
    9. 10. View from Interpretive Centre East West
    10. 11. South Peak, Turtle Mountain, Alberta
    11. 12. a c Frank Slide: Monitoring subsidence from RADARSAT InSAR (2000-10) RADARSAT-1 RADARSAT 2 30mm/y
    12. 13. Slope movements affecting Alaska Highway and Gas Pipeline Corner Reflectors Location Stratigraphy
    13. 14. InSAR deformation monitoring on deep seated Landslide affecting the Alaska Highway 15mm/y
    14. 15. Corner Reflector InSAR at Little Smoky Deep Seated Landslides, Alberta: In SAR results 40mm/y
    15. 16. Corner Brook, Newfoundland Riverside Drive, April 1994.
    16. 17. Corner Brook, NF DinSAR – Coastal Landslide Displacement Map Data used in differential interferometric processing: 1) RADARSAT 2 – Ultra Fine Inc. Angle = 36.81 ° Master: 20090623 Slave: 20100618 Ascending Orbit Perpendicular Baseline: 41 m 2) Lidar DEM 1 m Deformations are only shown where scene coherence exceeds 0.5 -60 0 60 Vertical displacement [mm]
    17. 18. Daniel’s Harbour The houses are constructed on a marine terrace with a surface elevation of about 24 m above present sea level. The Northern Peninsula Highway is located about 20-70 m inland of the cliff edge, between which 14 buildings were located. October 20, 2006 April 15, 2007 Newfoundland, Canada
    18. 19. InSAR Displacement Map RADARSAT-2 Ultra Fine Master: 20090610 Slave: 20090914 Descending Orbit Perpendicular Baseline: 67 m Deformations are only shown where the scene coherence exceeds 0.5 RADARSAT-2 - 3x3 multi look intensity image April 2007 There is no an existing high resolution DEM. Therefore, 3-pass differential interferometric processing applied to monitor the temporal evolution of landslide. -50 0 50 Vertical displacement [mm]
    19. 20. RADARSAT-2 S5 Sep 09, 2008 – Jan 28, 2010 N RADARSAT-2 Vertical Displacement Map – Port-au-Prince - Haiti Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Singhroy and Pavlic, CCRS, Feb 2010 Epicentre - January 12 , 2010--Mag 7.0 N 26-Aug-09 25-01-10 28-01-10 5 km “ RADARSAT-2 Data and Products © MacDONALD, DETTWILER AND ASSOCIATES LTD. (2010) – All Rights Reserved” and “RADARSAT is an official mark of the Canadian Space Agency” 26-08-09 -12 -6 0 6 12 Vertical displacement [cm]
    20. 21. 50 Largest Impact Craters
    21. 22. NASA/CSA-Mars analogue research site
    22. 23. Geology of Haughton Impact Structure Modified after Thorsteinsson and Mayr () RADARSAT 2 Polarimetric signatures of the impact melt breccias and carbonates at units Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canadian Arctic . <ul><ul><li>RADARSAT 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HH, HV (HH/HV) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composite image </li></ul>-14.8dB HH 13.3dB VV -9.3dB HH -9.2dB VV
    23. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>RADARSAT 2 InSAR techniques have monitored the seasonal variability of landslide motion of different landslides affecting Canadian strategic transportation energy corridors. With the launch of the RADARSAT constellation, we will be able to monitor these high risk areas on a weekly basis for improved mitigation measures, thereby reducing the $M150/y we spend on repairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The identification of impact crater melt breccias from the host rocks at the Haughton Crater based on R2 polarimetric signatures will lead to improved mapping of other impact craters . </li></ul>