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  • FOR 15110323_093449
  • VIIRS has more 22 spectral bands vs 5 AVHRR bands and improved spatial resolution and improved precision. Edge of scan imagery from VIIRS does not degrade as compared to AVHRR. In the images, rivers, lakes, clouds and other features are retained in VIIRS and are blurred considerably with AVHRR. Think of HDTV vs analog TV. More channels (bands) provide new products such as ocean color, and more channels and improved sensitivity significantly improve the accuracy of AVHRR products including snow, ice, clouds, aerosols, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, fire detection, smoke.
  • Requirement: Improve climate observation & interpretation Create consistent climate records Enhance ability to warn, mitigate and protect.Science: Can Vegetation Health (VH) provides reliable climate services?Benefit: Predict drought, crop losses, fire risk, human healthVEGETATION HEALTH (VH): Theory & ApplicationsDefinition: Proxy estimating cumulative vegetation response to weather & climate Features: Characterizes Greenness (chlorophyll); Vigor (moisture); Thermal (skin temperature) Theory: Controlled by Law-of-Minimum (Leibigh law); Law-of-Tolerance; Principal of Carrying CapacityAdvantages: Has “memory”, Combines NDVI and BT, 30-year data Products: Drought, vegetation health, fire risk, soil saturationApplication: Agriculture, Forestry, Climate forcing & change, Human Health, Weather disasters, Land cover change

1 IGARSS 2011 JPSS Monday Goldberg.pptx 1 IGARSS 2011 JPSS Monday Goldberg.pptx Presentation Transcript

  • NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Environmental Earth Observations
    Mitch Goldberg, JPSS Program Scientist (JPSS NOAA)
    James Gleason, JPSS Project Scientist (JPSS NASA)
    Robert Murphy, Carl Hoffman (JPSS DPA)
    John Furgerson, JPSS User Liaison (JPSS NOAA)
  • PRESIDENTIAL DECISION 2 FEB 2010
    • NPOESS Program Terminated 30 Sep 2010
    NOAA assigned 1330 orbit – Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)
    DoD assigned 0530 orbit – Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)
    EUMETSAT MetOp will provide 0930 orbit
    Common Ground System (GCS) using systems developed for NPOESS
    Command, Communications & Control (C3S )
    Data production system (IDPS)
    Globally Distributed Receptor Network (DRN)
    Process both JPSS and DWSS data
    Advanced sensors developed for NPOESS will be continued
    VIIRS (MODIS heritage)
    CrIS (AIRS/IASI heritage)
    OMPS (OMI/TOMS heritage)
    ATMS (AMSU heritage)
    CERES/ERBS
  • JPSS Program Overview
    Benefits
    • Maintains continuity of weather/climate observations and critical environmental data from the polar orbit
    • NOAA – JPSS provides improved continuity for POES
    • HIRS > CrIS (T & WV Atmos. Profiles)
    • AMSU/MHS > ATMS
    • AVHRR > VIIRS (Imagery, Cloud Mask, SST)
    • SBUV2 > OMPS (Total Ozone)
    • NASA – JPSS provides continuity for EOS
    • AIRS > CrIS
    • AMSU > ATMS
    • MODIS > VIIRS
    • OMI > OMPS
    • AMSR-E > AMSR2 (JAXA-GCOM-W)
    JPSS-1 Satellite
    (NPP-clone)
  • Continuity of Polar Operational Satellites
  • JPSS PROGRAM PLANS
    • NASA will procure and integrate JPSS for NOAA
    POES / GOES model
    Algorithm development and Cal/Val led by NOAA
    • NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be completed as planned
    Five Sensors (VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, OMPS, CERES)
    NPP will use C3S and IDPS developed for NPOESS
    • NOAA/NASA will develop JPSS series for 1330 Orbit
    • JPSS-1 will be NPP Clone
    SARSAT and A/DCS will likely fly on separate satellite
    JPSS-1 will use Distributed Receptor Network
    • JPSS-2 and beyond will be competed
    • DoD plans for DWSS being developed
    DoD will launch remaining inventory of DMSP in the interim
  • 2 < 6 >
    CLASS
    SDS
    Data Delivery
    Data Delivery
    Data Delivery
    Data Delivery
    DataManagement
    DataManagement
    DataManagement
    DataManagement
    JPSS System Architecture
    Weather / Climate Products
    Supporting Space
    GPS
    TDRSS
    TDRSS
    Space
    Segment
    JPSS1330
    DWSS1730
    LaunchSupportSegment
    NPOESSPreparatoryProject
    Offline Support
    • Algorithm Support
    • Integrated Support Facility
    • Calibration/Validation
    EELV
    Weather Centrals
    NAVO
    FNMOC
    AFWA
    NESDIS
    AlternateMMC
    Svalbard
    Primary T&C
    VAFB
    FNMOC
    Interface Data Processing Segment
    AFWA
    NESDIS
    NAVO
    DQM
    White SandsComplex
    HRD
    LRD
    MissionManagementCenter (MMC)
    Processing
    Processing
    Processing
    Processing
    Processing
    Field Terminal Segment
    15 Globally Distributed Receptor sitesInterconnected by Commercial Fiber
    Ingest
    Ingest
    Ingest
    Ingest
    Mission Data
    Command, Control & Communication Segment
  • Direct Readout Stations using Xband
  • NPP Spacecraft(JPSS-1 Concept )
    VIIRS
    CrIS
    ATMS
    OMPS
    CERES
  • NPP/JPSS-1 SENSORS
    Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)
    Raytheon
    Cross-track Infrared Sounder
    (CrIS)
    ITT Corporation
    Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)
    (FM5 for NPP)
    Northrop Grumman
    Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS)
    Northrop Grumman
    Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite
    (OMPS)
    Ball Aerospace
  • JPSS L1RD Defined Environmental Data Records (EDRS)
    MIS (17 - TBR)
    VIIRS (22)
    CLOUD LIQUID WATER
    PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE
    PRECIPITABLE WATER
    SEA SURFACE WINDS (1)
    CLOUD ICE WATER PATH
    SEA SURFACE WIND STRESS
    TOTAL WATER CONTENT
    SOIL MOISTURE
    IMAGERY
    SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION
    SNOW COVER/DEPTH
    SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    LAND SURFACE TEMP
    SURFACE TYPE
    ALBEDO (SURFACE)
    CLOUD BASE HEIGHT
    CLOUD COVER/LAYERS
    CLOUD EFFECTIVE PART SIZE
    CLOUD OPTICAL THICKNESS
    CLOUD TOP HEIGHT
    CLOUD TOP PRESSURE
    CLOUD TOP TEMPERATURE
    ICE SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    NET HEAT FLUX
    OCEAN COLOR/CHLOROPHYLL
    SUSPENDED MATTER
    VEGETATION INDEX
    AEROSOL OPTICAL THICKNESS
    AEROSOL PARTICLE SIZE
    ACTIVE FIRES
    IMAGERY
    SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION
    SNOW COVER
    SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    LAND SURFACE TEMP
    SURFACE TYPE
    ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE
    ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE
    PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)
    CrIS/ATMS (3)
    ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE
    ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE
    PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)
    GCOM AMSR-2
    (11)
    OMPS (2)
    CLOUD LIQUID WATER
    PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE
    PRECIPITABLE WATER
    SEA SURFACE WINDS SPEED
    SOIL MOISTURE
    SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT
    IMAGERY
    SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION
    SNOW COVER/DEPTH
    SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    SURFACE TYPE
    SEM-N (5)
    O3 TOTAL COLUMN
    O3 NADIR PROFILE
    CERES (4)
    VIIRS (22)
    AURORAL BOUNDARY
    AURORAL ENERGY DEPOSITION
    ENERGETIC IONS
    MED ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES
    SUPRA-THERMAL THRU AE PARTICLES
    DOWN LW RADIATION (SFC)
    DOWN SW RADIATION (SFC)
    NET SOLAR RADIATION (TOA)
    OUTGOING LW RADIATION (TOA)
    TSIS (1)
    SARR &
    SARP
    SOLAR IRRADIANCE
    A-DCS
    EDRs with Key Performance Parameters
    KEY
    Notes:
    (1) Delivered as two MIS products – Speed (Key EDR) and Direction
    JPSS-1
    GCOM
    DWSS
    JPSS Program
    (Host TBD)
    PSE v1 2/28/11
  • CrIS Overview
    • The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a key sensor
    Fourier Transform Spectrometer providing high resolution IR spectra:
    Fields of Regard each 3 x 3 FOVs
    Photovoltaic Detectors in all 3 bands
    4-Stage Passive Detector Cooler
    14 km nadir spatial resolution
    2200 km swath width
    On-board internal calibration target
    • Science pioneer: AIRS on EOS Aqua, IASI on METOP-A
    • Supplier: ITT Industries
    • Key subcontractors:
    ABB Bomem, Interferometer, ICT
    DRS, detectors
    AER, EDR algorithm
  • NEdN During NPP Spacecraft Self Compatibility Test
    The reaction wheels were being exercised during this period
    12
  • Advanced Technology Microwave SounderNorthrop Grumman Electronic Systems
    Description
    Purpose: In conjunction with CrIS, global observations of temperature and moisture profiles at high temporal resolution (~ daily).
    Predecessor Instruments: AMSU A1 / A2, MHS
    Approach: Scanning passive microwave radiometer
    22 channels (23GHz - 183GHz)
    Swath width: 2300 km
    Co-registration: with CrIS
  • Microwave and Infrared Earth Spectra
    The NPOESS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) as a Companion to the New Generation AIRS/AMSU and IASI/AMSU Sounder Suites
    Gail A. Bingham, Utah State Univ./SDL, Logan, UT; and N. S. Pougatchev, M. P. Esplin, W. J. Blackwell, and C. D. Barnet
    http://ams.confex.com/ams/90annual/techprogram/paper_163196.htm
  • Sounding Strategy in Cloudy Scenes
    Co-locate infrared and microwave instruments
    .
    • Sounding is performed on 50 km a field of regard (FOR)
    • FOR is currently defined by the size of the microwave sounder footprint
    • IASI/AMSU has 4 IR FOV’s per FOR
    • AIRS/AMSU & CrIS/ATMS have 9 IR FOV’s per FOR
    • ATMS is spatially over-sampled can emulate an AMSU FOV
    Le Marshallet al., 2006
    AIRS, IASI, and CrIS all acquire 324,000 FOR’s per day!
  • Improved Soundings
    AIRS provides significant improvements in temperature and moisture soundings over older generation instruments.
    Vertical resolution has improved from 3 – 6 km to 1 – 2 km.
    NOAA/NESDIS
  • CriS and ATMS provide continuity of essential atmospheric sounding information for weather forecasting
    Hyperspectral Infrared Sounders (CrIS) and Advanced Microwave Sounders (ATMS) are the top two contributors for reducing forecast errors
    Forecast error reduction contribution (%)
  • Afternoon orbit has large impact on forecasting
    major weather events
    Forecast Period: 5 Feb (am) – 6 Feb (am)
    6 Feb: Models without PM data under-forecasted snow totals:
    Operational forecast shows paralyzing event
    Data Denial
    Did not forecast paralyzing event in DC— at least 10” too low at Day 5
    Low confidence in extreme snowfall at this point
    Future errors of this scale could result in:
    Aircraft and airline passengers stranded
    Ground commerce halted with no mitigation plans
    Population unprepared for paralyzing snow-depth
    15-22”
    Actual
    15-18”
    Forecast
    Observed
    27 Km Operational NWP
    Wash DC 5-day Forecast:
    - With Data: Historical, paralyzing event
    - Data Denial: Significant; but not
    paralyzing
    Data Denial NWP
    7-10”
    Forecast
  • Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer SuiteRaytheon SAS El Segundo, Ca
    Description
    • Purpose: Global observations of land, ocean, & atmosphere parameters at high temporal resolution (~ daily)
    • Predecessor Instruments: AVHRR, OLS, MODIS, SeaWiFS
    • Approach: Multi-spectral scanning radiometer (22 bands between 0.4 µm and 12 µm) 12-bit quantization
    • Swath width: 3000 km
    Spatial Resolution
    • 16 bands at 750m
    • 5 bands at 325m
    • DNB
    VIIRS on NPP
  • VIIRS Data Products
    Land
    • Active Fire
    • Land Surface Albedo
    • Land Surface Temperature Ice Surface Temperature
    • Sea Ice Characterization
    • Snow Cover/Depth
    • Vegetation Index
    • Surface Type
    Ocean
    • Sea Surface Temperature
    • Ocean Color/Chlorophyll
    Imagery & Cloud
    • Imagery
    • Cloud Mask [IP]
    • Cloud Optical Thickness
    • Cloud Effective Particle Size Parameter
    • Cloud Top Parameters
    • Cloud Base Height
    • Cloud Cover/Layers
    Aerosol
    • Aerosol Optical Thickness
    • Aerosol Particle Size Parameter
    • Suspended Matter
  • VIIRS Edge of Scan Spatial Resolution is significantly improved over AVHRR
    AVHRR
    VIIRS
  • VIIRS Prelaunch Performance(NPP F1 Bands and SNR/NEDT)
    Courtesy of H. Oudrari
  • In addition to clouds and SST, VIIRS provides continuity of essential environmental monitoring from AVHRR and MODIS
    Biosphere monitoring:
    Vegetation and Ocean Color
    Fire monitoring and mapping
    Aerosols for air quality and aviation safety
    Oil slick monitoring and mapping
    Volcanic Ash
  • DNB for night time clouds using lunar illumination
  • NOAA’s Vegetation Health System
    Central USAHealthy vegetationImpact: Good crops
    KazakhstanVegetation stressImpact: Bad crops
    Western USA Vegetation stressImpact: Fire
    ArgentinaVegetation StressImpact: Drought
    Southern AfricaHealthy VegetationImpact: Malaria
    30 Years of AVHRR
    Healthy Vegetation
    Impact: Malaria
    Felix Kogan, NESDIS
  • Coral Bleaching
    50km Nighttime Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
    SST Anomaly
    Coral –
    specific
    HotSpot
    Degree Heating Week
    Bleaching Alert Areas
    http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov
    26
  • Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.
    Description
    • Purpose: Monitors the total column and vertical profile of ozone
    • Predecessor Instruments: TOMS, SBUV, GOME, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY
    • Approach: Nadir and limb push broom CCD spectrometers
    • Swath width: 2600 km
  • OMPS provides continuity of essential ozone products and applications
    Monitoring ozone hole and recovering of ozone due to the Montreal Protocol for eliminating Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    Used in NWS UV Index forecast to allow public to avoid overexposure to UV radiation
  • CERES Instrument Overview
    CERES scanning radiometer measuring three spectral bands at TOA
    • Total (0.3 to >50 m)
    • Shortwave (0.3 to 5.0m)
    • Longwave (5 to 50m)
    Operations, Data Processing, Products, and Science are a continuation of experience developed on
    • TRMM (1), EOS Terra (2), EOS Aqua (2), in I&T on NPP
    21 in.
    18 in.
    22 in.
    Critical Resource Margins
    Primary CERES Climate Data Records
    Reflected
    Solar
    Energy
    Emitted
    Thermal
    Energy
  • Earth Radiation Budget
    CERES Shortwave
    TSIS
    CERES Longwave
    From IPCC AR4 FAQ
  • JPSS Continues Data Time Series
    Year
    Measurement System
    Conventional OperationsEOS Technology JumpResearch Quality Operations
  • MSU Tropospheric Temperature Trends
    Zou et al., JGR-Atm, 111 (D19): D19114 OCT 14 2006
    ATMS is better calibrated
    and satellite does not drift
  • Overview of AMSR2 instrument on GCOM
    Deployable main reflector system with 2.0m diameter.
    Frequency channel set is identical to that of AMSR-E except 7.3GHz channel for RFI mitigation.
    2-point external calibration with the improved HTS (hot-load).
    Stowed
    Deployed
    33
  • Overview of AMSR2EDRs
    Cloud liquid
    water
    Water vapor
    Snow water
    equivalent
    Soil moisture
    Precipitation
    Sea surface
    temperature
    Sea surface
    Wind vector
    Sea ice concentration
    34
  • Conclusions
    JPSS Mission will provide:
    Input Observations for Weather Forecast Models
    CrIS, ATMS, VIIRS, OMPS & GCOM
    Short term Environmental Observations
    (Events)
    VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM
    Long term Environmental Observations
    (Climate Change Detection)
    CERES, TSIS, VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM
    User Engagement is critical for ultimate mission success