Typhoon of Steel Codename: Operation Iceberg Allies fought against Japan Allies consist of USA, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Fought on Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa, Japan Largest amphibious assault during Pacific War 82-day long battle (April 1, 1945 - June 22) Overwhelming use of Kamikaze Warfare Resulted with one of the biggest casualties during WWII Around 150,000 casualties from both troops Estimated 100,000 civilian casualties
Bloodiest Battle of Pacific War American Loses 34 Allied Ships and Craft sunk 368 Allie Ships and Craft damaged Fleet lost 763 Aircraft 5,000 Navy dead, 8,000 Marine/Army dead 36,000 wounded Japanese Loses Over 100,000 Soldiers killed Over 23,000 soldiers sealed in caves or buried by Japanese Lost over 7,800 Aircraft and 16 Combat Ships
Allied Tactics Land Tactics The U.S. land forces involved included the Tenth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. Contributing land leaders include: Major General Roy Geiger, Major General John R. Hodge Tenth Army contained 102,000 Army and 81,000 Marine Corps Allied land forces were entirely composed of U.S. units Sea Tactics Chester W. Nimitz Raymond A. Spruance british--Bruce Fraser Most of the strike aircraft were U.S. Navy carrier-based airplanes From April 1 and May 25, multiple Kamikaze attacks took place, involving more than 1,500 planes The U.S. Navy took larger casualties in this operation than any other battle of the war. British Pacific Fleet provided about a quarter of Allied naval air power (450 planes) Compromised of 50 warships (17 aircraft carriers) all the aircraft carriers were provided by the UK The carrier group was a combined British Commonwealth fleet with UK, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian ships and personnel.
Japanese Tactics Led by Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, Lieutenant General Isamu Chō and Colonel Hiromichi Yahara. Mainly defensive Japanese land campaign consisted of 67,000 strong Army personel 9,000 Imperial Japanese Navy troops at Oroku naval base (only a few hundred of whom had been trained and equipped for ground combat) Large numbers of support was provided by the Townsfolk who lacked battle experience 39,000 drafted local Ryukyuan people 24,000 hastily-conscripted rear militia called Boeitai 15,000 non-uniformed laborers 1,500 middle school senior boys organized into front-line-service called the "Iron and Blood Volunteer Units" 600 Himeyuri Students were organized into a nursing unit
Importance of Battle of Okinawa Although the allies were winning the majority of the battle theJapanese reluctance to surrender was clearly evident. Theallies had to beat the Okinawan people and land to a pulp toget their point across. Even when they were obviously defeatedmost of the Japanese leaders stationed here had died orcommited suicide. Colonel Yahara had asked Ushijima forpermission to commit suicide, but the general denied, respondingwith:"If you die there will be no one left who knows the truth aboutthe battle of Okinawa. Bear the temporary shame but endure it. This isan order from your army Commander." The Japanese reluctance tosurrender ultimately lead to the use of atomic bombing. The massnumber of deaths was completely unnecessary and evitable.