Session 3

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Session 3

  1. 1. 08-01-2014 1 Introduction to 5S technique of Workplace Management Trainers: Priyank Tewari and Shashank Sharma 2 What is Workplace Management? • A Systematic and Rational approach to a clutter free, safe workplace with the objective of reducing waste and preparing the ground for further improvement © 1
  2. 2. 08-01-2014 3 What problems do you commonly encounter at your workplace? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High Absenteeism High Turnover (movement) De-motivated Employees Disordered/Cluttered Environment Mistakes/Errors 5S is the answer to all these problems! © 4 What is 5S? 1. 5S is a house-keeping technique which is applied to enhance productivity and safety in any enterprise 2. Developed by the Japanese 3. Helps Create a Better Working Environment and a Consistently High Quality Process 4. It is usually the first Lean Management technique implemented in any enterprise © 2
  3. 3. 08-01-2014 5 5S - Background • Since the early 80’s Japanese industries widely practiced 5S as a powerful technique to improve productivity and quality • Today, 5 S is used worldwide to prepare the ground for improvement © 6 Discovery of 5S • In the 1980’s, researchers started studying the secret of success of Japanese manufacturing companies • 5S turned out to be the most impressive "secret" • The factories were so well organized that abnormal situations were readily apparent • Equipments were so clean and well maintained that any problem such as a loose bolt or leaking oil could be easily seen • This passion of cleanliness and orderliness became a hallmark of Japanese organizations © 3
  4. 4. 08-01-2014 7 Idea behind 5S In order to achieve high levels of Quality, Safety and Productivity, workers must have a conducive working environment © 8 Advantages of 5S • If tools and materials are conveniently located in uncluttered work areas: ▫ Operators spend less time looking for items ▫ Higher workstation efficiency, a fundamental goal in mass production • A clean and tidy workplace leads to greater well being and increased motivation • Company image improves © 4
  5. 5. 08-01-2014 9 Advantages of 5S • Health and Safety is ensured • Machine maintenance • Quality • Productivity • Lean Manufacturing © 10 Advantages of 5S • Results in a place easier to manage • Smooth working No Obstruction • N0 deviation or problem arises because everyone knows where the things are supposed to be © 5
  6. 6. 08-01-2014 11 Advantages of 5S • Time saving • Quick retrieval • Accidents and mistakes minimized • Increases Space • Creates workplace ownership © 12 Advantages of 5S • Foundation of all QC tools ▫ Continuous Quality improvement ▫ Enables Lean Manufacturing ▫ Kindergarten of Quality tools and techniques • Enables Visual Management ▫ In a clean and tidy working environment it is easier to spot problems © 6
  7. 7. 08-01-2014 13 Kindergarten of all QC tools • 5S is the starting point of all the QC tools • Could be said as the pre-requisite of all QC tools ▫ If an enterprise is embarking on the Lean Management journey to improve the quality of production or process, it must definitely have 5S implemented © 14 Why do 5S? © 7
  8. 8. 08-01-2014 15 Levels of workplace organization • Following the 5 S principles and reducing waste • Extending the 5 S concept to include ergonomics – interaction of workers with their environment • Extending the 5 S concept to include aesthetics – how to maintain the look and feel of the working place • Educating others © 16 Elements of 5S • 5S comprises of 5 Simple steps: 1. SEIRI ------------- Sorting out 2. SEITON ---------- Setting in Order, Systematic Arrangement 3. SEISO ------------ Shining, Spic and Span 4. SEIKETSU ------- Standardization 5. SHITSUKE ------- Sustain, Self Discipline © 8
  9. 9. 08-01-2014 17 Step 1 – SORTING (SEIRI) • Objective: Saving and Recovering Space • What do we intend to do? ▫ Segregate necessary from un-necessary and throw away what is not required at all ▫ Decide on a frequency of sorting © 18 Step 1 - SORTING (SEIRI) 1. Decide what you need 2. Remove unnecessary clutter 3. All tools, gauges, materials, classified and then stored 4. Remove items which are broken, unusable or only occasionally used © 9
  10. 10. 08-01-2014 19 Red-tag technique 1. Give staff Red Labels 2. Ask staff to go through every item in the workplace 3. Ask if needed and those that are needed, in what quantity 4. If not needed, then RED TAG it 5. Store in the RED TAG area © 20 Red-tag technique For the suspected/not-sure items: 6. Place the suspected items in the RED TAG area for one week 7. Allow the staff to re-evaluate the needed items 8. At the end of week, those items that are needed and frequently used should be returned © 10
  11. 11. 08-01-2014 21 © 22 Prioritization technique Priority Low Frequency of Use How to Use • Less than once per year • Throw away • Once per year • Store away from the workplace Average • Once per month • Once per week • Once per day High • Store together but offline • Locate at the workplace © 11
  12. 12. 08-01-2014 23 5S Sorting Algorithm Sorting Not in working order Scrap Reworkable Rework Rejected Discard Usable In working order Necessary Reparable Repair Un-necessary Un-reparable Discard Usable No Potential use Potentially useful Move to required location Discard Usable Usable Require Special Disposal Arrange Disposal Discard © 24 Before Sorting After Sorting © 12
  13. 13. 08-01-2014 25 Step 2 – Setting in Order (SEITON) • Objective: Minimize search time and errors • What do we intend to do? ▫ Analyze why getting things out and putting them back takes so long ▫ Put things in ORDER © 26 Step 2 – Setting in Order (SEITON) • A rational, orderly and methodical arrangement of all items we use, re-work or write off • Once all un-needed items have been eliminated, it is needed to manage the remaining useful items • Organise layout of tools and equipment 1. Mark Designated locations 2. Use tapes and labels 3. Ensure everything is available as it is needed and at the “point of use” © 13
  14. 14. 08-01-2014 27 Step 2 – Setting in Order (SEITON) Workplace Checkpoints 1. Positions of aisles and storage places clearly marked? 2. Tools classified and stored by frequency of use? 3. Pallets stacked correctly? 4. Safety equipment easily accessible? 5. Floors in good condition? © 28 The SEITON Mantra! A place for everything and everything in its place! © 14
  15. 15. 08-01-2014 29 Review each item No. Step 1) Name of Item 2) Retrieval 3) Search 4) Carrying the item Probable problems a) Do not know what it is called a) No pre-fixed location b) Storage in far away location c) Storage locations are scattered d) Too many repeat trips e) Hard to get out f) Too big to carry g) Need to set or assemble a) Difficult to find because a lot of things are there b) Not labelled c) Not there but not clear if someone is using it a) No way of transport © 30 Before systemizing After systemizing © 15
  16. 16. 08-01-2014 31 Step 3 – Shine (SEISO) • Objective: Make it easier to inspect for problems and take faster corrective action • What do we intend to do? ▫ Understand how to prevent things from getting dirty ▫ Ensuring tip-top condition © 32 Step 3 – Shine (SEISO) SEISO aims to: 1. Create a spotless workplace 2. Identify and eliminate causes of dirt and grime – remove the need to clean 3. Sweep, dust, polish and paint © 16
  17. 17. 08-01-2014 33 Step 3 – Shine (SEISO) Steps to be followed during or after major housekeeping : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do a survey of the origins of grime & leakage Set priorities for cleaning where grime is most study why things are dirty study possible plan of action Decide on action steps/ responsibility/ timeframe © 34 Step 3 – Shine (SEISO) SEISO golden rules: • If there’s Lesser number of items, there is lesser to clean • One is best (office example) ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ One page memo One day processing One location files One copy filing © 17
  18. 18. 08-01-2014 35 SEISO checklist No. Type of Grime in office 1) Dirt 3) Source Dust 2) Tick if applicable Water 4) Fittings 5) Litter 6) Temperature 7) Other © 36 Before systemizing After systemizing © 18
  19. 19. 08-01-2014 37 Step 4 – Standardize (SEIKETSU) • Objective: Achieving higher productivity and better quality through higher employee morale • What do we intend to do? ▫ Ensure conducive and safe working environment ▫ Make cleanliness standard across the enterprise © 38 Step 4 – Standardize (SEIKETSU) • Following of earlier 3 S’s, standardized work procedures, maintaining safe & hygienic conditions in work place contribute to a serene atmosphere • Define standards for: ▫ My Job – Product and Processes ▫ My Machine ▫ My Working areas © 19
  20. 20. 08-01-2014 39 Step 4 – Standardize (SEIKETSU) Specific objectives of SEIKETSU: 1. A five-minute daily clean up habit 2. Keeping a balance between personal cleanliness and the cleanliness of the environment / work place 3. Avoiding littering. Learning to pick-up tiny pieces of waste around 4. Regularly audit using checklists and measures of housekeeping © 40 Step 4 – Standardize (SEIKETSU) Guidelines for implementing SEIKETSU: 1. Generate a maintenance system for the first three S’s 2. Develop procedures, schedules, practices 3. Continue to assess the use and disposal of items 4. Regularly audit using checklists and measures of housekeeping 5. Real challenge is to keep it clean © 20
  21. 21. 08-01-2014 41 Step 5 – Self-Discipline (SHITSUKE) • Objective: Achieving constancy of purpose. Making it a way of life. • What do we intend to do? ▫ Training ▫ Evaluation ▫ Follow-up © 42 Step 5 – Self-Discipline (SHITSUKE) • • • • • Driving force behind all 5S Make it a way of life Part of health and safety Involve the whole workforce Develop and keep good habits © 21
  22. 22. 08-01-2014 43 Step 5 – Self-Discipline (SHITSUKE) Specific objectives of SHITSUKE: • Instilling the ability of doing things the way they are supposed to be done • Becoming a role model by treating your work place as your second home • Influencing others to join in keeping a wellmaintained work place. • Aiming for constant improvement © 44 Self-Discipline Checklist • Introduce 3 min 5 S activity system ▫ How often • Introduce 5 S Activity Evaluation system • Train Evaluators • Train Implementers on ▫ Problem solving steps ▫ What defects to look for ▫ Preparing and using implementation checklist © 22
  23. 23. 08-01-2014 45 5S Evaluation © 46 5S Evaluation • An activity or related activities to determine whether there is an existence of a system & the system is in operation as per established norms • It also verifies whether the system & results are taking the organization towards the desired objectives. © 23
  24. 24. 08-01-2014 47 5S Evaluation How to evaluate the benefits of 5S? 1. Visible benefits: 1. Photographic evidence 2. Employee movement tracking 2. Audit: 1. Internal audits of processes 2. External audits through consultants 3. Ratings: 1. Employee feedback 2. Binary responses and % ratings © 48 Visible benefits 1. Photographic evidence © 24
  25. 25. 08-01-2014 49 Visible benefits 2. Employee movement tracking © 50 Audits No. Category Topic Workplace 5S Audit Sheet Description & Score 1 2 3 Audit Questions 4 1 Sort 0% - 20% 21% - 40% 41% - 60% 61% - 80% 81% - 100% Removal of Unnecessary items does not exist exists but is not known known but not used often used 0% - 20% 21% - 40% 41% - 60% 61% - 80% Improvement Points 3 2 81% - 100% of the audit area 3 Set in Order Proper condition of items A process for setting items in order Workplace condition Free of trash, scrap, soil, leaks, dust etc. within 0% - 20% 21% - 40% 41% - 60% 61% - 80% 81% - 100% Cleaning to inspect 3 of the audit area always used A process for removing un-necessary items Workplace condition Necessary items are at point of use for 2 _/5 5 Workplace condition Un-necessary items are removed from A process for daily cleaning to inspect the workplace condition does not exist exists but is not known known but not used often used always used Shine does not exist exists but is not known known but not used often used always used 4 of the audit area 3 1 Standards exist for markings, colors, item Workplace condition locations, signage etc. at 4 Standardise A process to review, revise and update Revision of standards standards 0% - 20% 21% - 40% 41% - 60% 61% - 80% 81% - 100% does not exist exists but is not known known but not used often used of the audit area always used 3 1 The current high score for 5s is maintained Workplace condition by 5 Sustain Auditing 5S Auditor name: A process for auditing and checking 5S condition and processes Audit Date: 0% - 20% 21% - 40% 41% - 60% 61% - 80% 81% - 100% does not exist exists but is not known known but not used often used of the audit area always used Total score for this audit out of 100 1 Conduct another red tag activity Refresh training for all supervisers and operators in red tagging procedure Arrangement of items at point of use is good overall but clearly there are more tools than needed for the job There are standards for point of use tool storage We need a better way to catch fabric scraps on the floor Cleaning is ad-hoc and up to individual recommend making time at start and end of shift to tidy up Some areas have excellent visuals (cutting area) while others none A process for revision of standards is needed - currntly revision only occurs because of customer complaints There is no tracking of 5S scores Management does not audit 5S regularly 1 44% © 25
  26. 26. 08-01-2014 51 Ratings An example of how 5S implementation can be evaluated using Binary and % ratings* Evaluating Seiri (Sort) stage: 1. Material availability Give 1 mark if material is fully available or give 0 marks if material is not fully available 2. Defective goods If there are X items which contains Y items as defective Then the marks will be Fraction of fine goods = [1{Y/X}] 3. Operating condition Give 1 mark if operating condition is under control and give 0 marks if operating condition is not under control. © 52 Ratings An example of how 5S implementation can be evaluated using Binary and % ratings* Evaluating Seiri (Sort) stage: 4. Relative information about working condition, process guidelines, tools information, material information etc., is also important for Seiri rating. Give 1 mark for full information and give 0 marks for partial information. 5. Elimination of waste Let total N no of wast are listed but only M were eliminated the marks of elimination process will be Fraction of waste elimination = [1- {M/N}] © 26
  27. 27. 08-01-2014 53 Ratings An example of how 5S implementation can be evaluated using Binary and % ratings* Evaluating Seiri (Sort) stage: • Now add all five marks and get total rating of Seiri out of 5. If the Seiri system will get less than 3 marks then do the arrangement again • Do this for all the stages and calculate the average 5S rating * Based on a paper on Performance Improvement through 5S in Small Scale Industry: A case study by P. M. Rojasra, M. N. Qureshi, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol. 3, Issue. 3, May - June 2013 pp-1654-1660 © 54 Attributes of an evaluator • • • • One who believes in 5 S Strict, Fair and Tactful Must be able to do it in an competent manner Willing to go to the workplace, offer advice and point out problems when necessary • Should be able to comment on successes and shortcomings clearly © 27
  28. 28. 08-01-2014 55 Group Activity We will work on a hypothetical scenario to implement 5S 1. Divide in groups of 6 each. 2. Think of any activity which you engage in regularly. For example: Working in Office, Working in kitchen, Working on your computer, Running a plant etc. 3. Discuss how you can implement 5S in these activities (Use flip charts) 4. Also mention how you will evaluate the improvements after using the 5S technique 5. Present to the gathering © 56 Absence of 5S leads to 5D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Delays Defects Dissatisfied customers Declining profits Demoralized employees © 28
  29. 29. 08-01-2014 57 Litmus test for 5S • 30 second rule • One must locate any item within 30 seconds if 5S is properly implemented • Ex: Electronic records retrieval from your desktop/laptop © 58 How can 5S help you? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Neat and Clean Workplace Smooth working No Obstruction Safety increases Productivity improves Quality improves © 29
  30. 30. 08-01-2014 59 How can 5S help you? 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Wastage decreases Machine maintenance becomes easy Visual Control become possible Motivated employees Spacious workstations © 60 Visual Management © 30
  31. 31. 08-01-2014 61 What is Visual Management A technique where control of an activity or process is made easier or more effective by deliberate use of visual signals. They give feedback to an operator about how a process is working and can alert the operator to act Usually used in 5S, but can be implemented with any process improvement initiative Visual Controls can also include audible signals The 3 beeps from your microwave once your food has finished cooking © 62 Goals of Visual Management The goal of visual controls is to make a process: Self-explaining Scoreboard at a baseball game Self-ordering RO system Self-regulating Traffic lights Self-improving Facilitate corrections in MS Word or email © 31
  32. 32. 08-01-2014 63 The idea behind Visual Management When someone walks into the workplace they should be able to determine: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ What the process is, Who the customers and suppliers are, What the deliverables are, Where and what resources are being used in the process, ▫ The health of the process, ▫ That there is an effective measurement system in place. © 64 Examples of Visual Management The red light on your DVR indicating a movie is recording Different colored clothing for different cricket teams Painted lines on the highway The red and green lights outside of an operation theatre Traffic lights © 32
  33. 33. 08-01-2014 Visual Control tools 1. Takt boards 2. Issue boards 3. 5S boards 4. KANBAN cards © 1. Takt board Part number specific Process summary Number of parts in a process Jobs in process Quantity of WIP Value of WIP Daily Takt rate for each part Daily Takt rate for process Daily summary information Daily summary information Takt Productivity Actual output Actual output WIP WIP Cycle time Cycle time © 33
  34. 34. 08-01-2014 1. Takt board © 2. Performance/Productivity board Production/process related issues “Can-do” items can be resolved by the team “Need help” need external assistance from management team, engineer, maintenance to resolve Dashboard metrics Productivity First pass yield (scrap, repair, rework) Rolled throughput yield Timeliness On-time delivery Weekly Takt rate average Equipment uptime/downtime (unscheduled maintenance) Quality Process capability and stability indices Financial Cross-training matrices © 34
  35. 35. 08-01-2014 3. 5S Board Information Used to maintain 5S Set in order maps Standardize checklists 5S audit results (checklist) 5S audit results (spider graph) Action plan for improvement Before/after photos © 4. Kanbans Visual signal to: Replenish materials consumed in the production process over time Trigger action © 35
  36. 36. 08-01-2014 71 Cellular layout © Cellular Layout Linking of manual and machine operations into the most efficient combination to maximize value-added content while minimizing waste. Punch De-burr Cut to size Package Form Sand © 36
  37. 37. 08-01-2014 73 Benefits of Cellular layout • Simplified scheduling and communication • Minimal inventory needed between processes • Increased visibility • provide quick feedback and problem resolution • Development of increased product knowledge • workers are trained to understand the total process • Shorter lead times • Small lots and one piece flow • to match customer demand © 74 5 step cellular design process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Group Products Establish Takt Time Review the Work Sequence Balance the Process Design the Cell Layout © 37
  38. 38. 08-01-2014 75 1. Group Products Product grouping considerations Group products with similar: • Process/Resource Requirements • Changeover/Set-up Times • Process Time Variation • Demand vs. Capacity © 76 2. Establish Takt time • Takt time can change • What can you change to match takt time? ▫ Number of people ▫ Number of cells (requires investment in machinery) © 38
  39. 39. 08-01-2014 77 3. Review the work sequence 1. Observe and document the tasks each worker performs ▫ ▫ Observe, don’t just ask The steps are defined by the designer 2. Break operations into observable segments 3. Study machine capacity, cycle times, and changeover times 4. Look for value-added and non-value-added elements © 78 4. Balance the process Before After 60 60 50 Seconds Seconds 50 40 30 20 10 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 Operation Work Content 5 1 2 3 4 Operation Work Content © 39
  40. 40. 08-01-2014 79 4. Design the cellular layout Design the work to: • • • • • Minimize motion Avoid unnatural postures and movements Avoid sharp turns in motion Make moves easy to perform without much concentration Use hands and forearms instead of upper arms and shoulders for light work Minimize lifting • • Follow a rhythm © 40

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