8-2• New technologies have made it possibleto:– reduce the costs associated with deliveringtraining.– increase the effectiveness of the learningenvironment.– help training contribute to business goals.Technology’s Influence onTraining and Learning
8-3• New training delivery and instructionalmethods include:– online learning (e-learning)– distance learning– simulations– virtual reality– expert systems– electronic support systems– learning management systemsTechnology’s Influence onTraining and Learning (cont.)
8-4• Benefits of Technology– Employees can gain control over when andwhere they receive training.– Employees can access knowledge and expertsystems on an as-needed basis.– The learning environment can look, feel, andsound just like the work environment.– Employees can choose the type of media theywant to use in a training program.Technology’s Influence onTraining and Learning (cont.)
8-5• Benefits of Technology– Paperwork and time needed for administrativeactivities is reduced.– Employees’ accomplishments during training canbe monitored.– Traditional training methods can be delivered totrainees rather than requiring them to come to acentral training location.Technology’s Influence onTraining and Learning (cont.)
8-6• Digital collaboration– use of technology to enhance and extendemployees’ abilities to work togetherregardless of their geographic proximity.– can be synchronous or asynchronous.Technology’s Influence onTraining and Learning (cont.)
8-7• Prior to the introduction of new technology:– Trainees played a passive role in learning.– Interaction among learners occurred primarilyoutside the training room and tended to belimited.• Due to technology, learning has become amore dynamic process.– Instructor is more of a coach and resourceperson.Technology’s Influence onTraining and Learning (cont.)
8-10Figure 8.1 - Types of LearningEnvironments
8-11Technology and Multimedia• Multimedia training - combines audiovisualtraining methods with computer-basedtraining.
8-12Table 8.2 - Advantages and Disadvantages ofMultimedia Training
8-13Computer-Based Training• It is an interactive training experience inwhich:– the computer provides the learning stimulus.– the trainee must respond.– the computer analyzes the responses andprovides feedback to the trainee.• It includes interactive video, CD-ROM, andonline learning.– CD-ROMs and DVDs utilize a laser to read text,graphics, audio, and video off an aluminum disk.
8-14Computer-Based Training (cont.)– Interactive video - instruction is provided one-on-one to trainees via a monitor connected to akeyboard.– Online learning, or e-learning - instruction anddelivery of training by computer online throughthe Internet or the Web.• Internet-based or Web-based, training - trainingdelivered on public or private computer networks anddisplayed by a Web browser.• Intranet-based training - training that uses thecompany’s own computer network; accessible only tothe company’s employees.
8-15Figure 8.3 - Potential Features of E-Learning
8-17Table 8.4 - Research Results Regarding the Effectivenessof Online Learning
8-18Table 8.5 - Factors Limiting the Use ofE-Learning
8-19Table 8.6 - Tips for Developing Effective Online Learning
8-20Table 8.6 - Tips for DevelopingEffective Online Learning
8-21Table 8.7 - Principles for Designing E-Learning
8-22Computer-Based Training (cont.)• Technology for collaboration and linking– Bandwidth - number of bytes and bits(information) that can travel between computersper second.– Online learning should try to build in interactivitywithout requiring the use of plug-ins - additionalsoftware that needs to be loaded on the computerto listen to sound or watch video.
8-23Computer-Based Training (cont.)• Technology for collaboration and linking– Hyperlinks - links that allow a trainee to accessother Web sites that include printed materials aswell as communications links to experts, trainers,and other learners.– Learning portals – Web sites or online learningcenters that provide, via e-commercetransactions, access to training courses, services,and online learning communities from manysources.
8-24Table 8.8 - Common Ways of Collaboration in Online Learning
8-25Blended Learning• It combines online learning, face-to-faceinstruction, and other methods fordistributing learning content and instruction.• In comparison to classroom delivery, blendedlearning:– provides increased learner control.– allows for self-directedness.– requires learners to take more responsibility fortheir learning.
8-26Blended Learning (cont.)• In comparison to pure online learning,blended learning provides:– more face-to-face social interaction.– ensures that at least some of the instruction ispresented in a dedicated learning environment.
8-27Blended Learning (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesProvides live feedbackfrom peers which ispreferable to feedbackreceived online.Capitalizes on thepositive learningfeatures inherent inboth face-to-face andWeb-based instruction. Demanding—requiresgreater timecommitment. Fast-changingtechnology. Insufficientmanagement supportand commitment. Difficult to understandand implement.
8-28Simulations• Avatars - computer depictions of humans thatare used as imaginary coaches, coworkers,and customers in simulations.
8-30Simulations (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesEliminates the need totravel to a central traininglocation.Meaningful—gets traineesinvolved in learning, and areemotionally engaging.Simulators provide aconsistent message of whatneeds to be learned.Can safely put employees insituations that would bedangerous in the real world.Results in positive outcomesas shorter training timesand increased ROI. High development costs. Trainees may not becomfortable in learningsituations that lack humancontact.
8-31Simulations (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesVirtual reality -computer-basedtechnology thatprovides traineeswith a three-dimensional learningexperience allowingthem to experiencepresence.Allows trainees topractice dangeroustasks withoutputting themselvesor others indanger.More memoryavailable forlearning.Poor equipmentthat results in areduced sense ofpresence.Poor presence mayresult in thetraineeexperiencingsimulator sickness.
8-32Simulations (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesVirtual worlds-computer-based,simulated, threedimensionalrepresentationof the real worldand a place tohost learningprograms orexperiences.Imitates an actual workplacewithout any harm.Provides a place to meetwith trainers, managers, orother employees who canserve as teachers.Useful for teachinginterpersonal skills.Motivates learners bymaking learning fun andinteractive.Enhances transfer oftraining.Used for e-learning,collaboration, and meetings.Lack of ease of usefor first-time users.Potential risk of adifficult keyboard andmouse interface.High investment oftime and moneyrequired forprogramming content.Lack of evidencesupporting itseffectiveness forlearning.
8-33Mobile Technology and TrainingMethods: iPods, PDAs• Mobile technology consists of:– Wireless transmission systems (Wi-Fi and Bluetooth)– Mobile devices (PDAs, GPS, RFID, etc.)– Software applications– Challenges:• Ensuring employees know when and how to take advantageof the technology.• Ensuring employees can connect to a variety of networksirrespective of their location or mobile device.
8-34Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS)• They are instructional systems that useartificial intelligence.• Three types of ITS environments:– Tutoring– Coaching– Empowering
8-35Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS)(cont.)• Different from other new trainingtechnologies in several ways:– Has the ability to match instruction to individualstudent needs.– Can communicate and respond to the student.– Can model the trainee’s learning process.– Can decide, on the basis of a trainee’s previousperformance, what information to provide.
8-36Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS)(cont.)• Different from other new trainingtechnologies in several ways:– Can make decisions about the trainee’s level ofunderstanding.– Can complete a self-assessment resulting in amodification of its teaching process.
8-37Figure 8.4 - Components of Intelligent Tutoring Systems
8-38Distance Learning• It involves two types of technology:– Teleconferencing - synchronous exchange ofaudio, video, and/or text between two or moreindividuals or groups at two or more locations.– Interactive distance learning (IDL) - latestgeneration of distance learning, which usessatellite technology to broadcast programs todifferent locations and allows trainees to respondto questions posed during the training programusing a keypad.
8-39Distance Learning (cont.)• Advantages:– Company saves on travel costs.– Allows employees in geographically dispersed sitesto receive training from experts who would nototherwise be available to visit each location.• Disadvantages:– Lack of interaction between the trainer and theaudience.– Technology failures.– Unprepared trainers.
8-40Table 8.10 - Conditions When Training SupportTechnologies are Most Needed
8-41Technologies for Training Support• Expert systems - technology that organizesand applies the knowledge of human expertsto specific problems.– It has three elements:• A knowledge base.• A decision-making capability.• A user interface.
8-42Technologies for Training Support(cont.)• Groupware - enables multiple users to track,share, and organize information and to workon the same document simultaneously.– Companies use groupware to improve businessprocesses, to improve meeting effectiveness, aswell as to identify and share knowledge in theorganization.
8-43Technologies for TrainingAdministration• Interactive voice technology - uses aconventional personal computer to create anautomated phone response system.• Imaging - scanning documents, storing themelectronically, and retrieving them.• Training software applications - used to trackinformation related to training administration,employee skills, employees’ training activities,online learning, and transfer of training.
8-44Learning Management Systems: Systems for TrainingDelivery, Support, and Administration• Learning management system (LMS) - atechnology platform that can be used toautomate the administration, development,and delivery of all of a company’s trainingprograms.
8-45Table 8.12 - Features of Learning Management Systems (LMSs)
8-46Learning Management Systems: Systems for Training Delivery,Support, and Administration (cont.)• Advantages of LMSs:– Reduces travel and training related costs.– Reduces time for program completion.– Increase employees’ accessibility to training acrossthe business.– Provides administrative capabilities to trackprogram completion and course enrollments.– Allows companies to track all learning activity inthe business.
8-47Learning Management Systems: Systems for Training Delivery,Support, and Administration (cont.)• The major reasons that companies adopt anLMS are:– To centralize management of learning activities.– Track regulatory compliance.– Measure training usage and employeeperformance.
8-48Learning Management Systems: Systems for Training Delivery,Support, and Administration (cont.)• Developing on LMS– Senior management needs to be convinced thatan LMS will benefit employees, improve businessfunctions, and contribute to overall businessstrategies and goals.– The company must have an e-learning culture.– The online learning environment needs to beunder the control of the learner.
8-49Choosing New Technology TrainingMethods• New technology training methods should beconsidered when:– Sufficient budget and resources are provided.– Trainees are geographically dispersed.– Trainees are comfortable using technology.– It is a part of the company’s business strategy andsuits its culture.– Employees have a difficult time attendingscheduled training programs.– Current training methods allow limited time forpractice, feedback, and assessment.
8-50Table 8.13 - Comparison of Technology-basedTraining Methods