5-3IntroductionTransfer of training - traineeseffectively and continually applying whatthey learned in training to their jobs.Generalization - a trainee’s ability toapply learned capabilities to on-the-jobwork problems and situations that aresimilar but not identical to thoseproblems and situations encountered inthe learning environment.
5-4Introduction (cont.)Maintenance - process of continuing touse newly acquired capabilities over time.Training design - the characteristics ofthe learning environment.Trainee characteristics - include abilityand motivation that affect learning.Work environment - includes factors onthe job that influence transfer of training.
5-5Table 5.1 - Transfer ofTraining Theories
5-6Training Design (cont.)Key behaviors - set of behaviors thatcan be used successfully in a wide varietyof situations.Application assignments - workproblems or situations in which traineesare asked to apply training content tosolve them.
5-7Training Design (cont.)Encourage trainee responsibility and selfmanagementTrainees need to take responsibility forlearning and transfer which includes:preparing for training.being involved and engaged during training.using training content back on the job.Self-management - a person’s attempt tocontrol certain aspects of decision making andbehavior.
5-8Table 5.2 - Examples of Obstacles in the WorkEnvironment That Inhibit Transfer of Training
5-9Training Design (cont.)Encourage trainee responsibility and selfmanagementObstacles inhibit transfer because they causelapses, which take place when the traineeuses previously learned, less effectivecapabilities instead of trying to apply thecapability emphasized in the trainingprogram.Trainees should try to avoid a consistentpattern of slipping back or using old,ineffective learned capabilities.
5-11Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence TransferClimate for transferIt refers to trainees’ perceptions about a widevariety of characteristics of the workenvironment that facilitate or inhibit use oftrained skills or behavior.These characteristics include:Manager and peer support.Opportunity to use skills.The consequences for using learned capabilities.
5-12Table 5.4 - Characteristics of a PositiveClimate for Transfer of Training
5-13Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Manager supportIt refers to the degree to which managers:emphasize the importance of attending trainingprograms.stress the application of training content to the job.Action plan - written document that includesthe steps that the trainee and manager willtake to ensure that training transfers to thejob.
5-14Figure 5.2 - Levels of ManagementSupport for Training
5-15Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)The action plan includesa goal identifying what training content will beused and how it will be used.strategies for reaching the goal.strategies for receiving feedback.expected results.It provides a progress check schedule ofwhen the manager and trainee meet todiscuss the progress being made in usinglearned capabilities on the job.
5-16Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Ways to gain managers’ support fortraining:Provide a brief on the purpose of the programand its relationship to business objectives andstrategy.Encourage trainees to bring to the trainingsession work problems and situations theyface on the job.Share benefits of the course with managers.If possible, use managers as trainers.
5-17Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Manager supportManagers pay attention to the development oftheir staff because part of their incentive planis based on training and development.The incentive plan comprises fiscal,productivity, and strategic goals.
5-18Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Peer supportSupport network - group of two or moretrainees who agree to meet and discuss theirprogress in using learned capabilities on thejob which may involve face-to-face meetingsor communications via e-mail.The more peer meetings that trainees attend,the more learning transferred to theworkplace.
5-19Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Peer supportTrainers might also use a newsletter to showhow trainees are dealing with transfer oftraining issues.Trainers may also provide trainees with amentor, a more experienced employee whocan provide advice and support related totransfer of training issues.
5-20Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Opportunity to use learned capabilities oropportunity to perform refers to theextent to which the trainee is providedwith or actively seeks experiences thatallow for application of the newly learnedknowledge, skill, and behaviors from thetraining program.It is influenced by the work environmentand trainee motivation.
5-21Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Opportunity to perform is determined bybreadth, activity level, and task type.Low levels of opportunity to perform mayindicate that:the work environment is interfering with usingnew skills.training content is not important for theemployee’s job.
5-22Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Technological supportElectronic performance support systems(EPSSs) - computer applications that canprovide, as requested, skills training,information access, and expert advice.It may be used to enhance transfer of training byproviding trainees with an electronic informationsource that they can refer to on an as-needed basiswhile they attempt to apply learned capabilities onthe job.
5-23Work Environment CharacteristicsThat Influence Transfer (cont.)Technological supportTrainers can monitor trainees’ use of EPSS,which provides the trainer with valuableinformation about the transfer of trainingproblems that trainees are encountering.These problems might relate to the trainingdesign or work environment.
5-24Organizational Environments ThatEncourage TransferLearning organization is a companythat has an enhanced capacity to learn,adapt, and change.
5-25Table 5.6 - Key Features of aLearning Organization
5-26Figure 5.4 - Four Modes ofKnowledge Sharing
5-27Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Knowledge management - process ofenhancing company performance bydesigning and implementing tools,processes, systems, structures, andcultures to improve the creation, sharing,and use of knowledge.
5-28Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Ways to create and share knowledgeUse technology, e-mail, and social networkingsites or partais on the company intranet.Publish directories.Develop informational maps.Allow employees to take time off from work toacquire knowledge, study problems, attendtraining, and use technology.
5-29Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate chief information officer and chieflearning officer positions for cataloging andfacilitating the exchange of information in thecompany.Require employees to give presentations toother employees about what they havelearned from training programs they haveattended.
5-30Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate an online library of learning resourcessuch as journals, technical manuals, trainingopportunities, and seminars.Design office space to facilitate interactionbetween employees.
5-31Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate communities of practice using face-to-face meetings, wikis, or blogs for employeeswho share a common interest in a subject.Use “after-action reviews” at the end of eachproject to review what happened and whatcan be learned from it.
5-32Organizational Environments ThatEncourage Transfer (cont.)Keys for effective knowledgemanagementTraining and information technologycollaboration.Create knowledge management leadershippositions.Provide ease to use technology for employeesto access and share information within thecontext of their job.Ensure employee trust and willingness toshare information by recognizing andpromoting employees who learn, teach, andshare.