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  • 1. Chapter 4Learning: Theories and Program DesignCopyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • 2. 4-2What is Learning? What isLearned?LearningLearning -- a relatively permanentchange in human capabilities that is not aresult of growth processes.These capabilities are related to specificlearning outcomes.
  • 3. 4-3Table 4.1 – Learning Outcomes
  • 4. 4-4Reinforcement Theory Social Learning TheoryGoal TheoriesNeed TheoriesExpectancy TheoryAdult Learning TheoryInformation ProcessingTheoryLearning Theories
  • 5. 4-5Reinforcement theory - emphasizesthat people are motivated to perform oravoid certain behaviors because of pastoutcomes that have resulted from thosebehaviors.Several processes in reinforcement theory arepositive reinforcement, negativereinforcement, extinction, and punishment.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 6. 4-6Reinforcement theoryThe trainer needs to identify what outcomesthe learner finds most positive and negative.Trainers then need to link these outcomes tolearners acquiring knowledge, skills, orchanging behaviors.Trainers can withhold or provide job-related,personal, and career-related benefits tolearners who master program content.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 7. 4-7Table 4.2 - Schedules ofReinforcement
  • 8. 4-8Social learning theory - emphasizesthat people learn by observing otherpersons (models) whom they believe arecredible and knowledgeable.The theory recognizes that behavior thatis reinforced or rewarded tends to berepeated.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 9. 4-9Social learning theoryLearning new skills or behavior comes from:directly experiencing the consequences of using abehavior or skill, orthe process of observing others and seeing theconsequences of their behavior.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 10. 4-10Social learning theoryLearning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy, which is a person’s judgment aboutwhether he or she can successfully learnknowledge and skills.A person’s self-efficacy can be increased usingseveral methods: verbal persuasion, logicalverification, observation of others (modeling),and past accomplishments.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 11. 4-11Figure 4.1 - Processes of SocialLearning Theory
  • 12. 4-12Goal theoriesGoal setting theory - assumes that behaviorresults from a person’s conscious goals andintentions.Goals influence a person’s behavior by:directing energy and attention.sustaining effort over time.motivating the person to develop strategies for goalattainment.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 13. 4-13Goal theoriesGoal setting theoryIt is used in training program design.It suggests that learning can be facilitated byproviding trainees with specific challenging goalsand objectives.The influence of goal setting theory can be seen inthe development of training lesson plans.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 14. 4-14Goal theoriesGoal orientation - the goals held by atrainee in a learning situation.It includes learning and performance orientation.Learning orientation - trying to increase ability orcompetence in a task.Performance orientation - learners who focus ontask performance and how they compare to others.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 15. 4-15Goal theoriesGoal orientationIt affects the amount of effort a trainee will expendin learning (motivation to learn).Learners with a high learning orientation will directgreater attention to the task and learn for the sakeof learning in comparison to learners with aperformance orientation.Learners with a performance orientation will directmore attention to performing well and less effort tolearning.Learning Theories (cont.)
  • 16. 4-16Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesHelps to explain the value that a personplaces on certain outcomes.Need - a deficiency that a person isexperiencing at any point in time.Maslow’s and Alderfer’s need theories focusedon physiological needs, relatedness needs,and growth needs.
  • 17. 4-17Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesThe major difference between Alderfer’s andMaslow’s hierarchies of needs is that Alderferallows the possibility that if higher-level needsare not satisfied, employees will refocus onlower-level needs.McClelland’s need theory focused primarily onneeds for achievement, affiliation, and power.
  • 18. 4-18Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesSuggest that to motivate learning, trainersshould identify trainees’ needs andcommunicate how training program contentrelates to fulfilling these needs.If certain basic needs of trainees are not met, theyare unlikely to be motivated to learn.
  • 19. 4-19Learning Theories (cont.)Expectancy theoryIt suggests that a person’s behavior is basedon three factors:Expectancies - the link between trying to performa behavior and actually performing well.Instrumentality - a belief that performing a givenbehavior is associated with a particular outcome.Valence - the value that a person places on anoutcome.
  • 20. 4-20Figure 4.2 - Expectancy Theory ofMotivation
  • 21. 4-21Table 4.3 - Implications ofAdult Learning Theory for Training
  • 22. 4-22Learning Theories (cont.)Information processing theoryIt gives more emphasis to the internalprocesses that occur when training content islearned and retained.It highlights how external events influencelearning, which include:Changes in the intensity or frequency of thestimulus that affect attention.Informing the learner of the objectives to establishan expectation.Enhancing perceptual features of the material(stimulus), drawing the attention of the learner tocertain features.
  • 23. 4-23Learning Theories (cont.)Information processing theoryIt highlights how external events influencelearning, which include:Verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and mapssuggesting ways to code the training content so thatit can be stored in memory.Meaningful learning context (examples, problems)creating cues that facilitate coding.Demonstration or verbal instructions helping toorganize the learner’s response as well asfacilitating the selection of the correct response.
  • 24. 4-24Figure 4.3 – A Model of HumanInformation Processing
  • 25. 4-25Table 4.4- The Relationship among LearningProcesses, Instructional Events, and Forms ofInstruction
  • 26. 4-26The Learning ProcessThe learning cycle involves four stages:Concrete experienceReflective observationAbstract conceptualizationActive experimentation
  • 27. 4-27Table 4.5 – Learning Styles
  • 28. 4-28Age influences on learningTrainers need to be aware of trainees’ ages tocreate a learning environment and developmaterials that meet their preferences.According to some trainers, there are fourgenerations of employees with distinctattitudes toward work and preferred ways tolearn—Millenniums (or nexters), Gen Xers,baby boomers, and traditionalists.The Learning Process (cont.)
  • 29. 4-29The Learning Process (cont.)Instruction - trainer’s manipulation ofthe environment in order to help traineeslearn.The training context - the physical,intellectual, and emotional environment inwhich training occurs.Practice - physical or mental rehearsal ofa task, knowledge, or skill to achieveproficiency in performing the task or skillor demonstrating the knowledge.
  • 30. 4-30Table 4.6 - Features of GoodInstruction That Facilitate Learning
  • 31. 4-31Table 4.8 - Characteristics ofGood Training Objectives
  • 32. 4-32The Learning Process (cont.)Metacognition - individual control overone’s thinking.Two ways that individuals engage inmetacognition are monitoring and control.Advance organizers - outlines, texts,diagrams, and graphs that help traineesorganize the information that will bepresented and practiced.
  • 33. 4-33The Learning Process (cont.)Overlearning - Continuing to practiceeven after being able to perform theobjective several times.Error management training - givingtrainees opportunities to make errorsduring training; provides the opportunityfor trainees to engage in metacognition.
  • 34. 4-34The Learning Process (cont.)Practice can be massed, spaced, in whole,or in part.It must be related to the trainingobjectives.Feedback is information about how wellpeople are meeting the trainingobjectives, and should be provided assoon as possible after the trainees’behavior.
  • 35. 4-35The Learning Process (cont.)Employees learn through observation,experience, and interacting with others.Communities of practice - groups ofemployees who work together, learn fromeach other, and develop a commonunderstanding of how to get workaccomplished.
  • 36. 4-36Table 4.11 - Internal and External ConditionsNecessary for Learning Outcomes
  • 37. 4-37Table 4.12 - Details to ConsiderWhen Evaluating a Training Room
  • 38. 4-38Figure 4.4 - Examples of SeatingArrangements
  • 39. 4-39Table 4.13 - Matching TrainingRooms With Learning Requirements
  • 40. 4-40Table 4.14 - Examples of how toget Trainees Involved
  • 41. 4-41Table 4.15 - Design DocumentTemplate
  • 42. 4-42Table 4.17 - Sample of a DetailedLesson Plan
  • 43. 4-43Table 4.18 - Features of anEffective Lesson Plan
  • 44. 4-44Table 4.19 - Sample LessonOverview