4-2What is Learning? What isLearned?LearningLearning -- a relatively permanentchange in human capabilities that is not aresult of growth processes.These capabilities are related to specificlearning outcomes.
4-4Reinforcement Theory Social Learning TheoryGoal TheoriesNeed TheoriesExpectancy TheoryAdult Learning TheoryInformation ProcessingTheoryLearning Theories
4-5Reinforcement theory - emphasizesthat people are motivated to perform oravoid certain behaviors because of pastoutcomes that have resulted from thosebehaviors.Several processes in reinforcement theory arepositive reinforcement, negativereinforcement, extinction, and punishment.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-6Reinforcement theoryThe trainer needs to identify what outcomesthe learner finds most positive and negative.Trainers then need to link these outcomes tolearners acquiring knowledge, skills, orchanging behaviors.Trainers can withhold or provide job-related,personal, and career-related benefits tolearners who master program content.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-8Social learning theory - emphasizesthat people learn by observing otherpersons (models) whom they believe arecredible and knowledgeable.The theory recognizes that behavior thatis reinforced or rewarded tends to berepeated.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-9Social learning theoryLearning new skills or behavior comes from:directly experiencing the consequences of using abehavior or skill, orthe process of observing others and seeing theconsequences of their behavior.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-10Social learning theoryLearning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy, which is a person’s judgment aboutwhether he or she can successfully learnknowledge and skills.A person’s self-efficacy can be increased usingseveral methods: verbal persuasion, logicalverification, observation of others (modeling),and past accomplishments.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-11Figure 4.1 - Processes of SocialLearning Theory
4-12Goal theoriesGoal setting theory - assumes that behaviorresults from a person’s conscious goals andintentions.Goals influence a person’s behavior by:directing energy and attention.sustaining effort over time.motivating the person to develop strategies for goalattainment.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-13Goal theoriesGoal setting theoryIt is used in training program design.It suggests that learning can be facilitated byproviding trainees with specific challenging goalsand objectives.The influence of goal setting theory can be seen inthe development of training lesson plans.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-14Goal theoriesGoal orientation - the goals held by atrainee in a learning situation.It includes learning and performance orientation.Learning orientation - trying to increase ability orcompetence in a task.Performance orientation - learners who focus ontask performance and how they compare to others.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-15Goal theoriesGoal orientationIt affects the amount of effort a trainee will expendin learning (motivation to learn).Learners with a high learning orientation will directgreater attention to the task and learn for the sakeof learning in comparison to learners with aperformance orientation.Learners with a performance orientation will directmore attention to performing well and less effort tolearning.Learning Theories (cont.)
4-16Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesHelps to explain the value that a personplaces on certain outcomes.Need - a deficiency that a person isexperiencing at any point in time.Maslow’s and Alderfer’s need theories focusedon physiological needs, relatedness needs,and growth needs.
4-17Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesThe major difference between Alderfer’s andMaslow’s hierarchies of needs is that Alderferallows the possibility that if higher-level needsare not satisfied, employees will refocus onlower-level needs.McClelland’s need theory focused primarily onneeds for achievement, affiliation, and power.
4-18Learning Theories (cont.)Need theoriesSuggest that to motivate learning, trainersshould identify trainees’ needs andcommunicate how training program contentrelates to fulfilling these needs.If certain basic needs of trainees are not met, theyare unlikely to be motivated to learn.
4-19Learning Theories (cont.)Expectancy theoryIt suggests that a person’s behavior is basedon three factors:Expectancies - the link between trying to performa behavior and actually performing well.Instrumentality - a belief that performing a givenbehavior is associated with a particular outcome.Valence - the value that a person places on anoutcome.
4-20Figure 4.2 - Expectancy Theory ofMotivation
4-21Table 4.3 - Implications ofAdult Learning Theory for Training
4-22Learning Theories (cont.)Information processing theoryIt gives more emphasis to the internalprocesses that occur when training content islearned and retained.It highlights how external events influencelearning, which include:Changes in the intensity or frequency of thestimulus that affect attention.Informing the learner of the objectives to establishan expectation.Enhancing perceptual features of the material(stimulus), drawing the attention of the learner tocertain features.
4-23Learning Theories (cont.)Information processing theoryIt highlights how external events influencelearning, which include:Verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and mapssuggesting ways to code the training content so thatit can be stored in memory.Meaningful learning context (examples, problems)creating cues that facilitate coding.Demonstration or verbal instructions helping toorganize the learner’s response as well asfacilitating the selection of the correct response.
4-24Figure 4.3 – A Model of HumanInformation Processing
4-25Table 4.4- The Relationship among LearningProcesses, Instructional Events, and Forms ofInstruction
4-28Age influences on learningTrainers need to be aware of trainees’ ages tocreate a learning environment and developmaterials that meet their preferences.According to some trainers, there are fourgenerations of employees with distinctattitudes toward work and preferred ways tolearn—Millenniums (or nexters), Gen Xers,baby boomers, and traditionalists.The Learning Process (cont.)
4-29The Learning Process (cont.)Instruction - trainer’s manipulation ofthe environment in order to help traineeslearn.The training context - the physical,intellectual, and emotional environment inwhich training occurs.Practice - physical or mental rehearsal ofa task, knowledge, or skill to achieveproficiency in performing the task or skillor demonstrating the knowledge.
4-30Table 4.6 - Features of GoodInstruction That Facilitate Learning
4-31Table 4.8 - Characteristics ofGood Training Objectives
4-32The Learning Process (cont.)Metacognition - individual control overone’s thinking.Two ways that individuals engage inmetacognition are monitoring and control.Advance organizers - outlines, texts,diagrams, and graphs that help traineesorganize the information that will bepresented and practiced.
4-33The Learning Process (cont.)Overlearning - Continuing to practiceeven after being able to perform theobjective several times.Error management training - givingtrainees opportunities to make errorsduring training; provides the opportunityfor trainees to engage in metacognition.
4-34The Learning Process (cont.)Practice can be massed, spaced, in whole,or in part.It must be related to the trainingobjectives.Feedback is information about how wellpeople are meeting the trainingobjectives, and should be provided assoon as possible after the trainees’behavior.
4-35The Learning Process (cont.)Employees learn through observation,experience, and interacting with others.Communities of practice - groups ofemployees who work together, learn fromeach other, and develop a commonunderstanding of how to get workaccomplished.
4-36Table 4.11 - Internal and External ConditionsNecessary for Learning Outcomes
4-37Table 4.12 - Details to ConsiderWhen Evaluating a Training Room
4-38Figure 4.4 - Examples of SeatingArrangements
4-39Table 4.13 - Matching TrainingRooms With Learning Requirements
4-40Table 4.14 - Examples of how toget Trainees Involved