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  • 1. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and Menarid International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre Beirut , June 2014Ebel Smidt
  • 2. Linearity: missing the main issue Fragile – robust – antifragile (Nassim Taleb)
  • 3. MAIN MESSAGES 1. Buffering is an ancient answer to crises. 2. Groundwater is a natural buffer, use it economically and wisely, taking into consideration uncertainty in the planning. 3. Recent 65 years of modern large scale MAR-projects and thousands of years of small scale experiences offer challenging opportunities for future cooperation in practical and research projects.
  • 4. Water costs
  • 5. Buffer management at the basin scale
  • 6. Key facts 1. Operational since 2002 2. Capacity 9 MCM used for a) guaranteeing drinking water supply b) Downstream regular use of groundwater for agriculture (12 MCM) c) Restoring wildlife, improving biotic ecosystems Wala Dam Jordan
  • 7. Drinking water from the dunes • 1853 Start extraction by dug canals • 1903 Start extraction by wells • 1957 Start artificial recharge with pretreated river water taken from the Rhine Branch near Utrecht, at 75 km distance.
  • 8. Origin from the drinking water produced from the dune area near Amsterdam 1853- 1999 Bron drinkwaterproductie Leiduin 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1850 1862 1874 1886 1898 1910 1922 1934 1946 1958 1970 1982 1994 mlnm3/jaar Geinfiltreerd rivierwater (sinds 1957) Diep duinwater (sinds 1903) Ondiep duinwater (sinds 1853) River water Deep dune water Shallow dune water
  • 9. Groundwater and Adaptation Measures  Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) provides multiple benefits:  storing water for future use  stabilizing or recovering ground water levels in overexploited aquifers,  reducing evaporative losses  managing saline intrusion or land subsidence, and  enabling reuse of waste or storm water.  Land use change – may provide an opportunity to enhance recharge, to protect groundwater quality and to reduce groundwater losses from evapotranspiration.  Integrating the management of surface water and groundwater resources (also to avoid mutual adversely impact) by regional integrated land and water management (ILWM – INRM)
  • 10. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) or 3R: a different way of thinking Recharge Retention Reuse
  • 11. 3R Techniques
  • 12. New developments: buffering desal water: Abu Dhabi ASR Project
  • 13. DESAL-MAR – a simple picture and a more complex one……next slide(Source ASR Consortium 2007)
  • 14. Economics of combining ASR and Desalination Savings (in %) per unit production cost by introducing ASR in relation to desalination plant capacity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Desalination plant capacity (m3 per day) Savings(%)g max min
  • 15. Cost scale of MAR in relation to typical costs of water supplies for irrigation, non-potable & drinking water supplies irrigation supplies 3rd pipe supplies of non-potable recycled water urban drinking water supplies $0.50 - $1.50/KL$0.05-0.50/KL >$1.20/KL m3 price of water ASR pond infiltration Dillon, P., Pavelic, P., Page, D., Beringen H. and Ward J. (2009) Managed Aquifer Recharge: An Introduction, Waterlines Report No 13, Feb 2009.
  • 16. Water adaptation costs (1)
  • 17. 1. IGRAC’s aim: to be one of your main portals to groundwater knowledge. 2. Sharing experiences with information selection and sharing is meta- information, which can help you to solve your Groundwater Technical and Governance issues. 3. So: don’t hesitate to contact IGRAC. International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre
  • 18. Tool in development: Meta-information on MAR sites
  • 19. MAIN OVERALL AMMAN MESSAGES (1) 1. Water buffering and land use change are ancient answers to crises. It are behavioural changes! 2. Groundwater is increasingly being used economically and wisely as buffer. MAR-Menarid examples are an excellent proof of this statement. 3. Much challenging work has to be done concerning proper scaling (both up and down) of MAR-implementation.
  • 20. MAIN OVERALL AMMAN MESSAGES (2) 4. MAR-technology is well developed and will develop itself to further maturity combining conventional and modern methods. General guidelines are available and being updated. Improved effective and efficient exchange mechanism on national and international levels are needed especially concerning societal acceptance or integration of MAR. 5. Main scientific questions focus on (a) water quality issues, (b) optimization of water balancing, (c) planning and monitoring and (d) integration of technical, socio- economic, institutional and participation issues (=governance). Tailormade solutions are needed within generic frameworks.
  • 21. MAIN OVERALL AMMAN MESSAGES (3) 6. Downscaling means bringing practical solutions to the lowest levels in a watershed (individual plants and trees and people), upscaling means bringing the solutionsto the highest levels of waterbasin planning (transboundary if needed). Integration of the two processes is an important challenge to increase the speed of success. 7. Cost effectiveness and cost recovery are important issues: especially in groundwater/MAR-practises full cost analysis (including long term development / sustainability issues) is needed. 8. The Sept 2014 Marrakesh IAH conference is a good forum to present results of the down&upscaled processes following our workshop (www.IAH2014.org). 9. Involve other MENA and Arab Gulf countries in the information exchange and next phases (viz. Abu Dhabi, Egypt, Lebanon etc.) . 10. Pay special attention to the need of the Gaza aquifer recovery issue, in combination with desal opportunities and economics. 11. Integrate findings with the International Groundwater Governance Project.
  • 22. More information http://groundwatercop.iwlearn.net/menarid http://www.un-igrac.org/publications/155 www.bebuffered.com www.iah.org/recharge http://www.groundwatergovernance.org/
  • 23. Thank you for your attention For future contact: Ebel Smidt: e.h.smidt@tudelft.nl International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre Beirut, June 2014

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