Mirghasemi watershed management-in iran

695 views
465 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
695
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
50
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mirghasemi watershed management-in iran

  1. 1. In the Name of Allah Watershed Management in Iran with emphasis on erosion and sediment control By : Seyed abolfazl mirghasemi
  2. 2. Contents : • Objectives • History and evolution of watershed management • Natural Features Of Iran (climate, land use ,geology) • Reservoir dams of Iran • Soil erosion in Iran • Planning for erosion study & control • Applied Measures
  3. 3. Objectives : Conservation and development of water, soil and plant resources Soil erosion and sediment control Flood control & spreading Ground water Recharge & Mitigation of drought Consequences Improvement of living standards and welfare of local communities;
  4. 4. History of watershed Management In iran • IRAN has practiced Watershed Management since 3000 years ago. The historical hydraulic structures , water harvesting systems , water supply systems and working on hillslope shows the efforts of Iranians in the past. • Qanats, construction of earth dams, Masonry dams, Irrigation Canals, Traditional Rain Water Harvesting System (khoshab & bandsar) and terracing on steep slopes for cultivation are some of the examples.
  5. 5. Traditional systems of soil & water conservation IRAN-Bushehr IRAN-Baluchestan
  6. 6. Traditional system soil & water conservation IRAN - Fars IRAN - Kermanshah
  7. 7. Traditional system soil & water conservation IRAN-fars & Bushehr
  8. 8. History and evolution of Watershed Management in Iran FAO report about critical situation of Soil Erosion in Iran in 1958 Establishment of Soil & Water Conservation Committee in 1958 Implementation of Soil Conservation Pilot Project, by FAO in 1959
  9. 9. Flood Damages in 1968 and Sedimentation Problems in the Reservoir of 6 Big Dams Establishment of Soil Technical Office in 1968 Restarting of Watershed Management Activities in Karaj, Sefid-Rood and Dez River Basins, in 1969 Preparation of the First Watershed Management Master Plan by Iranian experts in 1976
  10. 10. Progress in Watershed Management Activities caused necessity of Coordination & Cooperation Establishment of Watershed Management Superior Council in 1972 Establishment of Bureau of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management in1972 Separation of Wind & Water Erosion Controls sectors in 1973
  11. 11. Reform in Watershed Management Organization and establishment of Watershed Management Deputy under Ministry of Jihad-e-Sazandegi in 1991 Similar / Parallel works between Watershed Management Deputy & Forest and Range Organization Reform in Watershed Management Organization by considering both sectors under one Organization SINCE 2001
  12. 12. overview on Natural features of IRAN
  13. 13. Photo Mosaic of Landsat ETM+ Images in 2000-2002
  14. 14. Climate: • Predominant climate of Iran is Arid – Semi Arid • Mean annual of precipitation is 250 mm • Rainfall ranging from 50 – 2000 mm • %75 of precipitation in autumn- winter & %25 in spring
  15. 15. :Forest Land use in Iran Million ha. 14.3 :Range Desert: Cultivated land & etc 85 Million ha. 32.8 27.6 Million ha. Million ha.
  16. 16. Range classification • Good rang :7.2 mhaModerate range : 21.45 mha Poor range : 56.31 mha
  17. 17. Forest Commercial forest (hircanian) 1.9 mha Semi dense forest (zagros) 12.1 mha
  18. 18. Desert & Sand dune Desert : 32.8 mha
  19. 19. Geological description • Iran is divided into 4 geological zones: • 1- Alborzo Zone • 2-Zagros zones • 3- khuzestan plain • 4- central iran zones • Existence of extensive neogene rocks and quaternary deposits are the main sources of sediment
  20. 20. High Erodible & soft rocks and soils Clay Marl LoessMarl
  21. 21. Reservoir Dams •Aras dam Sefidrud dam
  22. 22. Soil erosion in Iran Gully Sheet &Rill Landslide Bank erosion
  23. 23. Area under Accelerated Soil Erosion Quantity of erosion in Iran Million ha. 125 B tones / yr Total annual Soil erosion Area with High Runoff: Specific Erosion Area under Floods 2 Million ha. 91 Tons/ha /yr 255 Cities 8650 Villages Roads & Infrastructures 20000 Qanats 1000000 ha Arable Lands 16.45
  24. 24. ‫هزينه‬‫فرسايش‬‫در‬‫ايران‬‫معادل‬14‫درصد‬‫درآمد‬‫ناخالص‬‫ملي‬ ‫مي‬‫باشد‬. ‫مأخذ‬:‫امور‬‫بررسيهاي‬‫برنامه‬‫عمران‬‫سازمان‬‫ملل‬،1991 ‫مأخذ‬:‫ش‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ز‬‫گ‬‫ده‬‫‌ساله‬‌‫ي‬‫آبخيزدار‬،‫به‬‫‌نقل‬‫از‬FAO 1 1.3 1.6 2.2 1.9 0 2 4 6 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 ‫ل‬ ‫سا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ن‬ ‫لياردت‬‫ي‬ ‫م‬Btones/years Trend of soil erosion in Iran
  25. 25. ‫ا‬‫ثرات‬‫زيست‬‫محيطي‬ ‫عمليات‬‫شاس‬ ‫بر‬‫زيستگاه‬‫آبزيان‬‫رودخانه‬‫سفيد‬‫رود‬ ‫گزارش‬ ‫به‬ ‫اداره‬‫كل‬‫محيط‬‫زيست‬‫استان‬‫گيالن‬
  26. 26. ‫د‬‫و‬‫ر‬‫سفيد‬ ‫سد‬‫سوب‬‫ر‬ ‫تخليه‬ ‫يچه‬‫ر‬‫د‬
  27. 27. ‫هدف‬:‫؟‬ ‫سوب‬‫ر‬‫يا‬ ‫است‬ ‫آب‬ ‫ذخيره‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬‫ر‬‫آو‬‫جمع‬!
  28. 28. ‫سوب‌شده‌است‬‫ر‬‌‫د‌که‌پر‌از‬‫و‬‫‌سد‌سپيد‌ر‬‫ن‬‫مخز‬!‫؟‬
  29. 29. ‫روان‬ ‫های‬ ‫شن‬ ‫و‬ ‫بادی‬ ‫فرسايش‬ ‫معضل‬(‫مواقعی‬ ‫در‬ ‫سد‬ ‫مخزن‬ ‫از‬ ‫شده‬ ‫حمل‬ ‫باشد‬ ‫می‬ ‫پايين‬ ‫درياچه‬ ‫آب‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫که‬)‫س‬ ‫مخزن‬ ‫حاشيه‬ ‫روستاهای‬ ‫اراضی‬ ‫در‬‫د‬ (‫قزوين‬ ‫استان‬ ‫سفلی‬ ‫طارم‬ ‫منطقه‬ ‫در‬ ‫سياهپوش‬ ‫روستای‬)
  30. 30. ‫د‌پس‌از‌عمليات‌شاس‌و‬‫و‬‫پايين‌دست‌سد‌سپيد‌ر‬ ‌‫مردمي‌كه‌در‌حال‌گرفتن‌ماهی‌از‌آب‌گل‌آلود‌می‌باشند‬!
  31. 31. ‌‫يست‌مجيطی‌در‌پايين‌دست‌سد‬‫ز‬‌‫فاجعه‬!‫؟‬
  32. 32. ‌‫صيد‌و‌صياد‬!‫؟‬
  33. 33. Effective factors in Soil erosion Natural factors :  Hilly Terrain  Erodible rocks  Poor vegetation cover  Arid & Semi-Arid Climate Man made Factors:  Land use change  Over grazing  Plughing in slope direction  Deforstation  Mining Operation  Mis-Practice in Agricultur
  34. 34. Over grazing : The number of livestock is 2.5 to 3 times of carrying capacity of rangelands
  35. 35. Natural Erosion (Geological) %10 percent of catchment area contribute in production of %50 of sediment
  36. 36. Planning & study for W.M • Watershed planning in 3 scale is implemented • 1- First phase on Scale(1:250000) • 2- second phase on Scale 1:50000 • 3- Third phase on scale 1:25000
  37. 37. Basins and watersheds of Iran • Iran is divided into 6 great basins: • 1-Caspian Sea • 2- Qaraqoom • 3- hamoon • 4- Persian Gulf & Oman Sea • 5-Orumieh lake • 6- Central Desert 39
  38. 38. Erosion & sediment control Measures • Structural Measures: • 1- Designing and implementation different types of Check dams • 2- Designing Of small earthdam • 2- Bio mechanical measures on hillside • 3- biological measures like seedling and plantation of fodder crops • River engineering • Flood spreading
  39. 39. Flood control & sediment trap by stony check dam
  40. 40. Sediment Trap
  41. 41. River Bank protection
  42. 42. The objectives of work on Hillside are: • Stabilizing of slopes & erosion control • Rainwater harvesting • Improving vegetation cover • Increasing crop production (fruits and alfalfa) • Improving incomes and welfare of local people • Improving food security and self sufficiency
  43. 43. Characteristics of WM projects • Suitable land : Approximately 3.7 mha • Executed : 245000 ha • Planned for 5 years : 1 mha • Type of Activities : Terracing , banquette , • Maine products: Olive, Almond, walnut, apple, orange, Strawberry , grape, alfalfa • Contribution of People • Having Support of Government
  44. 44. Working on Hillside (terrace)
  45. 45. Working On Hillside
  46. 46. Hillside Rehabilitation (tree plantation & Alfalfa)
  47. 47. Planting on hillside grading works
  48. 48. Example of Watershed Management Measures
  49. 49. ‫بم‬ ‫باريک‬ ‫آب‬ ‫آبخواندری‬ ‫ايستگاه‬ ‫در‬ ‫سيالب‬ ‫پخش‬ ‫از‬ ‫يی‬ ‫بم‬ ‫باريک‬ ‫آب‬ ‫سيالب‬ ‫پخش‬ ‫ايستگاه‬ ‫در‬ ‫گياهی‬ ‫پوشش‬ ‫از‬ ‫يی‬
  50. 50. Conclusion & recommendation • Small Dam construction is useful for flood control of heavy storm rainfalls • Small scale water resource development & Rainwater harvesting techniques are very useful for arid & semi-arid region • Biological & bio-mechanical measure have high priority because they are multipurpose and have more benefits to local communities and also environment
  51. 51. Tank You for Your Attention

×