Lc islands


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third groundwater integration dialogue

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Lc islands

  1. 1. ““The experience of the CanaryThe experience of the Canary and Balearic islands”and Balearic islands” Lucila CandelaLucila Candela (Technical University of Catalonia-UPC)(Technical University of Catalonia-UPC) 3rd UNESCO GEF IW LEARN Integration Dialogue‐ “Managing Groundwater in Coastal Areas and SIDS” 2nd theme“A broader view at the governance of Coastal Aquifers”
  2. 2. Canary Islands Balearic Islands •Water Legal framework dependent on the Autonomous region (Consejos Insulares de Agua)
  3. 3. THE CANARY ISLANDS: VOLCANIC TERRAINS •2 M inhabitants (80% in two islands) •Precipitation: 100-400 mm/yr •Absence of runoff (high permeability) •Suggar-cane and bananas production •Great importance of tourism •Demand seasonality (300m3/in/yr available) • Water Markets-(WaterAct, 1999) Cabrera, MC
  4. 4. •Galleries up to 6 km length; estimation: 2000 km •A number of wells (from 3m−250 θ; most shared by users assoc. •Development of informal ‘water markets’ since XV century (monetary compensation, water shifs, informal agreements….), water-holders
  5. 5. WATER RESOURCES hm3 /yr Archipelago hm3 /yr* (%) 1991 2000 2004 2009 1991 2000 2004 Conventional Surface 1 0.5 0.5 27 0.5 0.2 0.2 Groundwater 203 196 197 343 95.8 91.0 87.0 Springs 8 4 4 3.8 1.9 1.8 Non conventional Reuse 0 8 13 19 0 3.7 5.6 Desalination 0 7 12 132 0 3.2 5.4 TOTAL 212 216 226 516 100 100 100 Tenerife *Custodio& Cabrera (2013)
  6. 6. THE BALEARIC ISLANDS Total Water Use in Majorca (1996): 246 Mm3 Agriculture: 150,2 Urban supply: 90,3 Golf courses: 3,2 Industry: 0,5 Other uses: 1,8
  7. 7. Permanent population: 609,000 inhab Tourist arrival: max: 405,000 mean: 210,000 precipitation: 650 mm/year (average) Surface Water (10%): Runoff:120 hm3/year Regulation: scarce Groundwater (90%): 30.000 registered wells Detrital and carbonate Aquifers Groundwater associate wetlands
  8. 8. • Demand increase & seasonality •Social conflicts and ecosystem impacts (Balearic Is) •Reserve exploitation & wells re-deepening (Canary Is) •Increase cost of water supply •Quality: salinization, nitrates and pesticides in groundwater •Strategies: • Improve management & technology, research •Control of water demand reduce losses, public awareness and participation, economic tools, IWRM, •Hydrologic plan acceptance Groundwater problems •Governance, Policy & Legislation
  9. 9. Projects to increase water supplyProjects to increase water supply Wellfield Springs Dams Desalination Plant Storage Artificial Recharge Llubí S’Estremera Cúber Sa Costera Font de la Vila Crestaix Badia de Palma Desalination Plant Son Pax Ses Ufanes Ses Planes Alcudia Desalination PlantGorg Blau Pollença Font de Son Sant Joan N 0 1 0 2 0 Existing Infrastructure Under construction Former project Actual project Integration of surface (reservoirs and springs) and groundwater resources (strategic aquifers).INFRASTUCTURE & IWRM Use of available desalinated water in winter periods . Uniform prize of water, and maximum efficiency of water Interdiction of new wells construction Increase reuse of treated wastewater
  10. 10. Savings from rising awareness (Majorca, 2000) 80.000 100.000 120.000 140.000 160.000 180.000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 mesos m3/d 1999 real 2000 previst 2000 real 1.900.000 m3 Public participation campaignsPublic participation campaigns
  11. 11. Water related governance structure: principles The roles of : Government; Civil society & private sector -Responsabilities regarding ownership, management and administration of water resources and services Legislation: Water Act (29/1985 and amendments), Islands Act (Directives) •Governance, Policy & Legislation Legal framework: The formulation, stablishment and implementation of water policies, legislation and institutions HYDROLOGIC PLAN
  12. 12. Legal framework (Water Act) -Water Management (quantity-quality): Ministry. Autonomous Regions. -Actors and roles : Water Basin and Institutions. Control relies in the Hydraulic Administration -Urban supply provided by companies is responsibility of the municipal council; rural areas by private wells and water-tank trucks - Participation instruments: Farmers, water supply companies, citizens, hotels… (stakeholders/citizens) -Information management and sharing: Public participation at the Hydrologic Water Plan. Also expert advice through professional associations or academia. Water policy and current instruments of water regulation also includes water prizing and water allocation, taxes and subsidies
  13. 13. Autonomous Government (Balearic Islands) Autonomous Ministry for Environment General Directorate of Water Resources Governing Body executive Balearic Water Council Counselling, participatory & planning Island Water Board Counselling, participatory & planning Exploitation Propose: - water use and hydraulic works and the PHI definition -special provisions Output: -overexploited aquifers declaration - protection zone perimeters -adopt measures against saltwater intrusion -approve economic compensation Propose: -report the PH to the CG -declaration of overexploited aquifers -determination of protection perimeters -measures to avoid saltwater intrusion -approval of general criteria for compensations -approval of rates, taxes and prices that apply Output: -legal policies - water use and hydraulic works planning - PH submission to the Central Administration for approval -define special provisions Output: -policies on water public domain -authorise RTD projects - communities of users support & promotion - concessions for water use - authorisations for effluent discharges -expropriations (water issues) Output: -program and budget of the Hydraulic Administration - criteria for exploitation, water uses and water public domain - promote Communities of User’s reports Output: -participate as a consulting and counselling body in the planning of water resources -know and inform about the PHIB and updates -inform the issues considered by the legislative body Output: -participate as a consulting and counselling body in the planning of the water resources -report on the PHIB and revisions -inform the issues considered by the legislative body -control aquifers evolution along time and exploitation regimes Propose: -criteria and guidelines for the PHIB Water related governance structure-Legal framework
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention!!!