FINAL REPORT
Inventory of Information and Identification of Gaps for Characterization
and Assessment of the Esquipulas-Oco...
PREPARED BY:
Ana Patricia Alvarado Cruz

REVIEWED BY:
Carlos Rosal del Cid
Regional Officer
Livelihoods and Climate Change...
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ANDA

Administración Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados

CEL

Comisión Ejecutiva Hidroel...
CONTENTS
I.

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................
TABLES

Table 1 Programs and Projects of the Trifinio Plan ..................................................................
Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region ..........................................................................
I.

INTRODUCTION

Every day greater quantities of groundwater are used to meet the needs of rural and urban
communities al...
managing the environment and territory as a means of making improved living conditions possible
for border communities. Fo...
development activities through differing dynamics—more expeditious and practical in the case of
associated municipalities ...
Strengthening of Five Salvadoran
Municipal Governments in the
Upper Watershed of the Lempa
River
Operational Plan of Japan...







Capacity of rivers and springs
Isotopic analysis of oxygen 18, deuterium and tritium
Geophysical testing
Prep...
difficulties or constraints and channeling requests of the consultant team, as well as
coordinating field visits and face-...
V. PLANNING ACTIVITIES

5.1. START-UP ACTIVITIES
These activities were carried out by the technical team of the IUCN Livel...


Preliminary timetable of activities and approach strategy



Definition of the consultant technical team needed to con...
PARTICIPANTS

ACTIVITY

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Patricia Alvarado
(consultant)

PRODUCTS

of the memo is in
process.

Sebastián...
ACTIVITY

PARTICIPANTS

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

PRODUCTS

information available
at Trifinio Plan
headquarters and
preliminary g...
Coordination
workshop with
the Lempa River
Trinational Border
Association of
Municipalities

Representatives of
the Lempa ...
Presentation by
the consultant
team on progress
in the preliminary
phase
Observations,
suggestions and
recommendations
wer...
STAKEHOLDERS

OBSERVACITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Trinational
Technical Research
Team
Lempa River
Trinational Border
Associati...
While there has been work on the gender theme in the zone in some
projects, it is still very weak so needs to be made visi...
Coordinate with and support the Trinational Association of
Municipalities to promote the public policies of “Shared Waters...
very deep and of better quality. Due to their geological characteristics, certain zones appear
to have little water permea...
A reconnaissance trip was also made to the area where the Esquipulas- Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer
is located, so that the UN...
VI. RESULTS

BIOPHYSICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL
INFORMATION

24
6.1. BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE AREA OF THE ESQUIPULASOCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER (TRIFINIO AQUIFER)
While the...
6.1.2. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6.1.2.1. CLIMATE AND LIFE ZONES
The most recurrent climate in the Trifinio region is se...
6.1.2.2. PRECIPITATION
Average monthly and annual precipitation recorded for the last 20 years (1990 – 2010) is shown in
t...
6.1.2.3. TEMPERATURE
Trifinio is located in the tropical climate belt, recording average temperatures that are similar yea...
Figure 5 Relative Humidity in the Trifinio Region

Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010

According to this map, relative humidity for the...
Approximately 40% of the zone is highly susceptible to erosion due to a combination of
topographical, edaphic, and geologi...
Extending from mid-mountain to where the plains begin, this zone is formed of alluvia and colluvia
shaped by river current...
Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region

Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio, 2010
These three large watersheds are divid...
6.1.2.8. RECHARGE ZONES
A bibliographical review found that the GIZ Water and Forest Project prepared a map of water
recha...
The map shows the four categories of potential water zone categories.

6.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE ESQUIPULAS...
Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio 2010

As shown on the geological map, the Trifinio aquifer area contains:
 domes of lava and sl...
Figure 13 First Approximation of the Delimitation of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer

Source: UNESCO-IHP-OEA ISAR...
Location of well and research piezometers
on the Honduran side, El Poy. Trifinio

Well-drilling machinery

Some wells have...
ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION

38
6.3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
While there is almost no biophysical or hydrogeological information specifically for the aq...
Figure 14 Protected Areas Located in the Trifinio Zone

Source: SIG/GIZ 2010

6.3.2. MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE TR...
impact, especially in the buffer zone of Montaña Montecristo and Montaña de Quezaltepeque
 Risk of flooding, with the mos...
6.3.3. WATER USES
There is little information about use of the aquifer. The population of Trifinio is thought to
depend en...
6.3.4. LOCAL ECONOMY’S DEPENDENCE ON ACCESS TO WATER RESOURCES
According to studies by ISARM, in the dry season agricultur...
SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION

44
6.4. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION VAILABLE
This is the type of information that has been generated most in the zone. Differen...
Table 10 Population Data for the Trifinio Zone
N° General Data
Socioeconomic Characteristics
Municipal Infrastructure
1 Co...
high demand for temporary labor that cannot be met in the zone, requiring that workers be
brought in from other parts of C...
6.4.4. MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS
According to the integrated appraisal made by Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del R...
MINEDUC

Trinational
ATRIDEST
Commission of
the Trifinio Plan

MSPAS

Asociación
Ganaderos
Concepción
Minas

de OIRSA
de
L...
District Education
Department

Women’s
Commission

Cooperativa de
Transportes San
José Ltda.

Departmental
Education
Depar...
Table 13 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone, El Salvador
CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
San
Ignacio Local Risk
Round...
Women’s
Multisectoral
Roundtable
San Ignacio, Sexual
Exploitation

Lempa River
Trinational
Association
(associated
municip...
National Civil Police Los Llanitos Water Asociación
Force
Comunal de
Board
agromercadeo,
servicios turísticos y
ambientale...
Health units of
Citalá, San
Fernando, La
Palma, Dulce
Nombre de María,
San Ignacio, Cantón
Las Pilas

Iglesias
Evangélicas...
GENDER INFORMATION

55
6.5. GENDER INFORMATION
6.5.1. GENDER PERSPECTIVE IN PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE
To analyze the incorporati...
No.

Name of the Project

Incorporation of Gender Perspective

4

Management of the Montecristo
Trinational Protected Area...
No.

Name of the Project

Incorporation of Gender Perspective

(PROTUR_TRIFINIO) (2010-2013)

Distributed in 6 associated ...
Information for the gender situation analysis done by the project was obtained through
workshops with focus groups in each...
In addition, incorporation of equity and gender aspects was considered, not only disaggregating
information by sex but als...
finding it difficult to achieve genuine implementation of gender perspective in field actions since
each of the communitie...
Outcome 2. Promotion of multi-sectoral platforms of innovation. This outcomes aims at
assuring gender balance in project p...
The program’s annual operating plans
mention that they are based on fundamental
principles governing all parts of their
im...
To date, cooperation agencies and executing institutions are carrying out gender work at their
own initiative, but not in ...
final report consultancies trifinio(en)
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  1. 1. FINAL REPORT Inventory of Information and Identification of Gaps for Characterization and Assessment of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer (Trifinio Aquifer) PROJECT GOVERNANCE OF GROUNDWATER IN TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS Livelihoods and Climate Change Unit-IUCN Guatemala March 2013 1
  2. 2. PREPARED BY: Ana Patricia Alvarado Cruz REVIEWED BY: Carlos Rosal del Cid Regional Officer Livelihoods and Climate Change Unit IUCN 2
  3. 3. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ANDA Administración Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados CEL Comisión Ejecutiva Hidroeléctrica del Río Lempa CTPT Comisión Trinacional Plan Trifinio ENEE Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency INSIVUMEH Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología ISARM Internationally Shared Aquifer Resources Management IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature MAG Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería de El Salvador MARN Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de El Salvador MARN Ministerio de Ambienta y Recursos Naturales de Guatemala SANAA Servicio Autónomo Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados SSC South-south cooperation SNET Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales UES Universidad de El Salvador UNDP United Nations Development Program UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 3
  4. 4. CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 7 II. BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 7 III. OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................... 11 3.1. GENERAL................................................................................................................................. 11 3.2. SPECIFIC .................................................................................................................................. 11 IV. METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 11 V. PLANNING ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................... 13 5.1. START-UP ACTIVITIES ............................................................................................................. 13 5.2. WORKSHOPS AND MEETINGS WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE TRIFINIO REGION FOR FEEDBACK ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL ....................................................................................... 14 5.3. TRIPS TO THE FIELD ................................................................................................................ 21 VI. RESULTS........................................................................................................................................ 24 6.1. BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE AREA OF THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUECITALÁ AQUIFER (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) ........................................................................................... 25 6.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) ............................................................................................................. 34 6.3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION .......................................................................................... 39 6.4. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION VAILABLE .......................................................................... 45 6.5. GENDER INFORMATION ....................................................................................................... 56 6.6. POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED AND AQUIFER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE TRIFINIO REGION ........................................................................................... 67 6.7. IDENTIFICATION OF INFORMATION GAPS ACCORDING TO INDICATORS ......................... 77 VII. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................. 83 VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................ 84 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................. 86 X. ATTACHMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 90 ATTACHMENT 1. Lists of participants in coordination and informational workshops with other stakeholders .................................................................................................................................. 91 ATTACHMENT 2. Documents Reviewed to Identify Information Gaps ......................................... 95 ATTACHMENT 3. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in the Esquipulas Valley ....................... 119 ATTACHMENT 4. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in La Palma, El Salvador ....................... 122 4
  5. 5. TABLES Table 1 Programs and Projects of the Trifinio Plan ............................................................................. 9 Table 2 Description of Dissemination Activities for the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project and Coordination.................................................................................................... 14 Table 3 Observations and Suggestions for the Project Preparation Phase....................................... 18 Table 4 Observations and Suggestions on the Project Implementation Phase ................................ 19 Table 5 Average Monthly Precipitation in the Trifinio Region by Station......................................... 27 Table 6 Description of Soil Groups in the Trifinio Region ................................................................. 29 Table 7 Official Protected Areas in the Trifinio Region ..................................................................... 39 Table 8 Potable Water Coverage by Country in the Area of Influence of Trifinio Plan, Upper Lempa River Basin ......................................................................................................................................... 42 Table 9 Expected Population by 2015 ............................................................................................... 45 Table 10 Population Data for the Trifinio Zone ................................................................................. 46 Table 11 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Guatemala .................................. 48 Table 12 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Ocotepeque Honduras ............... 49 Table 13 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone, El Salvador ...................................... 51 Table 14 Programs and Projects Executed or Underway in the Trifinio Region ............................... 56 Table 15 Information Gaps Identified for the Zone of the Trifinio Aquifer Trifinio in Reference to Project Indicators .............................................................................................................................. 77 Table 16 Documents reviewed to Identify Gaps in Biophysical and Hydrogeological Information .. 95 FIGURES Figure 1 Location of the Trifinio region in the north Central American triangle .............................. 25 Figure 2 Climate Classification according to Thornthwaite .............................................................. 26 Figure 3 Annual Precipitation in the Trifinio Region ......................................................................... 27 Figure 4 Average Annual Temperatures (°C) for the Trifinio Region ................................................ 28 Figure 5 Relative Humidity in the Trifinio Region ............................................................................. 29 Figure 6 Soil Groupings in the Trifinio Region ................................................................................... 30 Figure 7 Relief in the Trifinio Region ................................................................................................. 31 5
  6. 6. Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region .......................................................................... 32 Figure 9 Subwatersheds located in the Trifinio Region .................................................................... 32 Figure 10 Potential Water Recharge Zones....................................................................................... 33 Figure 11 Geology Upper Basin of the Lempa River ......................................................................... 34 Figure 12 Hydrogeology of the Upper Part of the Watershed of the Lempa River .......................... 35 Figure 13 First Approximation of the Delimitation of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer .. 36 Figure 14 Protected Areas Located in the Trifinio Zone.................................................................... 40 Figure 15 Strategic Transboundary Environmental Problems .......................................................... 41 Figure 16 Organizational Chart of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan ......................... 63 6
  7. 7. I. INTRODUCTION Every day greater quantities of groundwater are used to meet the needs of rural and urban communities all over the planet in supplying this vital liquid for different uses (domestic, agricultural, commercial, industrial, tourism, etc.). Despite the increased use, there is still little study of groundwater dynamics and basic information remains unavailable for local or national management or planning and implementation of activities to restore, conserve and protect water recharge zones. UNESCO’s International Hydrological Program has made efforts to improve understanding of groundwater resources worldwide, providing guidelines on transboundary groundwater management. Within this programme, the “Internationally Shared Aquifers Resources Management Programme” (ISARM) stands out as a global programme that, in collaboration with its partners in the national, regional and international spheres, has prepared an inventory of hydrogeological characteristics, environmental and socioeconomic aspects and legal and institutional frameworks of transboundary aquifers at the global scale. In May 2012, within its Strategic Framework 2010-2015 and as part of the initiatives of a global water program, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) issued an invitation to present projects for funding with transboundary aquifers as the central theme. The invitation was accepted by the UNESCO International Hydrological program and IUCN, which presented a joint proposal on activities in three pilot sites, one being the Trifinio Aquifer (Esquipulas-OcotepequeCitalá). This was accepted by the cooperation agency, thereby initiating preparatory activities of the project with the objective of conducting an inventory of existing information on the Trifinio zone and identifying information gaps with respect to a group of indicators enabling a first characterization of the aquifer, and which would serve as foundation for preparing a final project proposal on “Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers”. To carry out this preliminary phase, a consultant team was contracted, formed of one specialist each in hydrogeology, integrated watershed management, environmental management and gender, along with a team coordinator. These specialists have carried out various activities to achieve the objectives of the preliminary phase. This document presents the results obtained from compiling information on climate, hydrogeology, environment, socioeconomic aspects and application of gender perspective in the programs and projects already finalized or currently underway, along with a preliminary stakeholder mapping for the aquifer zone. II. BACKGROUND For more than 25 years, the Central American nations of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras have joined together in the Trifinio region in a transboundary cooperation effort1 geared toward 1 Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities. 2012, Tercer Informe Plan Estratégico de Desarrollo Estratégico territorial Trinacional. 7
  8. 8. managing the environment and territory as a means of making improved living conditions possible for border communities. For this reason, the country governments have tried to drive “integration of the region, formalized in the Treaty for Execution of the Trifinio Plan, aimed at cooperation in the solution of common problems and promotion of sustainable development.” The region is made up of 45 municipalities—8 in El Salvador, 22 in Honduras and 15 in Guatemala—located around the cloud forest of the Montecristo massif, whose peak is found in the so-called “Trifinio” where the borders of these three Central American countries converge. The interventions of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio-CTPT) are upheld in the framework of the Trinational Treaty signed in 1997. This agreement recognizes the Trinational Commission, formed of the Vice-Presidents of El Salvador and Guatemala and a designate of the President of Honduras, as the entity responsible for overseeing execution of the Trifinio Plan and its continuous updating. The commission has administrative, financial and technical autonomy and its own legal identity. Another initiative in the zone is the creation of the Lempa River Trinational Association of Municipalities2 which arose in Guatemala and carried out a process of strategic trinational territorial planning (1998-2003), setting out first steps for linkage of local stakeholders in a multicountry, multi-level and multi-stakeholder agenda. As time passed a strategic alliance was formed with other associations of municipalities in the region, thus generating South-South cooperation between one municipality and another. The basis for this alliance was a broader and more comprehensive agenda than the one established by the CTPT, with objectives in accordance with local assessment and strategic guidelines. In addition to sustainable human development, one of the goals to be achieved through international work is the creation of public policies through the strategy of inter-municipal, southsouth cooperation to transform trinational public policy projects in which managers, technicians, mayors, nongovernmental organizations, chambers of commerce and services all participate, seeking out international partners to adhere to the alliance. This is an interesting experience in Central America, wherein three countries with the help of international donors invest in the sustainable development of an international shared watershed. In this context, the shared challenges have to do with environmental (water and biodiversity) management of a strategic zone for the region and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, given that the Trifinio region has Central America’s highest rates of poverty, illiteracy and deficiency in access to basic services. Several exercises in south-south cooperation exist both in the projects set up by the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (CTPT) at a macro level, and decentralized cooperation initiatives by the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities in the local arena. The former is based on institutionality generated by the Trifinio Plan, while the latter arose from local sustainable development initiatives supported through international cooperation3. It is important to emphasize the dual nature of cooperation in two spheres of action: intergovernmental cooperation in the CTPT and municipal cooperation through both associated and individual municipalities. Both fields of action in the three countries generate local 2 Ayala C., Ambrosio K., 2011. Cooperación en la Región del Trifinio: Un caso de cooperación Transfronteriza de Sur-Sur. 8
  9. 9. development activities through differing dynamics—more expeditious and practical in the case of associated municipalities in the three countries in comparison with top-level governmental action. During these years, objectives for the region have been furthered by projects and programs that have been and continue to be implemented. The table below lists projects and programs in recent years. Table 1 Programs and Projects of the Trifinio Plan PROGRAM OR PROJECT FINANCER Program for Planning and Development of Sustainable Tourism in the Trifinio Region underway IDB-FOMIN CTPT 3,542,000 Watershed Management in the Trifinio Region underway KwF CTPT 19,198.000 Forests and Water Program underway GIZ/BMZ GOPA/CTPT 5,000,000 underway CATIE CATIE/CTPT 700,000 Innovations in Sustainable Value Chains of Specialty Vegetables in the Trifinio Region Trinational Sustainable Coffee Project Synchronizing Information for LocalNational Participatory Natural Resources Management underway (ICP/ Tim Hortons EXECUTOR AMOUNT USD STATUS ICP 1,290,236 finalized EU CTPT 441,000 Project for Integrated Management of the Montecristo Trinational finalized Protected Area IDB CTPT 4,607,000 IDB CTPT 940,100 finalized IDB CTPT 60,000 underway IAEA SNET/INSIVU MEH/ENEE 634,380 finalized IDB NORPLAN 280,000 Promotion of the Administration of Water as Regional Public Good in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa finalized River in the Trifinio Region Rapid Ecological Assessment in the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area Project for Sustainable Development of Environment and Water in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Phase II Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area 9
  10. 10. Strengthening of Five Salvadoran Municipal Governments in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Operational Plan of Japan in support to the Trinational Sustainable Development Program of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Regional Program of Participatory Implementation of Integrated Pest Management and Agroforestry in the Trifinio Area Program of Institutional Strengthening for Citizen Participation Entities of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan Program for Trinational Development of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River finalized EU CTPT finalized Japanese Fund 213,300 CTPT 840,000 finalized NORAD CATIE N.D. finalized CARE CTPT 171,000 finalized IDB/NORAD/ GTZ/ Support for Preparation of the Program for Sustainable finalized Development of the Lempa River Basin Project for Sustainable Development of Ecologically Fragile finalized Zones in the Trifinio Region CTPT 19,000,000 IDB EUROESTUDIO S 216,000 BCIE PTCARL 43,340,000 Master Plan of La Fraternidad Biosphere Reserve finalized EU Maya Ecosystems Mayas 630,000 Project for Rationalization of Energy Use and Environmental Protection finalized Government of Finland OAS 2,000,000 Source: Charchalac, S. 2013, Informe Final Consultoría “Gobernanza de Aguas Subterráneas en Acuíferos Transfronterizos. IUCN Implemented from 2006 to 2012, the project “Sustainable Development of the Environment and Natural Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River” was funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), through Project RLA 8/ 038. The following activities were carried out3:    Preparation of a geological map of the upper watershed of the Lempa River, harmonized among the three countries Inventory of wells, springs, rivers and lakes Physico-chemical analysis of wells, springs, rivers and lakes 3 International Atomic Energy Agency. 2009 Desarrollo Sostenible del Medio Ambiente y los Recursos Hídricos en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa informe final (primer borrador) 10
  11. 11.       Capacity of rivers and springs Isotopic analysis of oxygen 18, deuterium and tritium Geophysical testing Preparation of a hydrogeological map Preparation of the preliminary conceptual hydrogeological mode Integration of data generated by the geographic information system This project generated highly important information for the Trifinio zone in terms of groundwater. However, at present there is only a draft report since a final document bringing together all of the information is still being prepared. III. OBJECTIVES 3.1. GENERAL Conduct an inventory of information available on the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer and identify information gaps for applying the matrix of indicators so that steps can be defined for designing the “Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers” project. 3.2. SPECIFIC Integrate a report with all of the information available on biophysical, socioeconomic, hydrogeological, environmental, institutional and legal characteristics of the EsquipulasOcotepeque-Citalá aquifer (Trifinio) zone in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador and determine the current state of the aquifer. IV. METHODOLOGY The following activities were carried out for this consultancy: 4.1. COORDINATION OF THE CONSULTANT TEAM: preparation of work plans and scheduling of activities, face-to-face meetings, field visits, presentations to local stakeholders, induction of consultant team members, review and correction of progress and final reports, virtual meetings on Skype and group and individual communication by e-mail as needed. 4.2. COORDINATION OF WORK WITH THE LIVELIHOODS AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION UNIT: During the consultancy, the IUCN Regional Office acted as direct liaison responsible for the work of the entire consultant team, maintaining open, fluid and continuous communication through face-to-face meetings, virtual meetings through Skype and e-mail, accompaniment on field visits, support and participation in different presentations to local stakeholders, presentation of consultancy reports and addressing pertinent concerns, 11
  12. 12. difficulties or constraints and channeling requests of the consultant team, as well as coordinating field visits and face-to-face meetings with the consultants. 4.3. FIELD TRIPS: Two trips were made to the field with the consultant team to become acquainted with the area of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer, integrate opinions about its current situation, gather primary information from government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and other key stakeholders in the zone and meet with the technical team of the Trifinio Plan. 4.4. WORKSHJOPS AND MEETINGS TO PUBLICIZE THE PROJECT AND COORDINATE FUTURE ACTIVITIES: Various meetings and workshops were held with key stakeholders to disseminate the project proposal, elicit feedback on activities to be carried out and coordinate possible future actions. 4.5. COMPILATION, REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE INFORMATION GENERATED IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE THROUGH DIFFERENT PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS EXECUTED OR UNDERWAY: The consultant team complied information generated in Trifinio through the management of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan, Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, GIZ, CATIE, INSIVUMEH, MAG, MARN of El Salvador, CEL, and related web pages. 4.6. REPORT PREPARATION: Each consultant prepared a work plan, mid-term progress report and final report containing the relevant products. 12
  13. 13. V. PLANNING ACTIVITIES 5.1. START-UP ACTIVITIES These activities were carried out by the technical team of the IUCN Livelihoods and Climate Change Adaptation Unit: 13
  14. 14.  Preliminary timetable of activities and approach strategy  Definition of the consultant technical team needed to conduct the inventory of available information  Preparation of ToRs for selecting the consultant team  Call for candidates to the consultant team  Selection of professionals in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador to form the team  Consultant team made up of: o o o o o Coordinator (Groundwater Use and Management specialist) Hydrogeologist (civil engineer with 20 years of experience in the area) Watershed Management specialist (agricultural engineer) Environmental Management specialist (agricultural engineer) Gender specialist (biologist) 5.2. WORKSHOPS AND MEETINGS WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE TRIFINIO REGION FOR FEEDBACK ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL 5.2.1. ACTIVITIES Various meetings and workshops were held with stakeholders to publicize the project, present advances in the preliminary phase, receive feedback on the project and coordinate future meetings. Table 2 summarizes these activities. Table 2 Description of Dissemination Activities for the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project and Coordination ACTIVITY Meeting with INSIVUMEH director and staff in Guatemala (focal point of UNESCOISARM) PARTICIPANTS BRIEF DESCRIPTION Eddy Sánchez INSIVUMEH) Two meetings with INSIVUMEH officials to present the project and Fulgencio Garavito identify activities for (INSIVUMEH) coordination between the two institutions to Carlos Rosal (IUCN) further project implementation. PRODUCTS Presentation of the project and draft memo of understanding between INSIVUMEH and IUCN to coordinate activities; signature 14
  15. 15. PARTICIPANTS ACTIVITY BRIEF DESCRIPTION Patricia Alvarado (consultant) PRODUCTS of the memo is in process. Sebastián Charchalac (consultant) Meeting with the Juan Carlos Montufar Trifinio Plan Technical (Trifinio Manager) Manager Carlos Rosal (IUCN) Consultant Team (IUCN) Meeting with Salvador Environmental Observatory El Meeting with the Trifinio Management to make an official presentation of the project and introduce the consultant team in charge of the first phase; obtain suggestions regarding coordination activities Follow-up activities coordinated for dissemination of the project, and guidelines on obtaining information generated in the zone by different projects executed or underway Deysi López (MARN) Carlos Rosal (IUCN) Patricia Alvarado (consultant) Manuel Escamilla (consultant) Official presentation of the project and firstphase consultant team to the Environmental Observatory; agreement on some follow-up activities. Agreement on a workshop to present the project to the technical team working in the Trifinio zone Information generated by the Observatory in the El Salvador section obtained Coordination workshop with the Trifinio Plan technical team Representatives of the Trifinio Plan, GIZ, El Salvador Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and IUCN (17 people, see attachment 2) Presentation of the project and consultant team. The Trifinio Plan gave a presentation on projects underway and recently finalized. Communication channel established between Trifinio Plan technical team, representatives of other projects underway in the zone and IUCN consultant team Preliminary identification of 15
  16. 16. ACTIVITY PARTICIPANTS BRIEF DESCRIPTION PRODUCTS information available at Trifinio Plan headquarters and preliminary gaps concerning application of the matrix of indicators for the IUCN – UNESCO proposal Identified the need for a specific work meeting with the Trifinio Plan Technical Research Team to learn about results obtained from the research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordination workshop with the Trifinio Plan technical research team Representatives of MARN, CEL, ANDA, MAG and University of El Salvador, Trifinio Plan, INSIVUMEH and IUCN (14 people, see attachment 2) Presentation of the Groundwater Governance project and the consultant team. The research team presented the IAEA project on study of groundwater in the upper part of the Lempa River basin. Information generated and gaps identified by the research team Draft project document received (there is still no final document). Communication channels set up between trinational research team and IUCN consultant team Technical inputs and feedback obtained on the project proposal, second phase. 16
  17. 17. Coordination workshop with the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Representatives of the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Representatives of the Association of Border Associated Municipalities Representatives of IUCN (17 people, see attachment 2) Dissemination of the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project by the IUCN The Association gave a presentation on its work in the zone, projects executed and underway and possible lines of coordination with the project. Lines of coordination identified between the project and the Association for carrying out complementary activities Important information identified for development of the project’s phase 1 and lines of communication to obtain it Those present provided suggestions and observations to be taken into account in the project proposal, second phase. UNESCO-IUCN work meeting Andrea Merla UNESCO Laura del Vaal IGRAC Rocío Córdoba IUCN Carlos Rosal IUCN Sebastián Charchalac IUCN consultant Manuel Escamilla IUCN consultant Melany Machado IUCN consultant Fernando Samayoa IUCN consultant Patricia Alvarado IUCN Consultant Presentation by Andrea Merla on the Transboundary Water Program (TWAP) study and how the Groundwater Governance Project is inserted in this project Presentation by Laura del Val on IGRAC and the information management system to be used during project implementation Observations and suggestions by UNESCO and IGRAC officers for the work of the consultant team Follow-up agreements on preparation of the final proposal document Presentation by Carlos Rosal on the process followed during the project’s preliminary phase 17
  18. 18. Presentation by the consultant team on progress in the preliminary phase Observations, suggestions and recommendations were then made on the work carried out, concluding with agreements and coordination of work to prepare the final proposal document. These activities provided broader criteria about institutional dynamics in the Trifinio zone and the state of its communication channels, and preliminary detection of local installed capacity to strengthen project implementation in the zone. 5.2.2. RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS OF LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL 5.2.2.1. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PROJECT PREPARATION PHASE Table 3 Observations and Suggestions for the Project Preparation Phase STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Hold a meeting with the Trinational Technical Research Team to find out about their work on the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer since this is the most recent hydrogeological study made but the information is not yet available to the general public. Trifinio Plan Technical Team and organizations working in the area Make a list of information gaps detected thus far and send it to the Trifinio Plan Technical Manager to confirm with the technical team whether or not the information exists and if so, how it can be accessed. Eight wells have recently been drilled on the Honduras side; they are being monitored and this is very valuable information. The Honduras Trifinio Plan TO Coordinator needs to be contacted for this information. 18
  19. 19. STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVACITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Trinational Technical Research Team Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Mancomunidad Coordinate with MAG in El Salvador to obtain the draft of the final document on the first phase of the IAEA project Río Lempa It is feasible to generate other indicators can be applied specifically to this aquifer. UNESCO and IGRAC Coordinate with their technical team to obtain documents generated in the zone. Consultants should link the inventory of information generated in the aquifer zone with the intermediate list of indicators Concerning the gender indicators, a special team (United Nations Development Program and UNESCO) will be responsible for a process to generate them. 5.2.2.2. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Table 4 Observations and Suggestions on the Project Implementation Phase STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Recommended thorough knowledge of the results of the research project carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency and to follow up since the two projects could be complementary. Trifinio Plan Technical Team and organizations working in the zone In-depth local work with key stakeholders (private owners of areas of interest, ranchers, coffee growers, municipalities, associations of municipalities and others) is important. Based on experience in other area projects, unless their awareness is raised and these stakeholders are fully involved in the work for conservation and sustainable development of water and associated resources, achievement of the project’s objectives will be limited. If Payment for Environmental Services activities are contemplated, be careful that the model chosen is locally acceptable and all participants obtain benefits. It is important to contemplate working with the social capital of the region so that people are empowered about their resources through the creation of good water governance capacities. 19
  20. 20. While there has been work on the gender theme in the zone in some projects, it is still very weak so needs to be made visible at local, institutional and governmental levels. Promote the establishment of agreements with local governments to regulate use of water resources. Take advantage of the technical research platform already created to work with it, the only thing needed is to have a full-time coordinator who can organize the teamwork and coordinate all of the logistics for collecting data in field studies. Trinational Technical Research Team Prepare a map of aquifer recharge zones so that a management plan for these zones can be jointly developed for the aquifer’s maintenance. Do a study on the aquifer’s vulnerability to contamination and identify the major pollution points. Evaluate aquifer availability and yield in the face of climate change effects and climate variability. Conduct or update the inventory of wells in the aquifer zone, both artisanal and mechanical (as far as possible, this inventory should include data on piezometric levels, use type, yield, amount used, storage coverage and geographic location). It is important to involve the health sector in each country through the community promoters. Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Country legislation and will could be a large constraint to achieving the project objective about transboundary dialogue. The Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission and Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities play an important role in influencing governments and generating changes in local policy. It is important that the project include a training component so that local stakeholders with advocacy and financial management capacity are part of the process, and also to create local capacities in transboundary groundwater governance. Strengthen territorial platforms making it possible for everyone to access information generated; and also to make a joint effort towards their sustainability 20
  21. 21. Coordinate with and support the Trinational Association of Municipalities to promote the public policies of “Shared Waters” and “Forests Forever,” as well as preparation of the Steering Plan for Integrated Water Resource Management regulating both surface and ground water Promote activities for developing sustainable agriculture in the area and reducing water pollution from this productive activity Promote interinstitutional and multi-sector coordination to forge strategic alliances The ISARM methodology will be used in carrying out aquifer characterization activities and generation of information for application to the indicators, in which work is done by local experts and UNESCO intervention will focus on work supervision and harmonization issues. UNESCO and IGRAC It would be good to have letters of endorsements for the project from the three countries, as well as letters of cooperation with their national institutions in order to define coordination and cooperation commitments. Define the parameters that will be used for generating geographic information (scale, rasters, nomenclatures and others); that way the same parameters are used. 5.3. TRIPS TO THE FIELD The consultant team made three field visits during the consultancy. 5.3.1. RECONNAISSANCE OF THE ESQUIPULAS-OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA A field visit was made at the start of the consultancy to tour the aquifer zone under study for a preliminary determination of biophysical, hydrological and social characteristics of the zone. During the tour main rivers and their tributaries were located preliminarily and geomorphology was identified, along with some of the stratigraphic characteristics and a panorama of current land use, possible limits of the aquifer and characteristics of the main recharge zones. It was also possible to determine that prevailing soils are shallow and highly susceptible to erosion, mainly on hillsides. The valley is very different since soil is Field visit for reconnaissance of the Trifinio Aquifer area. 21
  22. 22. very deep and of better quality. Due to their geological characteristics, certain zones appear to have little water permeability, representing a low water recharge zone. The aquifer area also has zones where forest cover is still maintained, enabling infiltration of water. Change in land use is very common and much of the land is used for coffee growing, one of the major sources of income. Due to the zone’s conditions, it appears that most of the groundwater used comes from an unconfined or shallow aquifer highly susceptible to contamination. 5.3.2. FIELD TRIP TO ACTIVITIES EXECUTED BY THE GIZ WATER AND FOREST PROJECT This trip, in which the GIZ technical team participated, included visits to two experiences carried out by the GIZ Water and Forest project in the Balanzas and San Juan Buena Vista microwatersheds located in the upper watershed of the Lempa River in Honduras. The purpose was to learn about the activities of the communities and identify level of capacities as product of the project currently being executed. Importantly, women have active participation in both the agroforestry project and in monitoring water and runoff parcels. They take pluviometer measurements and on the capacities of some streams. This information is used for their farming activities. There is a striking change of attitude in the inhabitants in terms of valuation of water resources and carrying out water conservation activities. Top: Runoff parcels for monitoring It is evident that the project has created Bottom: Meeting of a group of project beneficiarie capacities to negotiate and solve conflicts over inadequate use of water and contamination actions. This trip was highly important to learn about aspects described previously and to realize that it is not a matter of starting from zero with the communities, since there is already a certain local capacity to do fieldwork and facilitate implementation of new project activities in the zone. 5.3.3. FIELD TRIP WITH UNESCO AND IGRAC OFFICERS The consultant team and UNESCO and IGRAC members made a visit to the Trifinio area on March 4 and 5, providing opportunity to interview the Manager of the Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission and technical staff of the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities to inform about the project’s objectives and ascertain their willingness to coordinate activities as local partners in the zone. 22
  23. 23. A reconnaissance trip was also made to the area where the Esquipulas- Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer is located, so that the UNESCO mission could get a clearer vision of surface geology, possible water recharge zones, productive activities and possible groundwater uses. UNESCO-IUCN- Trifinio Plan meeting Visit to a lookout of the Esquipulas Valley UNESCO-IUCN-Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Visit to the Lempa River 5.4. REVIEW OF INFORMATION GENERATED IN TRIFINIO All available information was collected through the Technical Management of the Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission on projects executed in the zone, websites and government institutions in each of the countries, and then reviewed and catalogued by the consultant team. 23
  24. 24. VI. RESULTS BIOPHYSICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION 24
  25. 25. 6.1. BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE AREA OF THE ESQUIPULASOCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) While there is almost no biophysical or hydrogeological information specifically for the aquifer, information on the Trifinio zone in general can be used for the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer. The main and most up-to-date document on the situation of the Trifinio region is one prepared by the Forests and Water Project, executed with support from GIZ (Estado de la Región Trifinio), source of the description provided below. 6.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY ZONE 6.1.1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE TRIFINIO ZONE Comprised of the El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala border areas, the Trifinio region spans a total of 7,541 km 2, 44.7% corresponding to Guatemala, 15.3% to El Salvador, a n d 40% to Honduras, representing approximately 13% of Figure 1 Location of the Trifinio region in the north Central American triangle the three countries’ total extension and 3% of their population. In 2010 there were 802,919 inhabitants4. The region is strategically located within Central America’s northern triangle. There is land communication with the most important cities in the three countries. It is located approximately 140 km from Guatemala City, some 15 km from Santa Ana (El Salvador), 66 km from San Salvador and 159 km from San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Source: Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa As for the Trifinio aquifer, a study by Garavito, F. and Guevara, M. generated the following information. The Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Transboundary Aquifer System extends approximately along 600 km corresponding to the municipalities of Metapán, Citalá, San Ignacio and La Palma, in El Salvador; Esquipulas, Olopa, and Quetzaltepeque, in Guatemala; and Nueva Ocotepeque, Santa Fe and Concepción, Honduras. Dominant physiographic elements are represented by the Tertiary volcanic chain with elevations up to 2700 MASL. Lahars occur. In the aquifer zone shared by the countries there is a population of approximately 100,000 people (UNESCO-IHP/OAS ISARM, 2007. Atlas of Transboundary Aquifers). In terms of climate, there is a moist zone with annual pluviosity ranging from 1200 to 2000 mm, with rains from May to October and average annual temperatures of 23º to 25º C. 4 Estado de la Región del Trifinio/GIZ 2010. 25
  26. 26. 6.1.2. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 6.1.2.1. CLIMATE AND LIFE ZONES The most recurrent climate in the Trifinio region is semi-warm humid, including most of Honduran Trifinio and the northeast region of Guatemalan Trifinio. Warm, humid climate is located in the surroundings of Lake Guija and valleys in the zones of San Juan Ermita, Camotán and Copán Ruinas. The higher elevations of the territory, such as the Montecristo massif, El Pital, the Guisayote mountain and Cerro Celaque have a wet climate, whether semi-warm or temperate. The driest areas (classified as warm semi-arid or semi-warm semi-arid) are located in the Chiquimula subregion and lower parts of the Ipala Volcano. Figure 2 Climate Classification according to Thornthwaite Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 Although there is no specific information on the Trifinio Aquifer, from this map we can deduce that climate types are semi-warm humid on the plains of Esquipulas and Ocotepeque, semi-warmvery humid on the high parts of Ocotepeque, in Monte Cristo and La Palma, and warm-humid in a small area in Citalá and San Ignacio. According to the Holdrige classification, the Trifinio region has the following life zones:  Tropical dry forest  Subtropical moist forest  Subtropical wet forest  Lower Montane wet forest  Montane wet forest Information specific to the Trifinio Aquifer could not be found. 26
  27. 27. 6.1.2.2. PRECIPITATION Average monthly and annual precipitation recorded for the last 20 years (1990 – 2010) is shown in table 5. The lowest annual precipitation was measured in the stations of Nueva Ocotepeque (909.1 mm) and La Ceibita (962.1 mm), and the highest in La Palma (2,369.2 mm) and Planes de Montecristo (2,189.7 mm). There is a clear differentiation in monthly rainfall between the November-April dry season and the rainy period from May to October. Precipitation declines for 20 to 30 days during July and August (Buch, Jiménez, 2009). Table 5 Average Monthly Precipitation in the Trifinio Region by Station Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ 2010 Four of the stations shown in the table above (La Palma, Esquipulas, Planes de Montecristo and Nueva Ocotepeque) are located in the Trifinio Aquifer zone, and the data reported indicates that average annual precipitation ranges from 909.1 mm at the Nueva Ocotepeque station to 2369.2 mm in La Palma. Figure 3 Annual Precipitation in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 27
  28. 28. 6.1.2.3. TEMPERATURE Trifinio is located in the tropical climate belt, recording average temperatures that are similar year round with minimal monthly variations. The lowest temperatures are in January and December, and the hottest in March and April. In proportion to elevation, the hottest temperatures are recorded in the valleys and low parts of Guatemala and depressions south of Ruinas de Copán in Honduras. Coldest temperatures are recorded in the mountainous Montecristo and El Pital massifs. Figure 4 Average Annual Temperatures (°C) for the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 It can be deduced from the temperature map that average annual temperatures are highly variable, ranging from 16.5 – 16.9 C in zones such as La Palma and Montecristo, and 24 – 24.4 C in the plains of Ocotepeque, Concepción and Esquipulas. 6.1.2.4. RELATIVE HUMIDITY Relative humidity measures the moisture content of air, useful for calculating evaporation and transpiration and as indicator of the probability of convective rain. The map below shows three areas with differing levels of relative humidity in the Trifinio region: low (63 to 70%) in the lowlands of the south with complementing small areas around Camotán and Ocotepeque; intermediate (70.5 a 81%) in most of the territory and high (81.5% or above) in the upper elevations. 28
  29. 29. Figure 5 Relative Humidity in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 According to this map, relative humidity for the aquifer zone ranges from around 70% in Ocotepeque, to 83% in Montecristo, approximately. 6.1.2.5. SOILS There is a high variability of parent material distributed in heterogeneous relief and subjected to highly variable climate and biological conditions, leading to a diversity of soils: entisols, alfisols, ultisols, mollisols and endosols in different groupings (see Table 6). Table 6 Description of Soil Groups in the Trifinio Region Soil Group Symbol Characteristics Inceptisols, entisols Inc, Ent, Vert Heavy soils with management and productive problems, with little and vertisols susceptibility to erosion Entisols, andosols Ent, And, Alf Moderately-textured soils, thick, susceptible to erosion and of little-toand alfisols medium productivity Andosols, alfisols And, Alf, Ult Deep, clay-rich soils highly susceptible to erosion and of low-to-moderate and ultisols productivity, suited to perennial crops Alfisols, entisols, Alf, Ent, Inc Recent soils, undeveloped, medium-textured and restricted drainage. Little inceptisols and susceptible to erosion, and of medium-to-high productivity with drainage and andosols irrigation Andosols, alfisols, And, Alf, Ent Moderately deep soil of medium to fine texture, moderately susceptible to and entisols erosion, of moderate productivity, not suited for annual crops Andosols, entisols, And, Ent, Alf Stony soils, not deep, susceptible to erosion and of low-to-medium alfisols and productivity, suited to forest or livestock production mollisols Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ 2010 29
  30. 30. Approximately 40% of the zone is highly susceptible to erosion due to a combination of topographical, edaphic, and geological factors, significantly affecting loss of soil productivity, increased vulnerability to natural disasters and sedimentation in main water bodies. Figure 6 Soil Groupings in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 Based on the map it can be deduced that soil groups present in Trifinio are alfisols-entisolsiinceptisols-andosols, andosols-alfisols-entisols, andosols-alfisols-ultisols and entisols-alfisolsultisols. 6.1.2.6. TOPOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Trifinio is highly diverse in terms of topography and ecosystems. There are four major types of relief: mountain areas (higher than 1750 MASL), foothills (1251 to 1750 MASL), intermediary plains (750 to 1250 MASL) and valley plains (less than 750 MASL). Mountain zones have shallow soils and rocky outcroppings. They are extremely important for the hydric network since they constitute the elevated parts of the main watersheds. The highest points are Cerro Montecristo (2,418 MASL), El Pital (2,730 MASL) and Montaña de Guisayote (2,310 MASL). Relief at the base of the mountain is not as steep-sloped as in the mountains. 30
  31. 31. Extending from mid-mountain to where the plains begin, this zone is formed of alluvia and colluvia shaped by river currents and movements of soil from gravity. Soils are deeper and more productive and have a less dense drainage system. Intermediary plains are distributed throughout Trifinio at elevations under 800 MASL. The greatest extension of valley plains lies in the southwestern part of the region around Lake Guija. There is also a plains area in Chiquimula. Figure 7 Relief in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 The map shows three types of relief in Trifinio: intermediary plains, foothills and mountain areas. 6.1.2.7. DIVISION BY WATERSHEDS This region has three of the Central America’s most important watersheds, the Ulúa, Motagua and Lempa river basins6. The Lempa River runs through the three countries until emptying into the Pacific Ocean (one of the largest flows in Central America). 31
  32. 32. Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio, 2010 These three large watersheds are divided into subwatersheds: seven in the Lempa River basin, two subwatersheds that drain into the Motagua River and the subwatershed of the Higuito River that forms part of the Ulúa River basin. The Trifinio Aquifer zone is located in the subwatershed of the Upper Lempa River. Figure 9 Subwatersheds located in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 32
  33. 33. 6.1.2.8. RECHARGE ZONES A bibliographical review found that the GIZ Water and Forest Project prepared a map of water recharge zones serving as a first approximation. This gives us an idea of the location of potential areas of greatest infiltration which should be managed so that this is maintained. Due to their physical, geological and topographical conditions, hydrogeological recharge areas permit infiltration of rainwater (precipitation) toward zones within the subsoil where they can be stored. These waters reach the surface via springs or are extracted through wells. Four types of hydrogeological zones have been identified in the Trifinio region based on capacity to store and transmit groundwater:  High infiltration zones or water recharge areas: These need to be protected to ensure both quantity and quality of water supply. Here it is recommended that forest be maintained or reestablished and that agricultural or industrial activity be restricted.  Medium infiltration zones where the water level is very deep-down: Human or agricultural activities can be carried out as long as fertilizer and pesticide use is restricted. Human settlements can be established using pit latrines as basic sanitation.  Medium infiltration zones where the water level is very close to the surface: Because of the closeness they are medium vulnerable but apt for human settlements with piping system or compost latrines. Agriculture and livestock activities should avoid use of highly toxic fertilizers and agrochemicals.  Low infiltration zones which because of their low vulnerability to water pollution are apt for human settlements, sites for solid waste disposal and agricultural and livestock activities with minimal restrictions. Figure 10 Potential Water Recharge Zones Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 33
  34. 34. The map shows the four categories of potential water zone categories. 6.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) Base documents used for the hydrogeological information appearing below were: Informe borrador del Proyecto Desarrollo sostenible del medio ambiente y los recursos Hídricos de la cuenca Alta del Rio Lempa, of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Plan estratégico de la región trifinio 2010-2012, July 2011, GIZ-URBAL-IDB, and Plan de gestión para el desarrollo sostenible de la región del trifinio. This information is specific to the Upper Basin of the Lempa River where the Trifinio Aquifer is located. 6.2.1. GEOLOGY From a geological standpoint, the area corresponding to the Upper Basin of the Lempa River (hereon abbreviated as UBLR) is one of the most complex5. The rocks in this study zone are of Metamorphic type, meaning that they are made up of very dense materials with little or practically no permeability, especially ignimbrites and rhyolite-dacite lava. Because the ignimbrites are very compact and welded, they do not make up important aquifers unless altered by fractures or geological faults. The same occurs with intrusive rocks, which are fractured and highly meteorized. The watershed has sedimentary rock, including conglomerates, sandstone, red lutite layers, limestone and marl. There are also sedimentary materials accumulated in the depressions of the main valleys where the conjunction of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine sediments several meters thick can constitute reservoirs of groundwater. Figure 11 Geology Upper Basin of the Lempa River 5 CTPT, El Trifinio, Los recursos hídricos en la parte alta de la cuenca del Río Lempa. 34
  35. 35. Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio 2010 As shown on the geological map, the Trifinio aquifer area contains:  domes of lava and slag: andesitic and basaltic  Alluvium and exfoliation domes  Rhyolite obsidian domes  Felsic effusives composed of rhyolite dacite lava and acidic pyroclastic flows , ignimbrites and deposits of fallen coignimbrites 6.2.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION The hydrogeological characterization of the Upper Basin of the Lempa River has been based on the integrated geological map (with its geological formations and members), the information obtained in vertical electric soundings, information obtained from the inventories of water sources (dug and perforated wells and springs) in the frame of the project and hydrochemical information obtained from samplings. Figure 12 Hydrogeology of the Upper Part of the Watershed of the Lempa River Descripción de las unidades Hidrogeológicas del mapa Sedimentos aluvionales y coluviales que constituyen las unidades “Acuíferos porosos” (porosida primaria, detrítico) de edad Cuaternaria Rocas fracturadas intercaladas con material volcanoclástico de edades Plioceno superior Holoceno que constituyen la unidad hidrogeológica “Acuíferos fracturados” Rocas poco fracturadas que constituyen la unidad “Rocas fracturadas de baja porosidad”. d En relación al tema de la información disponible de carácter hidrogeológico, para el área de a acuífero Trifinio. Existe la demarcación preliminar del mismo, de acuerdo al MAPA realizado po Fulgencio Garavito, INSIVUMEH, Guatemala. Mario Guevara Retana, SNET, El Salvador. Que podr servir de punto de partida para profundizar en la caracterización del acuífero TRIFINIO. Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio 2010 The Trifinio Aquifer area mostly presents fractured rocks of low porosity and porous aquifers in a part of the territory, along with a small extension of fractured and porous aquifers. According to the first characterization done by Garavito F. INSIVUMEH and Guevara M. SNET, the aquifer is a multi-layer, confined and unconfined system, predominantly the latter. It is of porous and fractured type, made up of sedimentary deposits in Quaternary alluvial valleys and Tertiary pyroclastics and intermediate-acid and acid lavas. Hydrothermal alteration can be observed in many areas. 35
  36. 36. Figure 13 First Approximation of the Delimitation of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer Source: UNESCO-IHP-OEA ISARM, 2007 The shallow aquifer has an average depth of 20 m while the deep aquifer ranges from 100 to 150 m. There is a hydraulic connection between the rivers and aquifer system. Flow is predominantly northwest to southeast toward Nueva Ocotepeque, where its direction changes. Dominant physiographic elements are provided by the Tertiary volcanic chain, with elevations of up to 2700 MASL. Lahars occur. In terms of climate, this is a humid zone with a pluviosity variable of 1200 to 2000 mm a year, rains from May to October and average annual temperature of 23º to 25º C. 6.2.3. INFORMATION ABOUT WELLS Although wells are known to exist in the aquifer zone, information is difficult to access because these are private boreholes. During the consultancy access was provided to the lithologic or stratigraphic profiles of two wells, one in the valley of Esquipulas and the other in Los Pinos. (see annexes 3 and 4) 36
  37. 37. Location of well and research piezometers on the Honduran side, El Poy. Trifinio Well-drilling machinery Some wells have been drilled on the Honduran side for different uses, but have served for monitoring and obtaining information for groundwater investigations conducted in the area. Pumping test and water sampling Geophysical tests Tests with tracers Geoelectric sounding 37
  38. 38. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION 38
  39. 39. 6.3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION While there is almost no biophysical or hydrogeological information specifically for the aquifer, information for the Trifinio zone in general can serve as the basis for generating the necessary information. 6.3.1. PROTECTED AREAS A system of official protected natural areas has been implemented as part of the strategy for conserving the richness of the ecosystems existing in the Trifinio region. Altogether, 15% of the Trifinio area belongs to one of the following protected areas: Table 7 Official Protected Areas in the Trifinio Region Protected Area Management Category Trifinio Area Description / Observations (km2) Montaña de Celaque national park El Pital biosphere reserve 266.3 37.9 Erapuca wildlife refuge 73.1 Guisayote biological reserve Lago de Guija to be defined Montecristo biosphere reserve San Diego La Barra national park (state) Volcán Pacayita biological reserve Volcán Ixtepeque definitive closed season zone 18.6 Volcán Suchitán regional municipal park 25.4 Volcán y Laguna de Ipala multiple-use area 22.8 Volcán Quezaltepeque regional municipal park 10.9 Cerro las Cebollas regional municipal park N/D Volcán Las Víboras definitive closed season area 24.4 Binational area, no legal protection 140.9 13.9 No legal protection 422.7 22.6 102.0 Largest extension of dry forest in El Salvador Home of the Lenca ethnic group Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ, 2010. The Montecristo and Guisayote protected areas have water recharge influence on the Trifinio Aquifer, as can be seen on the following map. 39
  40. 40. Figure 14 Protected Areas Located in the Trifinio Zone Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 6.3.2. MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE  Deforestation at a regional rate of 1.7% per year in the last 24 years; the geomorphological unit of Montaña de Quezaltepeque in Guatemala is the most affected  Siltation of streams, rivers and lakes with critical scenarios in the Lake Güija geomorphological unit  Poor forest management at places like Esquipulas, where forest cover is barely 2%  Deficient management of protected areas in the Trifinio. Their limits are not well defined; of the 24 areas only eight are supported by technical aspects and some, like El Pital and Lake Güija, have not been legalized.  Environmental contamination from high-impact solid residues: for example, open-air dumps in Esquipulas affecting more than 21 thousand inhabitants, and a dump in Metapán that affects a population of over 15 thousand people.  Environmental contamination from residential water, particularly severe in the municipal seats of Metapán, Asunción Mita and Chiquimula; fecal coliforms average 92.59 NMP/100 ml  Environmental contamination from wastewater deriving from coffee processing with a high 40
  41. 41. impact, especially in the buffer zone of Montaña Montecristo and Montaña de Quezaltepeque  Risk of flooding, with the most recurrent in Lake Güija and Metapán  Risk of forest fires, placing 100 thousand ha in jeopardy. In 1998 incidence of forest fires was concentrated in the Montecristo Massif (south and east of Esquipulas, and northeast of Metapán). Main environmental problems for the Trifinio Aquifer zone (see figure 15) are:  Loss of forest cover from poor management  Deficient management of protected areas  Contamination from solid residues  Risk of fires  Pollution from coffee-processing wastewater Figure 15 Strategic Transboundary Environmental Problems Source: GIS/Trifinio 41
  42. 42. 6.3.3. WATER USES There is little information about use of the aquifer. The population of Trifinio is thought to depend entirely on water generated in the region for human consumption, domestic use, irrigation of pasturelands and agricultural zones, recreation, tourism, etc. Outside the region the main use of water from the Lempa River is in El Salvador, since San Salvador alone has 2,260,894 inhabitants (2006). In another part the document indicates that 800,000 inhabitants of San Salvador depend on the Lempa River for proximately 40% of their water supply. In addition, there are four hydroelectric dams whose waters come from Trifinio (Guajoyo, Cerrón Grande, 5 de Noviembre and 15 de Septiembre) and two irrigation districts (Atiocoyo and Lempa – Acahuapa). According to research conducted in 2002, SNET of El Salvador found that river behavior had varied over the past 30 years due to several factors, including change in soil use, variations in rain and evapotranspiration regimes and changes in demand , with more than 70% flow reduction during the dry season in some cases. Along with the trend toward reduction, supply of drinking water is deficient in terms of both quantity and quality. The main cities of the zone (Metapán, La Palma and Esquipulas) report supply irregularities: rationing, problems of quality and low coverage, and levels of needed investment to close the gap between supply and demand are very low. This has a significant impact on the population’s quality of life in terms of health, production and resources (time, energy and money). Various conflicts have arisen between communities over the use, availability and ownership of water sources. While these are not documented, at least three such conflicts have been reported between border communities in El Salvador and Honduras (personal communication from Héctor Aguirre, 2008). Additionally, drinking water coverage for the rural area is less than for cities. Guatemala is the country most affected by this problem, as shown in the table below. Table 8 Potable Water Coverage by Country in the Area of Influence of Trifinio Plan, Upper Lempa River Basin COUNTRY % COVERAGE OF POTABLE WATER Guatemala 56 El Salvador 66 Honduras 71 Source: ICI, APESA, NORAGRIC (2000) 42
  43. 43. 6.3.4. LOCAL ECONOMY’S DEPENDENCE ON ACCESS TO WATER RESOURCES According to studies by ISARM, in the dry season agricultural production is 100% dependent on springs and wells, as is livestock production, small and medium industry, and above all, human consumption. The dry season can last up to six months of the year. 6.3.5. WATER QUALITY According to ISARM, in general the natural quality of the aquifer system is good, although there is pollution that originates in the three countries. El Salvador has the greatest contamination since it is situated downstream of the aquifer. Contamination from coliform bacteria has been identified in wells dug on the Guatemalan side. There are few perforated wells making use of confined water, and there is no information on their water quality. As for chemical contamination, natural iron predominates, along with high values of calcium, sodium and nitrates. In the case of surface water, we detected that availability for industrial and agricultural uses and human consumption has been reduced due to high rates of contamination in most of the watershed’s rivers, with a series of effects on human health: a rise in gastrointestinal, parasitic and skin diseases, proliferation of epidemics and even cases of poisoning and intoxication. Water quality studies made of the Lempa River and its tributaries show that quality is fair, due to the presence of fecal coliforms (from 4 NMP/100 ml to 1, 000,000 NMP/100 ml), decline in dissolved oxygen, high biochemical demand (3.3 mg/l) and heavy metals that at some control points exceed internationally recommended standards for these parameters (CATIE, 2004; SHN/SNET, 2003). Water quality problems in most of the tributaries and in the main course of the Lempa River arise because domestic, agroindustrial and industrial residual water are dumped completely untreated into receiver flows. Coverage levels of latrines and rural basic sanitation are also deficient. Due to this situation, there is greater risk of groundwater contamination from home and industrial wastewater. Waters contain agrochemicals that accumulate in the soil and are then carried to aquifers. The greatest problem for the aquifer system is therefore related to pollution from domestic and industrial activity, especially near the border, and to over-use and loss of recharge areas as urban development and deforestation proliferate. Coordinated local and regional aquifer management is needed among the countries to make wiser use of groundwater in the border region of Guatemala and El Salvador to mitigate current and future impacts. 43
  44. 44. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION 44
  45. 45. 6.4. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION VAILABLE This is the type of information that has been generated most in the zone. Different studies have produced valuable information, albeit generalized for the entire Trifinio region as described previously. Notwithstanding, it provides a basis for obtaining specific information about the aquifer area. Summarized below is socioeconomic information that will be useful for executing the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers project. 6.4.1. POPULATION DATA FOR THE TRIFINIO REGION In 1986, when the Trifinio Plan commenced, the region had a population of approximately 450,000 inhabitants. Twenty-five years later, the population is about to double; each year it increases by 14,000 people on average. Table 9 Expected Population by 2015 Source: Estado de la Región del Trifinio/GIZ 2010. The population of the Trifinio Region is made up of a high percentage of youth and children: 25.8% are under 7 years of age and another 25% are between 7 and 17. Both groups (under 18 years of age) together make up 51.9% of the entire population. Those over 18 and under 59 represent 41.7% and just 6.5% are older than 60. 48.6% of the population are men and 51.4% are women. The ratio of men to women changes according to age group. In those under 15, the ratio is 1.05:1, and for the population as a whole is 0.94 to each woman. The variation in distribution between age groups has to do with different rates of mortality and migration 6. 6 Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010 Datos socioeconómicos y ambientales de los municipios. GIZ November 2011. 45
  46. 46. Table 10 Population Data for the Trifinio Zone N° General Data Socioeconomic Characteristics Municipal Infrastructure 1 Communities with electric service Data 2 Drinking water service coverage 3 Piping services 4 Municipal markets 5 Kilometers of dirt roads 6 Kilometers of paved roads Education Sector 1 Students at pre-school level 2 Students at primary level 3 Students at basic level 4 Students at secondary level 5 Students at higher level 6 Pre-primary-level education centers 7 Primary-level education centers 8 Basic-level education centers 9 Secondary-level education centers 10 Higher-level education centers 11 Illiteracy rate Health Sector 1 Health centers 2 Hospitals Economic and Productive Sector 1 Human Development Index 2 Percent in absolute poverty 3 Percent in extreme poverty 4 Number of banks 5 Number of cooperatives 53 % 30 % 17 1,416 417 58 % 27,291 122,090 32,240 15,004 1,000 812 1,654 516 102 5 40 78 3 0.55 68% 42% 53 23 Source: Plan Estratégico Territorial 2008-2023 6.4.2 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Main economic activities in the Trifinio region are agricultural production and artisanal and tourism activities. The first is small-scale since most producers cultivate less than five hectares. Throughout the region, including urban areas, are homes that participate in the agricultural sector, mostly related to the production of basic grains and coffee. Vegetable growing is an interesting option for some rural families because of the high prices and extensive markets, like nearby San Salvador. Soils are apt and there is enough water for cultivating vegetables. (Estado de la región Trifinio 2010). Grown on approximately 24,000 ha at elevations from 900 t o 1600 MASL , coffee is an important source of income for campesino families, and also contributes to the economy because of the 46
  47. 47. high demand for temporary labor that cannot be met in the zone, requiring that workers be brought in from other parts of Central America. There is a great deal of tourism potential in the Trifinio region, which at present is receiving an estimated 1.7 million visitors. Each spends USD 31.50 on average, altogether generating USD 53.55 million a year (CATIE, 2005). The major center of attraction is La Basilica de Esquipulas in Guatemala, drawing more than a million visitors a year. Other tourist attractions include the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area, crafts in the Salvadoran towns of La Palma and San Ignacio and Ruinas de Copán, in Honduras. Of the sectors mentioned, tourism, coffee, vegetables and avocado especially offer potential for economic development in the region and a way out of the current situation of poverty. However, many residents decide to leave in search of a better life. It is estimated that 10% of those in the three Guatemalan municipalities of Agua Blanca, Esquipulas and Ipala have migrated to the United States. (CATIE, 2005) On this theme, Alwang, Elias 20087 concluded that:  Secondary education has a very large positive effect on wellbeing. Income of homes where the head of household has secondary schooling is over 60% higher than in the others.  The size of family parcels determines the type of life strategy and also has a very large impact on family wellbeing. Elasticity of household income with respect to the size of the parcel is 0.9: if a family increases its parcel by 1%, income will rise 0.9%.  The closer a household is to the market, the greater the wellbeing of homes in urban zones, although this result is not statistically significant for households in rural areas. Location also has an influence on wellbeing: it is more likely that a household in Guatemala and Honduras will be less poor than in El Salvador.  Probability of finding a poor household declines as altitude rises, but only up to 1100 meters above sea level; at that altitude the probability decreases. 6.4.3. MIGRATION Migration of the population to other national territories or to other countries (mainly the United States and Spain) is a phenomenon that in recent years has impacted significantly on the economy and structure of families in Central America’s northern triangle. 25% of the total population of the three countries has family members who have migrated (Programa Estado de la Nación 2011). In Trifinio municipalities the annual migration rate (per thousand inhabitants) ranges from 0 to 4%. The municipalities with higher rates are Chiquimula, San José la Arada and Concepción Las Minas. The rest maintain rates under 2%. For the specific case of the aquifer zone, the migration rate ranges from 0.1-2.0. 7 Estado de la región Trifinio 2008 47
  48. 48. 6.4.4. MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS According to the integrated appraisal made by Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa, the region’s primary socioeconomic problems are8:  Important migratory movements in the northwest and Corazón de Trifinio subsystem  High illiteracy rates in the subsystem of Copan Chortí and Erapuca  Sparse coverage of university centers in the trinational region of Honduras  Elevated malnutrition rates en los subsystem of Copan Chortí and Erapuca  Insufficiency of sanitation infrastructure in the Honduran trinational region  Scarce drinking water coverage in rural areas  High poverty rates in the Copan Chortí and Erapuca subsystems  Lack of technical, productive and financial assistance in the trinational region  Use of inadequate cultivation technologies in the Copan Chortí subsystem and throughout the trinational region  Low use of technified practices in the trinational region  Scarce industrial coverage in the trinational region  High cost of commercial transactions in the trinational region 6.4.5. PRELIMINARY STAKEHOLDER MAP IN THE TRINFINIO AQUIFER ZONE Table 11 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Guatemala CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SOCIETY Cooperativa Integral Trifinio PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Departmental Government of Chiquimula Municipal Mayoralty of Esquipulas Esquipulas Chamber PREVES of Commerce MAGA Municipal Cooperativa Mayoralty of COOSAJO Concepción Las Minas ANACAFE DDM MARN Mancomunidad Cooperativa Trinacional Chiquimuljá Fronteriza Río Lempa Asociación Ganaderos Esquipulas de PRODERT de 8 Tercer informe integral de desarrollo estratégico territorial Trinacional, Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza de Río Lempa. 48
  49. 49. MINEDUC Trinational ATRIDEST Commission of the Trifinio Plan MSPAS Asociación Ganaderos Concepción Minas de OIRSA de Las ADEMI FONAPAZ ADIPE ADISO INAB ADEGO CONRED ASIAPACTRI Source: Informe final consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Charchalac S. IUCN 2013 Table 12 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Ocotepeque Honduras CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SOCIETY PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Government of Ocotepeque Municipal Mayoralty of Ocotepeque Club de Leones Micro Empresa de Mujeres (OMM) Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa Secretariat of Health Municipality of Sinuapa Colegio de Abogados de Ocotepeque BANADES Forests and Watersheds Project TCTP ATRIDEST ADESCOS de Ocotepeque (45) Colegio de Peritos de Ocotepeque Banco de Occidente AMVAS Trinational Colegio de Commission Trifinio Médicos de Plan Ocotepeque Trifinio Banco Atlántida Ocotepeque Transparency Commission Sociedad Civil Plan del Rancho Chamber of Commerce PRONADEL Jóvenes sin fronteras Centro Empresarial de Negocios de Ocotepeque Human Rights Tourism Committee COPAOL 49
  50. 50. District Education Department Women’s Commission Cooperativa de Transportes San José Ltda. Departmental Education Department Women’s Organization Radio Etnia Chortí San Andrés Television channel 10 Etnia Nuevo Renacer Chortí Sinuapa Television channel 50 Grupo de Mujeres Chortí un nuevo Amanecer COPEM PRICMAH Cooperativa Mixta Ocotepeque Ltda. SIMPRODOH ASONOG ASOMYPE AGAO Catholic Church Evangelical churches Source: Informe final Consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Escamilla M. UICN 2013 50
  51. 51. Table 13 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone, El Salvador CENTRAL GOVERNMENT San Ignacio Local Risk Roundtable LOCAL GOVERNMENT Association of Municipalities of Cayaguanca CIVIL SOCIETY Asociación Agropecuaria de Citalá ASAGROCITALA PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Parque Ecológico el Manzano Riego Sostenible para la producción de hortalizas CATIE La Palma Local Risk Municipal ACOPASI Roundtable Mayoralty of Citalá Cooperativa la Semilla de Dios Centro de CLUSA El Atención turístico Salvador La Palma CAT-LA PALMA General Bureau of Municipal the Forest Mayoralty of San Planning, Fernando Watersheds and Irrigation Agency Asociación Agropecuaria Apícola Monte Tabor Caballero, Colegio Cristiano Lic. Arturo Cabrera La Palma ASAMOTAC General Bureau of Municipal Forest Planning, Mayoralty of La Watersheds and Palma Irrigation Dulce María Agency Asociación Colegio Cooperativa de Evangélico producción de Amigos servicios múltiples y productores orgánicos ACOPO RL National Asociación Tienda Carolina Municipal Agricultural Mayoralty of Dulce Agropecuaria de la Technology Center Nombre de María Palma La Palma ASAGROLAPALMA National Municipal Agricultural Mayoralty of San Technology Center Ignacio San Ignacio Cooperativa De Cafetaleros COOPALMA Farmacia Larisa 51
  52. 52. Women’s Multisectoral Roundtable San Ignacio, Sexual Exploitation Lempa River Trinational Association (associated municipalities) Asociación Hotel y Agropecuaria El Restaurante El Zarzal. ASAEZLAPA Roble Basic Education Trinational Asociación de Hotel y Commission Trifinio Ganaderos San José Restaurante La School Center Dr. Salvador Mendieta Sacare Palma ASAGROSACARE National Institute of Citalá ADESCONLO National Institute of San Fernando ADESCOPLAN San Fernando School Center School Center Canton of Los Planes Asociación de Productores de Palillos de San Ignacio APROPASI Caja de Crédito La Palma ACASIPAC, R.L. Asociación de Caja de Crédito Regante El Carmen Dulce Nombre de María Empresarios de Citalá Intersectoral Asociación Agropecuaria la ruta 119 Committee Nueva visión ADESACOS de San Fernando Asociación de Regantes Las Aradas ADESCOS La Palma (5) Asociación de Ganaderos El Pinar AGAPIR National Institute of San Ignacio ADESCO San Ignacio (10) Asociación de Regantes de El Rosario National Institute of the Canton of Las Pilas ADESCOS Dulce Nombre de María (5) Asociación de Cooperativas Agropecuarias de Hortaliceros El Rosario San Ignacio School centers (11) Cada de Crédito San Ignacio 52
  53. 53. National Civil Police Los Llanitos Water Asociación Force Comunal de Board agromercadeo, servicios turísticos y ambientales ACANCERTA Armed Forces Los Llanitos Water Asociación de th 4 Infantry Brigade Committee Mujeres Unidas por la Paz Peace Tribunal of San Fernando Asociación de desarrollo integral de la zona alta de Chalatenango y grupo de acción territorial ADIZALCAT Peace Tribunal of La Palma Comité Sociocultural de La Palma National Civil Police Force Dulce Nombre de María subdelegation Parroquia Inmaculada Concepción Citalá Court of First Instance Dulce Nombre de María Iglesia Asambleas de Dios Tourism police POLITUR-CAT San Ignacio Río Chiquito Iglesia Filadelfia Asambleas National Civil Police, Environment Parroquia La Palma 53
  54. 54. Health units of Citalá, San Fernando, La Palma, Dulce Nombre de María, San Ignacio, Cantón Las Pilas Iglesias Evangélicas Asambleas de Dios Dulce Nombre de María Cultural Centers of La Palma, Dulce Nombre de María and San Ignacio Parroquia Dulce Nombre de María El Salvador Postal Service La Palma branch San Ignacio de Loyola Catholic Church Source: Informe final Consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Escamilla M. IUCN 2013 . 54
  55. 55. GENDER INFORMATION 55
  56. 56. 6.5. GENDER INFORMATION 6.5.1. GENDER PERSPECTIVE IN PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE To analyze the incorporation of gender perspective in the different projects and programs implemented and those underway in the aquifer zone, a review was made of the information provided by the Trinational Technical Unit of the Trifinio Plan, institutions and organizations working in the zone and documentation on the website of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan. In 72% of the project documents or summaries analyzed (16 of 22), no qualitative or quantitative information was reported to indicating any sign that gender perspective had been incorporated in the components and activities of the projects and programs. Some documents include numbers on beneficiaries, but data are not disaggregated by sex. These projects were related to biodiversity conservation, institutional strengthening for citizen participation entities, and sustainable development of the upper watershed of the Lempa River, among other themes. Table 14 Programs and Projects Executed or Underway in the Trifinio Region No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective 1 No gender information found Master Plan of the La Fraternidad Biosphere Reserve (1987) European Union 2 Program for Institutional Strengthening of No gender information found Citizen Participation Entities of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (2002-2005) CARE El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras 3 Operations Plan of Japan in support to the No gender information found Trinational Program of Sustainable Development of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River (2002-2005) IDB Japanese Fund 56
  57. 57. No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective 4 Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area (2004-2005) Norwegian Funds- IDB No gender information found. Total population is 20,000 but there are no details on number of men and women. 5 Project Sustainable development of the No gender information found Environment and Water Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River (2005-2007) International Atomic Energy Agency 6 Rapid Ecological Assessment in the parts No gender information found that would form the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area in Guatemala and Honduran Territory (2005) GEF / IDB 7 Promotion of Water Administration as Revision of the logical framework showed no Regional Public Good in the Upper gender indicators. It mentions only that project Watershed of the Lempa River (ABPR) beneficiaries are the 305,000 inhabitants of the (2006-2009) Trifinio region composed of 20 municipalities, 8 in El Salvador, 7 in Guatemala, and 5 in Honduras. IDB 8 Integrated Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area No gender information found IDB 9 Project on Creating Local Capacities for the No gender information found Promotion of Local Economic Development in Central American Zones (2010 – 2011) Austrian Cooperation 10 Program of Planning and Development of Sustainable Tourism in the Trifinio Region Shared by El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras No gender information found, only data on number of beneficiaries; direct: tourism MSMEs and indirectly 2000 MSMEs carrying out their activities in the Trifinio region 57
  58. 58. No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective (PROTUR_TRIFINIO) (2010-2013) Distributed in 6 associated municipal groups that bring together at least 25 governments in the region IDB - FOMIN 11 Project rla/8/045. Pilot Area: Olopa – Ocotepeque Subwatershed 12 Characterization of Water Resource No gender information found Contamination in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River/8/045). No gender information found Pilot Area: aquifers in the Güija – Metapán area Only six of the 22 project and program documents consulted (27%) refer to the theme of gender, whether mainstreamed or through sex-disaggregated data. In other cases they include indicators on the participation of men and women in the activities and benefits generated by the program. It should be emphasized that some projects took youth participation into account as part of the process of men’s and women’s empowerment . Data indicate that no specific gender strategies or budget existed for this theme in the contexts of the different groups or communities worked with. It is worth noting that in the Forest and Water program a situation analysis was prepared on gender in the eight communities of program intervention, resulting in a profile of activities, control and access to resources for each to achieve genuine integration of gender perspective in program activities. The need for more detailed description and analysis of gender relations in each community was also recognized. Activities focus on the productive, reproductive and community area. Some activities showing incorporation of gender perspective in projects where information was found are described below. 6.5.1.1. Synchronizing Information for Local-National Participatory Natural Resources Management –SINREM (2006-2008) The project’s objectives were to form a permanent network between public Central American and European universities and research centers and prepare a strategic plan to administer natural resource use and contribute to sustainable development in remote transboundary areas of Central America, including target groups that are local stakeholders and public sector organizations at several levels. 58
  59. 59. Information for the gender situation analysis done by the project was obtained through workshops with focus groups in each of the eight communities. Generic profiles were generated of productive, reproductive and community activities, along with generic profiles on access and control of goods and resources. 6.5.1.2. Trinational Project on Sustainable Specialty Coffee (PROTCAFES) The objective was to strengthen sustainable coffee production through socio-environmental and economic improvement in the Lempa River trinational region, promoting environmentally responsible coffee production and helping improve producers’ quality of life. The project has two components, business and productive, with crosscutting actions in the areas of rural tourism, gender, youth education and community relations. Four hundred fifty coffeegrower families were directly benefitted and 400,000 people indirectly, with no details on gender disaggregation. Small and medium coffee growers involved in this experience were organized and legally constituted—while groups already legalized were strengthened—in first and second-degree business figures which are now commercializing specialty coffees as a block in market niches of North America, Europe and Asia through Neumann export companies in each country or other important exporters. Some have optional certification seals such as Rainforest Alliance or organic, differentiated according to quality or attitudes of social-environmental responsibility, but most with more profitable productive operations than before the project and interesting signs of sustainability. 6.5.1.3. Rural Sustainable Development in Ecologically Fragile Zones in the Trifinio Region (PRODERT) Gender perspective was incorporated in one of the program’s five objectives, which was to “Promote, diversify and rationalize the economic and social participation of women and youth” to ensure the project would incorporate the goal of gender equity in strategic planning, expected outcomes, project activities and monitoring and evaluation indicators. For example, credit to support entrepreneurship was mainly awarded to women, inducing that Preparation of pickled vegetables as part of project the benefits of these activities improve food activities (PRODERT). patterns and those of their family. 59
  60. 60. In addition, incorporation of equity and gender aspects was considered, not only disaggregating information by sex but also encouraging gender analysis as feedback for planning, and linking mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of effects and impacts on men and women. Monitoring and evaluation also contemplated prior definition of differences and inequalities between men and women in relation to: a. domestic, agricultural and rural tasks b. workload c. Access to resources and development opportunities Other aspects incorporated were changes in gender differences, self-esteem, personal development opportunities and other qualitative changes in the conditions of men and women, which helped determined whether the project has contributed to increasing or reducing gender inequalities. The program made it possible to attend more than 20,000 families in the three countries, through sustained and sustainable use of renewable natural resources and income-generating activities and support infrastructure for populations located in vulnerable areas to minimize desertification of the Trifinio. 6.5.1.4. Program of Sustainable Development for the Watershed of the Lempa River Gender perspective was used with this program through training workshops specifically for women to build their capacities and foster their active participation in relevant stakeholder groups. It had a participatory approach stressing community and local organizations, integrating communities and women in the selection and execution of projects. Gender and equity perspective was also integrated in all activities. For example, goals of the promotion of economic diversification component included facilitating women’s incorporation in economic activities to raise family income through women’s business groups. The institutional strengthening component included strengthening of existing social organizations maintaining a gender perspective to foster citizen participation, especially of women and youth, as well as their empowerment in decision-making on prioritization and solution of their problems in the near, medium and long term. 6.5.1.5. Forests and Water Program Although gender equity is mainstreamed in all of the program’s activities, during the AOP 2011 planning process it was recognized that conceptual guidelines needed to be established to help staff make incorporation of gender perspective in their activities viable. In practice, they were 60
  61. 61. finding it difficult to achieve genuine implementation of gender perspective in field actions since each of the communities has its own specific sociocultural construction, which had not been taken into account until that time. he program’s area of action covers eight communities with great cultural, social and economic diversity in the Trifinio region, to help them achieve real integration of gender perspective in their activities. The need to describe and analyze each community’s gender relations in greater depth was recognized, resulting in a profile of activities, control and access to resources for each. Activities Figure 17. Group of men and women in focus on the productive, reproductive and work to protect soil as part of the actions of the Forests and Water Program. community area. 6.5.1.6. Innovations in Sustainable Value Chains of Specialty Vegetables in the Trifinio Region (MAP) This project is currently underway as part of the Mesoamerican Agro-Environmental Program. In keeping with the program’s governance principle, all activities must ensure that gender equity problems are integrated in all decisions on action promoted and supported by the project, and strategies and actions in turn must promote and reinforce integration of gender equity perspective. Figure 18. Women cleaning vegetables for local sale. In order to tackle this approach, the expected outcomes of the project take the following aspects into account: Outcome 1. Strengthening of innovation capacity in producer organizations. Proposes to include agricultural households and their members in this process. Rather than being limited to heads of families, the participation of rural women is promoted to strengthen their leadership and the economic benefits of productive activities such as worm composting, development of biological control agents and/or local sale of products. Spaces of discussion with equitable representation of men and women are also being promoted inside producer organizations, especially for decision-making. 61
  62. 62. Outcome 2. Promotion of multi-sectoral platforms of innovation. This outcomes aims at assuring gender balance in project participants who also make an effort to create an environment of discussion sensitive to gender equity. Outcome 3. National programs and policies. Work is being done on opening opportunities to improve gender equity through balanced participation in national political policies and forums. Processes of curricular design are also being fostered so that training and human development of national professionals is creative, critical and comprehensive in the approach to themes related to gender equity. Outcome 4. Promotion of information systems and learning, Wherein producers, field technicians and specialists are not seen as passive recipients of learning, but active members, providing feedback on the content of information with gender equity perspective. Furthermore, analysis of sustainable livelihoods of households participating in the program will enable a detailed evaluation of the participation of the different family members in the costs and benefits of the changes promoted by project actions. This will in turn provide feedback for the decision-making process of the producer organizations and their service suppliers on how to orient project interventions to achieve gender equity. 6.5.1.7. Program on Watershed Management in the Trifinio Region (Forests and Watersheds) The “Forest and Watershed” program is currently underway. According to the logical framework, one of the ends proposed is that by 2026, women will constitute 30% of participating beneficiaries that develop technologies or initiatives supported by the program. Indicators include the women’s integration in management of agroforestry and sylvipastoral systems, and 6000 families in a situation of poverty will be benefitted in 90 rural communities, 20 municipalities and seven state institutions. A preliminary training plan has been formulated to strengthen environmental management by municipal governments, local organizations, producers, associated municipalities, and leaders in themes related to the program objective, such as integrated water resource management and risk management. It should be noted that in this training plan, the participation of women producers and leaders has been made visible. In this sense, the most significant on-the-ground actions up to 2012 have been the collection of 1,316 investment application forms by the producer families for a coverage area of 2,204 ha. Division by gender of those presenting investment application forms in the 63 communities and cantons of the three countries show that 79% are men and 21% women. 62
  63. 63. The program’s annual operating plans mention that they are based on fundamental principles governing all parts of their implementation. These are horizontal cooperation, co-investment, facilitator program, environmental awareness, gender equity, respect for the customs and beliefs of social groups, solidarity and accompaniment, and quality and prudence of expenditure. Figure 19. Training for women and men in the frame of the Forest and Watershed program 6.5.2. GENDER PERSPECTIVE AT THE INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL Currently at the level of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (TCTP) there is no gender equity policy to orient its work with respect to women’s needs and problems. Nor does its organic structure contain any entity representing gender in the institution, or a budget line for specific activities on gender equity such as promotion, awareness-raising, gender training, production activities or strengthening of organizations with gender work. Because gender perspective has not been internalized within the commission’s institutionality, most of its programs and projects likewise have not integrated gender in their actions. In most it has only been approached as “crosscutting theme,” but with no qualitative or qualitative visualization of the actual benefits to which women have had access. In other cases there is no mention of whether gender perspective has been considered in project formulation and implementation, so women’s participation and role in the different spheres of social and economic life are totally invisible. Figure 16 Organizational Chart of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan Source: www.sica.int/trifinio 63
  64. 64. To date, cooperation agencies and executing institutions are carrying out gender work at their own initiative, but not in response to a commission policy or intervention strategy as there is no institutional promotion and convocatory strategy to promote joint work with the different institutions and stakeholders contemplating rural women’s and men’s participation in relation to gender equity perspective. 6.5.3. GENDER PERSPECTIVE AT LOCAL LEVEL Efforts have been made in municipalities to incorporate gender equity perspective in their policies, considering it a strategic crosscutting theme of human development. This has been mainstreamed at all levels of the Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa and in local planning processes for all its project actions and coordination. This initiative arose from the population’s identification of priorities, coordinated by local institutions that have facilitated the theme’s incorporation among the different stakeholders. As example, the General Ordinary Assembly of Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, held in December 2012, in Ocotepeque, Honduras, included signature of the “Declaration on Gender Policy” as part of the interinstitutional commitment to incorporate gender perspective in all current and future activities of Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa and the municipalities comprising it. The activity was carried out with the participation of the mayors and members of councils and municipal corporations and delegates from the three countries, who lent their endorsement through validation and signature of the declaration promoting the following:  Establishment of institutional gender policy in both Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa and the municipalities comprising it  Incorporate gender perspective in strategic plans, programs, projects, work units, annual operating plans and institutional budgets  Design an institutional strategy for implementation of this declaration of indefinite duration, which includes training in gender equity themes for the board of directors, local authorities and staff of the individual municipalities and the associated municipal entity  Design a system for monitoring and evaluating actions with gender perspective deriving from this declaration on gender policy  Strengthen and forge strategic alliances with specialized entities to drive formal and horizontal cooperation to help put this declaration into practice  Spread information and knowledge resulting from this declaration  Raise the declaration to national governments in order to inform about efforts undertaken and secure their support for different initiatives This commitment assumed by Mancomunidad Trinacional will make it possible to promote gender equity and equality as fundamental element for improving the quality of livelihoods of the 64

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