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final report consultancies trifinio(en) final report consultancies trifinio(en) Document Transcript

  • FINAL REPORT Inventory of Information and Identification of Gaps for Characterization and Assessment of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer (Trifinio Aquifer) PROJECT GOVERNANCE OF GROUNDWATER IN TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS Livelihoods and Climate Change Unit-IUCN Guatemala March 2013 1
  • PREPARED BY: Ana Patricia Alvarado Cruz REVIEWED BY: Carlos Rosal del Cid Regional Officer Livelihoods and Climate Change Unit IUCN 2
  • ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ANDA Administración Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados CEL Comisión Ejecutiva Hidroeléctrica del Río Lempa CTPT Comisión Trinacional Plan Trifinio ENEE Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency INSIVUMEH Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología ISARM Internationally Shared Aquifer Resources Management IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature MAG Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería de El Salvador MARN Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de El Salvador MARN Ministerio de Ambienta y Recursos Naturales de Guatemala SANAA Servicio Autónomo Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados SSC South-south cooperation SNET Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales UES Universidad de El Salvador UNDP United Nations Development Program UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 3
  • CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 7 II. BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 7 III. OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................... 11 3.1. GENERAL................................................................................................................................. 11 3.2. SPECIFIC .................................................................................................................................. 11 IV. METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 11 V. PLANNING ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................... 13 5.1. START-UP ACTIVITIES ............................................................................................................. 13 5.2. WORKSHOPS AND MEETINGS WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE TRIFINIO REGION FOR FEEDBACK ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL ....................................................................................... 14 5.3. TRIPS TO THE FIELD ................................................................................................................ 21 VI. RESULTS........................................................................................................................................ 24 6.1. BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE AREA OF THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUECITALÁ AQUIFER (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) ........................................................................................... 25 6.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) ............................................................................................................. 34 6.3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION .......................................................................................... 39 6.4. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION VAILABLE .......................................................................... 45 6.5. GENDER INFORMATION ....................................................................................................... 56 6.6. POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED AND AQUIFER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE TRIFINIO REGION ........................................................................................... 67 6.7. IDENTIFICATION OF INFORMATION GAPS ACCORDING TO INDICATORS ......................... 77 VII. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................. 83 VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................ 84 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................. 86 X. ATTACHMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 90 ATTACHMENT 1. Lists of participants in coordination and informational workshops with other stakeholders .................................................................................................................................. 91 ATTACHMENT 2. Documents Reviewed to Identify Information Gaps ......................................... 95 ATTACHMENT 3. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in the Esquipulas Valley ....................... 119 ATTACHMENT 4. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in La Palma, El Salvador ....................... 122 4
  • TABLES Table 1 Programs and Projects of the Trifinio Plan ............................................................................. 9 Table 2 Description of Dissemination Activities for the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project and Coordination.................................................................................................... 14 Table 3 Observations and Suggestions for the Project Preparation Phase....................................... 18 Table 4 Observations and Suggestions on the Project Implementation Phase ................................ 19 Table 5 Average Monthly Precipitation in the Trifinio Region by Station......................................... 27 Table 6 Description of Soil Groups in the Trifinio Region ................................................................. 29 Table 7 Official Protected Areas in the Trifinio Region ..................................................................... 39 Table 8 Potable Water Coverage by Country in the Area of Influence of Trifinio Plan, Upper Lempa River Basin ......................................................................................................................................... 42 Table 9 Expected Population by 2015 ............................................................................................... 45 Table 10 Population Data for the Trifinio Zone ................................................................................. 46 Table 11 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Guatemala .................................. 48 Table 12 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Ocotepeque Honduras ............... 49 Table 13 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone, El Salvador ...................................... 51 Table 14 Programs and Projects Executed or Underway in the Trifinio Region ............................... 56 Table 15 Information Gaps Identified for the Zone of the Trifinio Aquifer Trifinio in Reference to Project Indicators .............................................................................................................................. 77 Table 16 Documents reviewed to Identify Gaps in Biophysical and Hydrogeological Information .. 95 FIGURES Figure 1 Location of the Trifinio region in the north Central American triangle .............................. 25 Figure 2 Climate Classification according to Thornthwaite .............................................................. 26 Figure 3 Annual Precipitation in the Trifinio Region ......................................................................... 27 Figure 4 Average Annual Temperatures (°C) for the Trifinio Region ................................................ 28 Figure 5 Relative Humidity in the Trifinio Region ............................................................................. 29 Figure 6 Soil Groupings in the Trifinio Region ................................................................................... 30 Figure 7 Relief in the Trifinio Region ................................................................................................. 31 5
  • Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region .......................................................................... 32 Figure 9 Subwatersheds located in the Trifinio Region .................................................................... 32 Figure 10 Potential Water Recharge Zones....................................................................................... 33 Figure 11 Geology Upper Basin of the Lempa River ......................................................................... 34 Figure 12 Hydrogeology of the Upper Part of the Watershed of the Lempa River .......................... 35 Figure 13 First Approximation of the Delimitation of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer .. 36 Figure 14 Protected Areas Located in the Trifinio Zone.................................................................... 40 Figure 15 Strategic Transboundary Environmental Problems .......................................................... 41 Figure 16 Organizational Chart of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan ......................... 63 6
  • I. INTRODUCTION Every day greater quantities of groundwater are used to meet the needs of rural and urban communities all over the planet in supplying this vital liquid for different uses (domestic, agricultural, commercial, industrial, tourism, etc.). Despite the increased use, there is still little study of groundwater dynamics and basic information remains unavailable for local or national management or planning and implementation of activities to restore, conserve and protect water recharge zones. UNESCO’s International Hydrological Program has made efforts to improve understanding of groundwater resources worldwide, providing guidelines on transboundary groundwater management. Within this programme, the “Internationally Shared Aquifers Resources Management Programme” (ISARM) stands out as a global programme that, in collaboration with its partners in the national, regional and international spheres, has prepared an inventory of hydrogeological characteristics, environmental and socioeconomic aspects and legal and institutional frameworks of transboundary aquifers at the global scale. In May 2012, within its Strategic Framework 2010-2015 and as part of the initiatives of a global water program, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) issued an invitation to present projects for funding with transboundary aquifers as the central theme. The invitation was accepted by the UNESCO International Hydrological program and IUCN, which presented a joint proposal on activities in three pilot sites, one being the Trifinio Aquifer (Esquipulas-OcotepequeCitalá). This was accepted by the cooperation agency, thereby initiating preparatory activities of the project with the objective of conducting an inventory of existing information on the Trifinio zone and identifying information gaps with respect to a group of indicators enabling a first characterization of the aquifer, and which would serve as foundation for preparing a final project proposal on “Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers”. To carry out this preliminary phase, a consultant team was contracted, formed of one specialist each in hydrogeology, integrated watershed management, environmental management and gender, along with a team coordinator. These specialists have carried out various activities to achieve the objectives of the preliminary phase. This document presents the results obtained from compiling information on climate, hydrogeology, environment, socioeconomic aspects and application of gender perspective in the programs and projects already finalized or currently underway, along with a preliminary stakeholder mapping for the aquifer zone. II. BACKGROUND For more than 25 years, the Central American nations of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras have joined together in the Trifinio region in a transboundary cooperation effort1 geared toward 1 Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities. 2012, Tercer Informe Plan Estratégico de Desarrollo Estratégico territorial Trinacional. 7
  • managing the environment and territory as a means of making improved living conditions possible for border communities. For this reason, the country governments have tried to drive “integration of the region, formalized in the Treaty for Execution of the Trifinio Plan, aimed at cooperation in the solution of common problems and promotion of sustainable development.” The region is made up of 45 municipalities—8 in El Salvador, 22 in Honduras and 15 in Guatemala—located around the cloud forest of the Montecristo massif, whose peak is found in the so-called “Trifinio” where the borders of these three Central American countries converge. The interventions of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio-CTPT) are upheld in the framework of the Trinational Treaty signed in 1997. This agreement recognizes the Trinational Commission, formed of the Vice-Presidents of El Salvador and Guatemala and a designate of the President of Honduras, as the entity responsible for overseeing execution of the Trifinio Plan and its continuous updating. The commission has administrative, financial and technical autonomy and its own legal identity. Another initiative in the zone is the creation of the Lempa River Trinational Association of Municipalities2 which arose in Guatemala and carried out a process of strategic trinational territorial planning (1998-2003), setting out first steps for linkage of local stakeholders in a multicountry, multi-level and multi-stakeholder agenda. As time passed a strategic alliance was formed with other associations of municipalities in the region, thus generating South-South cooperation between one municipality and another. The basis for this alliance was a broader and more comprehensive agenda than the one established by the CTPT, with objectives in accordance with local assessment and strategic guidelines. In addition to sustainable human development, one of the goals to be achieved through international work is the creation of public policies through the strategy of inter-municipal, southsouth cooperation to transform trinational public policy projects in which managers, technicians, mayors, nongovernmental organizations, chambers of commerce and services all participate, seeking out international partners to adhere to the alliance. This is an interesting experience in Central America, wherein three countries with the help of international donors invest in the sustainable development of an international shared watershed. In this context, the shared challenges have to do with environmental (water and biodiversity) management of a strategic zone for the region and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, given that the Trifinio region has Central America’s highest rates of poverty, illiteracy and deficiency in access to basic services. Several exercises in south-south cooperation exist both in the projects set up by the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (CTPT) at a macro level, and decentralized cooperation initiatives by the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities in the local arena. The former is based on institutionality generated by the Trifinio Plan, while the latter arose from local sustainable development initiatives supported through international cooperation3. It is important to emphasize the dual nature of cooperation in two spheres of action: intergovernmental cooperation in the CTPT and municipal cooperation through both associated and individual municipalities. Both fields of action in the three countries generate local 2 Ayala C., Ambrosio K., 2011. Cooperación en la Región del Trifinio: Un caso de cooperación Transfronteriza de Sur-Sur. 8
  • development activities through differing dynamics—more expeditious and practical in the case of associated municipalities in the three countries in comparison with top-level governmental action. During these years, objectives for the region have been furthered by projects and programs that have been and continue to be implemented. The table below lists projects and programs in recent years. Table 1 Programs and Projects of the Trifinio Plan PROGRAM OR PROJECT FINANCER Program for Planning and Development of Sustainable Tourism in the Trifinio Region underway IDB-FOMIN CTPT 3,542,000 Watershed Management in the Trifinio Region underway KwF CTPT 19,198.000 Forests and Water Program underway GIZ/BMZ GOPA/CTPT 5,000,000 underway CATIE CATIE/CTPT 700,000 Innovations in Sustainable Value Chains of Specialty Vegetables in the Trifinio Region Trinational Sustainable Coffee Project Synchronizing Information for LocalNational Participatory Natural Resources Management underway (ICP/ Tim Hortons EXECUTOR AMOUNT USD STATUS ICP 1,290,236 finalized EU CTPT 441,000 Project for Integrated Management of the Montecristo Trinational finalized Protected Area IDB CTPT 4,607,000 IDB CTPT 940,100 finalized IDB CTPT 60,000 underway IAEA SNET/INSIVU MEH/ENEE 634,380 finalized IDB NORPLAN 280,000 Promotion of the Administration of Water as Regional Public Good in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa finalized River in the Trifinio Region Rapid Ecological Assessment in the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area Project for Sustainable Development of Environment and Water in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Phase II Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area 9
  • Strengthening of Five Salvadoran Municipal Governments in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Operational Plan of Japan in support to the Trinational Sustainable Development Program of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Regional Program of Participatory Implementation of Integrated Pest Management and Agroforestry in the Trifinio Area Program of Institutional Strengthening for Citizen Participation Entities of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan Program for Trinational Development of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River finalized EU CTPT finalized Japanese Fund 213,300 CTPT 840,000 finalized NORAD CATIE N.D. finalized CARE CTPT 171,000 finalized IDB/NORAD/ GTZ/ Support for Preparation of the Program for Sustainable finalized Development of the Lempa River Basin Project for Sustainable Development of Ecologically Fragile finalized Zones in the Trifinio Region CTPT 19,000,000 IDB EUROESTUDIO S 216,000 BCIE PTCARL 43,340,000 Master Plan of La Fraternidad Biosphere Reserve finalized EU Maya Ecosystems Mayas 630,000 Project for Rationalization of Energy Use and Environmental Protection finalized Government of Finland OAS 2,000,000 Source: Charchalac, S. 2013, Informe Final Consultoría “Gobernanza de Aguas Subterráneas en Acuíferos Transfronterizos. IUCN Implemented from 2006 to 2012, the project “Sustainable Development of the Environment and Natural Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River” was funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), through Project RLA 8/ 038. The following activities were carried out3:    Preparation of a geological map of the upper watershed of the Lempa River, harmonized among the three countries Inventory of wells, springs, rivers and lakes Physico-chemical analysis of wells, springs, rivers and lakes 3 International Atomic Energy Agency. 2009 Desarrollo Sostenible del Medio Ambiente y los Recursos Hídricos en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa informe final (primer borrador) 10
  •       Capacity of rivers and springs Isotopic analysis of oxygen 18, deuterium and tritium Geophysical testing Preparation of a hydrogeological map Preparation of the preliminary conceptual hydrogeological mode Integration of data generated by the geographic information system This project generated highly important information for the Trifinio zone in terms of groundwater. However, at present there is only a draft report since a final document bringing together all of the information is still being prepared. III. OBJECTIVES 3.1. GENERAL Conduct an inventory of information available on the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer and identify information gaps for applying the matrix of indicators so that steps can be defined for designing the “Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers” project. 3.2. SPECIFIC Integrate a report with all of the information available on biophysical, socioeconomic, hydrogeological, environmental, institutional and legal characteristics of the EsquipulasOcotepeque-Citalá aquifer (Trifinio) zone in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador and determine the current state of the aquifer. IV. METHODOLOGY The following activities were carried out for this consultancy: 4.1. COORDINATION OF THE CONSULTANT TEAM: preparation of work plans and scheduling of activities, face-to-face meetings, field visits, presentations to local stakeholders, induction of consultant team members, review and correction of progress and final reports, virtual meetings on Skype and group and individual communication by e-mail as needed. 4.2. COORDINATION OF WORK WITH THE LIVELIHOODS AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION UNIT: During the consultancy, the IUCN Regional Office acted as direct liaison responsible for the work of the entire consultant team, maintaining open, fluid and continuous communication through face-to-face meetings, virtual meetings through Skype and e-mail, accompaniment on field visits, support and participation in different presentations to local stakeholders, presentation of consultancy reports and addressing pertinent concerns, 11
  • difficulties or constraints and channeling requests of the consultant team, as well as coordinating field visits and face-to-face meetings with the consultants. 4.3. FIELD TRIPS: Two trips were made to the field with the consultant team to become acquainted with the area of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer, integrate opinions about its current situation, gather primary information from government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and other key stakeholders in the zone and meet with the technical team of the Trifinio Plan. 4.4. WORKSHJOPS AND MEETINGS TO PUBLICIZE THE PROJECT AND COORDINATE FUTURE ACTIVITIES: Various meetings and workshops were held with key stakeholders to disseminate the project proposal, elicit feedback on activities to be carried out and coordinate possible future actions. 4.5. COMPILATION, REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE INFORMATION GENERATED IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE THROUGH DIFFERENT PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS EXECUTED OR UNDERWAY: The consultant team complied information generated in Trifinio through the management of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan, Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, GIZ, CATIE, INSIVUMEH, MAG, MARN of El Salvador, CEL, and related web pages. 4.6. REPORT PREPARATION: Each consultant prepared a work plan, mid-term progress report and final report containing the relevant products. 12
  • V. PLANNING ACTIVITIES 5.1. START-UP ACTIVITIES These activities were carried out by the technical team of the IUCN Livelihoods and Climate Change Adaptation Unit: 13
  •  Preliminary timetable of activities and approach strategy  Definition of the consultant technical team needed to conduct the inventory of available information  Preparation of ToRs for selecting the consultant team  Call for candidates to the consultant team  Selection of professionals in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador to form the team  Consultant team made up of: o o o o o Coordinator (Groundwater Use and Management specialist) Hydrogeologist (civil engineer with 20 years of experience in the area) Watershed Management specialist (agricultural engineer) Environmental Management specialist (agricultural engineer) Gender specialist (biologist) 5.2. WORKSHOPS AND MEETINGS WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE TRIFINIO REGION FOR FEEDBACK ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL 5.2.1. ACTIVITIES Various meetings and workshops were held with stakeholders to publicize the project, present advances in the preliminary phase, receive feedback on the project and coordinate future meetings. Table 2 summarizes these activities. Table 2 Description of Dissemination Activities for the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project and Coordination ACTIVITY Meeting with INSIVUMEH director and staff in Guatemala (focal point of UNESCOISARM) PARTICIPANTS BRIEF DESCRIPTION Eddy Sánchez INSIVUMEH) Two meetings with INSIVUMEH officials to present the project and Fulgencio Garavito identify activities for (INSIVUMEH) coordination between the two institutions to Carlos Rosal (IUCN) further project implementation. PRODUCTS Presentation of the project and draft memo of understanding between INSIVUMEH and IUCN to coordinate activities; signature 14
  • PARTICIPANTS ACTIVITY BRIEF DESCRIPTION Patricia Alvarado (consultant) PRODUCTS of the memo is in process. Sebastián Charchalac (consultant) Meeting with the Juan Carlos Montufar Trifinio Plan Technical (Trifinio Manager) Manager Carlos Rosal (IUCN) Consultant Team (IUCN) Meeting with Salvador Environmental Observatory El Meeting with the Trifinio Management to make an official presentation of the project and introduce the consultant team in charge of the first phase; obtain suggestions regarding coordination activities Follow-up activities coordinated for dissemination of the project, and guidelines on obtaining information generated in the zone by different projects executed or underway Deysi López (MARN) Carlos Rosal (IUCN) Patricia Alvarado (consultant) Manuel Escamilla (consultant) Official presentation of the project and firstphase consultant team to the Environmental Observatory; agreement on some follow-up activities. Agreement on a workshop to present the project to the technical team working in the Trifinio zone Information generated by the Observatory in the El Salvador section obtained Coordination workshop with the Trifinio Plan technical team Representatives of the Trifinio Plan, GIZ, El Salvador Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and IUCN (17 people, see attachment 2) Presentation of the project and consultant team. The Trifinio Plan gave a presentation on projects underway and recently finalized. Communication channel established between Trifinio Plan technical team, representatives of other projects underway in the zone and IUCN consultant team Preliminary identification of 15
  • ACTIVITY PARTICIPANTS BRIEF DESCRIPTION PRODUCTS information available at Trifinio Plan headquarters and preliminary gaps concerning application of the matrix of indicators for the IUCN – UNESCO proposal Identified the need for a specific work meeting with the Trifinio Plan Technical Research Team to learn about results obtained from the research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordination workshop with the Trifinio Plan technical research team Representatives of MARN, CEL, ANDA, MAG and University of El Salvador, Trifinio Plan, INSIVUMEH and IUCN (14 people, see attachment 2) Presentation of the Groundwater Governance project and the consultant team. The research team presented the IAEA project on study of groundwater in the upper part of the Lempa River basin. Information generated and gaps identified by the research team Draft project document received (there is still no final document). Communication channels set up between trinational research team and IUCN consultant team Technical inputs and feedback obtained on the project proposal, second phase. 16
  • Coordination workshop with the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Representatives of the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Representatives of the Association of Border Associated Municipalities Representatives of IUCN (17 people, see attachment 2) Dissemination of the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers Project by the IUCN The Association gave a presentation on its work in the zone, projects executed and underway and possible lines of coordination with the project. Lines of coordination identified between the project and the Association for carrying out complementary activities Important information identified for development of the project’s phase 1 and lines of communication to obtain it Those present provided suggestions and observations to be taken into account in the project proposal, second phase. UNESCO-IUCN work meeting Andrea Merla UNESCO Laura del Vaal IGRAC Rocío Córdoba IUCN Carlos Rosal IUCN Sebastián Charchalac IUCN consultant Manuel Escamilla IUCN consultant Melany Machado IUCN consultant Fernando Samayoa IUCN consultant Patricia Alvarado IUCN Consultant Presentation by Andrea Merla on the Transboundary Water Program (TWAP) study and how the Groundwater Governance Project is inserted in this project Presentation by Laura del Val on IGRAC and the information management system to be used during project implementation Observations and suggestions by UNESCO and IGRAC officers for the work of the consultant team Follow-up agreements on preparation of the final proposal document Presentation by Carlos Rosal on the process followed during the project’s preliminary phase 17
  • Presentation by the consultant team on progress in the preliminary phase Observations, suggestions and recommendations were then made on the work carried out, concluding with agreements and coordination of work to prepare the final proposal document. These activities provided broader criteria about institutional dynamics in the Trifinio zone and the state of its communication channels, and preliminary detection of local installed capacity to strengthen project implementation in the zone. 5.2.2. RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS OF LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS ON THE PROJECT PROPOSAL 5.2.2.1. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PROJECT PREPARATION PHASE Table 3 Observations and Suggestions for the Project Preparation Phase STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Hold a meeting with the Trinational Technical Research Team to find out about their work on the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer since this is the most recent hydrogeological study made but the information is not yet available to the general public. Trifinio Plan Technical Team and organizations working in the area Make a list of information gaps detected thus far and send it to the Trifinio Plan Technical Manager to confirm with the technical team whether or not the information exists and if so, how it can be accessed. Eight wells have recently been drilled on the Honduras side; they are being monitored and this is very valuable information. The Honduras Trifinio Plan TO Coordinator needs to be contacted for this information. 18
  • STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVACITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Trinational Technical Research Team Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Mancomunidad Coordinate with MAG in El Salvador to obtain the draft of the final document on the first phase of the IAEA project Río Lempa It is feasible to generate other indicators can be applied specifically to this aquifer. UNESCO and IGRAC Coordinate with their technical team to obtain documents generated in the zone. Consultants should link the inventory of information generated in the aquifer zone with the intermediate list of indicators Concerning the gender indicators, a special team (United Nations Development Program and UNESCO) will be responsible for a process to generate them. 5.2.2.2. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Table 4 Observations and Suggestions on the Project Implementation Phase STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Recommended thorough knowledge of the results of the research project carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency and to follow up since the two projects could be complementary. Trifinio Plan Technical Team and organizations working in the zone In-depth local work with key stakeholders (private owners of areas of interest, ranchers, coffee growers, municipalities, associations of municipalities and others) is important. Based on experience in other area projects, unless their awareness is raised and these stakeholders are fully involved in the work for conservation and sustainable development of water and associated resources, achievement of the project’s objectives will be limited. If Payment for Environmental Services activities are contemplated, be careful that the model chosen is locally acceptable and all participants obtain benefits. It is important to contemplate working with the social capital of the region so that people are empowered about their resources through the creation of good water governance capacities. 19
  • While there has been work on the gender theme in the zone in some projects, it is still very weak so needs to be made visible at local, institutional and governmental levels. Promote the establishment of agreements with local governments to regulate use of water resources. Take advantage of the technical research platform already created to work with it, the only thing needed is to have a full-time coordinator who can organize the teamwork and coordinate all of the logistics for collecting data in field studies. Trinational Technical Research Team Prepare a map of aquifer recharge zones so that a management plan for these zones can be jointly developed for the aquifer’s maintenance. Do a study on the aquifer’s vulnerability to contamination and identify the major pollution points. Evaluate aquifer availability and yield in the face of climate change effects and climate variability. Conduct or update the inventory of wells in the aquifer zone, both artisanal and mechanical (as far as possible, this inventory should include data on piezometric levels, use type, yield, amount used, storage coverage and geographic location). It is important to involve the health sector in each country through the community promoters. Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Country legislation and will could be a large constraint to achieving the project objective about transboundary dialogue. The Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission and Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities play an important role in influencing governments and generating changes in local policy. It is important that the project include a training component so that local stakeholders with advocacy and financial management capacity are part of the process, and also to create local capacities in transboundary groundwater governance. Strengthen territorial platforms making it possible for everyone to access information generated; and also to make a joint effort towards their sustainability 20
  • Coordinate with and support the Trinational Association of Municipalities to promote the public policies of “Shared Waters” and “Forests Forever,” as well as preparation of the Steering Plan for Integrated Water Resource Management regulating both surface and ground water Promote activities for developing sustainable agriculture in the area and reducing water pollution from this productive activity Promote interinstitutional and multi-sector coordination to forge strategic alliances The ISARM methodology will be used in carrying out aquifer characterization activities and generation of information for application to the indicators, in which work is done by local experts and UNESCO intervention will focus on work supervision and harmonization issues. UNESCO and IGRAC It would be good to have letters of endorsements for the project from the three countries, as well as letters of cooperation with their national institutions in order to define coordination and cooperation commitments. Define the parameters that will be used for generating geographic information (scale, rasters, nomenclatures and others); that way the same parameters are used. 5.3. TRIPS TO THE FIELD The consultant team made three field visits during the consultancy. 5.3.1. RECONNAISSANCE OF THE ESQUIPULAS-OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA A field visit was made at the start of the consultancy to tour the aquifer zone under study for a preliminary determination of biophysical, hydrological and social characteristics of the zone. During the tour main rivers and their tributaries were located preliminarily and geomorphology was identified, along with some of the stratigraphic characteristics and a panorama of current land use, possible limits of the aquifer and characteristics of the main recharge zones. It was also possible to determine that prevailing soils are shallow and highly susceptible to erosion, mainly on hillsides. The valley is very different since soil is Field visit for reconnaissance of the Trifinio Aquifer area. 21
  • very deep and of better quality. Due to their geological characteristics, certain zones appear to have little water permeability, representing a low water recharge zone. The aquifer area also has zones where forest cover is still maintained, enabling infiltration of water. Change in land use is very common and much of the land is used for coffee growing, one of the major sources of income. Due to the zone’s conditions, it appears that most of the groundwater used comes from an unconfined or shallow aquifer highly susceptible to contamination. 5.3.2. FIELD TRIP TO ACTIVITIES EXECUTED BY THE GIZ WATER AND FOREST PROJECT This trip, in which the GIZ technical team participated, included visits to two experiences carried out by the GIZ Water and Forest project in the Balanzas and San Juan Buena Vista microwatersheds located in the upper watershed of the Lempa River in Honduras. The purpose was to learn about the activities of the communities and identify level of capacities as product of the project currently being executed. Importantly, women have active participation in both the agroforestry project and in monitoring water and runoff parcels. They take pluviometer measurements and on the capacities of some streams. This information is used for their farming activities. There is a striking change of attitude in the inhabitants in terms of valuation of water resources and carrying out water conservation activities. Top: Runoff parcels for monitoring It is evident that the project has created Bottom: Meeting of a group of project beneficiarie capacities to negotiate and solve conflicts over inadequate use of water and contamination actions. This trip was highly important to learn about aspects described previously and to realize that it is not a matter of starting from zero with the communities, since there is already a certain local capacity to do fieldwork and facilitate implementation of new project activities in the zone. 5.3.3. FIELD TRIP WITH UNESCO AND IGRAC OFFICERS The consultant team and UNESCO and IGRAC members made a visit to the Trifinio area on March 4 and 5, providing opportunity to interview the Manager of the Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission and technical staff of the Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities to inform about the project’s objectives and ascertain their willingness to coordinate activities as local partners in the zone. 22
  • A reconnaissance trip was also made to the area where the Esquipulas- Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer is located, so that the UNESCO mission could get a clearer vision of surface geology, possible water recharge zones, productive activities and possible groundwater uses. UNESCO-IUCN- Trifinio Plan meeting Visit to a lookout of the Esquipulas Valley UNESCO-IUCN-Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities Visit to the Lempa River 5.4. REVIEW OF INFORMATION GENERATED IN TRIFINIO All available information was collected through the Technical Management of the Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission on projects executed in the zone, websites and government institutions in each of the countries, and then reviewed and catalogued by the consultant team. 23
  • VI. RESULTS BIOPHYSICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION 24
  • 6.1. BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE AREA OF THE ESQUIPULASOCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) While there is almost no biophysical or hydrogeological information specifically for the aquifer, information on the Trifinio zone in general can be used for the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá aquifer. The main and most up-to-date document on the situation of the Trifinio region is one prepared by the Forests and Water Project, executed with support from GIZ (Estado de la Región Trifinio), source of the description provided below. 6.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY ZONE 6.1.1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE TRIFINIO ZONE Comprised of the El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala border areas, the Trifinio region spans a total of 7,541 km 2, 44.7% corresponding to Guatemala, 15.3% to El Salvador, a n d 40% to Honduras, representing approximately 13% of Figure 1 Location of the Trifinio region in the north Central American triangle the three countries’ total extension and 3% of their population. In 2010 there were 802,919 inhabitants4. The region is strategically located within Central America’s northern triangle. There is land communication with the most important cities in the three countries. It is located approximately 140 km from Guatemala City, some 15 km from Santa Ana (El Salvador), 66 km from San Salvador and 159 km from San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Source: Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa As for the Trifinio aquifer, a study by Garavito, F. and Guevara, M. generated the following information. The Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Transboundary Aquifer System extends approximately along 600 km corresponding to the municipalities of Metapán, Citalá, San Ignacio and La Palma, in El Salvador; Esquipulas, Olopa, and Quetzaltepeque, in Guatemala; and Nueva Ocotepeque, Santa Fe and Concepción, Honduras. Dominant physiographic elements are represented by the Tertiary volcanic chain with elevations up to 2700 MASL. Lahars occur. In the aquifer zone shared by the countries there is a population of approximately 100,000 people (UNESCO-IHP/OAS ISARM, 2007. Atlas of Transboundary Aquifers). In terms of climate, there is a moist zone with annual pluviosity ranging from 1200 to 2000 mm, with rains from May to October and average annual temperatures of 23º to 25º C. 4 Estado de la Región del Trifinio/GIZ 2010. 25
  • 6.1.2. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 6.1.2.1. CLIMATE AND LIFE ZONES The most recurrent climate in the Trifinio region is semi-warm humid, including most of Honduran Trifinio and the northeast region of Guatemalan Trifinio. Warm, humid climate is located in the surroundings of Lake Guija and valleys in the zones of San Juan Ermita, Camotán and Copán Ruinas. The higher elevations of the territory, such as the Montecristo massif, El Pital, the Guisayote mountain and Cerro Celaque have a wet climate, whether semi-warm or temperate. The driest areas (classified as warm semi-arid or semi-warm semi-arid) are located in the Chiquimula subregion and lower parts of the Ipala Volcano. Figure 2 Climate Classification according to Thornthwaite Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 Although there is no specific information on the Trifinio Aquifer, from this map we can deduce that climate types are semi-warm humid on the plains of Esquipulas and Ocotepeque, semi-warmvery humid on the high parts of Ocotepeque, in Monte Cristo and La Palma, and warm-humid in a small area in Citalá and San Ignacio. According to the Holdrige classification, the Trifinio region has the following life zones:  Tropical dry forest  Subtropical moist forest  Subtropical wet forest  Lower Montane wet forest  Montane wet forest Information specific to the Trifinio Aquifer could not be found. 26
  • 6.1.2.2. PRECIPITATION Average monthly and annual precipitation recorded for the last 20 years (1990 – 2010) is shown in table 5. The lowest annual precipitation was measured in the stations of Nueva Ocotepeque (909.1 mm) and La Ceibita (962.1 mm), and the highest in La Palma (2,369.2 mm) and Planes de Montecristo (2,189.7 mm). There is a clear differentiation in monthly rainfall between the November-April dry season and the rainy period from May to October. Precipitation declines for 20 to 30 days during July and August (Buch, Jiménez, 2009). Table 5 Average Monthly Precipitation in the Trifinio Region by Station Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ 2010 Four of the stations shown in the table above (La Palma, Esquipulas, Planes de Montecristo and Nueva Ocotepeque) are located in the Trifinio Aquifer zone, and the data reported indicates that average annual precipitation ranges from 909.1 mm at the Nueva Ocotepeque station to 2369.2 mm in La Palma. Figure 3 Annual Precipitation in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 27
  • 6.1.2.3. TEMPERATURE Trifinio is located in the tropical climate belt, recording average temperatures that are similar year round with minimal monthly variations. The lowest temperatures are in January and December, and the hottest in March and April. In proportion to elevation, the hottest temperatures are recorded in the valleys and low parts of Guatemala and depressions south of Ruinas de Copán in Honduras. Coldest temperatures are recorded in the mountainous Montecristo and El Pital massifs. Figure 4 Average Annual Temperatures (°C) for the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 It can be deduced from the temperature map that average annual temperatures are highly variable, ranging from 16.5 – 16.9 C in zones such as La Palma and Montecristo, and 24 – 24.4 C in the plains of Ocotepeque, Concepción and Esquipulas. 6.1.2.4. RELATIVE HUMIDITY Relative humidity measures the moisture content of air, useful for calculating evaporation and transpiration and as indicator of the probability of convective rain. The map below shows three areas with differing levels of relative humidity in the Trifinio region: low (63 to 70%) in the lowlands of the south with complementing small areas around Camotán and Ocotepeque; intermediate (70.5 a 81%) in most of the territory and high (81.5% or above) in the upper elevations. 28
  • Figure 5 Relative Humidity in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 According to this map, relative humidity for the aquifer zone ranges from around 70% in Ocotepeque, to 83% in Montecristo, approximately. 6.1.2.5. SOILS There is a high variability of parent material distributed in heterogeneous relief and subjected to highly variable climate and biological conditions, leading to a diversity of soils: entisols, alfisols, ultisols, mollisols and endosols in different groupings (see Table 6). Table 6 Description of Soil Groups in the Trifinio Region Soil Group Symbol Characteristics Inceptisols, entisols Inc, Ent, Vert Heavy soils with management and productive problems, with little and vertisols susceptibility to erosion Entisols, andosols Ent, And, Alf Moderately-textured soils, thick, susceptible to erosion and of little-toand alfisols medium productivity Andosols, alfisols And, Alf, Ult Deep, clay-rich soils highly susceptible to erosion and of low-to-moderate and ultisols productivity, suited to perennial crops Alfisols, entisols, Alf, Ent, Inc Recent soils, undeveloped, medium-textured and restricted drainage. Little inceptisols and susceptible to erosion, and of medium-to-high productivity with drainage and andosols irrigation Andosols, alfisols, And, Alf, Ent Moderately deep soil of medium to fine texture, moderately susceptible to and entisols erosion, of moderate productivity, not suited for annual crops Andosols, entisols, And, Ent, Alf Stony soils, not deep, susceptible to erosion and of low-to-medium alfisols and productivity, suited to forest or livestock production mollisols Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ 2010 29
  • Approximately 40% of the zone is highly susceptible to erosion due to a combination of topographical, edaphic, and geological factors, significantly affecting loss of soil productivity, increased vulnerability to natural disasters and sedimentation in main water bodies. Figure 6 Soil Groupings in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ, 2010 Based on the map it can be deduced that soil groups present in Trifinio are alfisols-entisolsiinceptisols-andosols, andosols-alfisols-entisols, andosols-alfisols-ultisols and entisols-alfisolsultisols. 6.1.2.6. TOPOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Trifinio is highly diverse in terms of topography and ecosystems. There are four major types of relief: mountain areas (higher than 1750 MASL), foothills (1251 to 1750 MASL), intermediary plains (750 to 1250 MASL) and valley plains (less than 750 MASL). Mountain zones have shallow soils and rocky outcroppings. They are extremely important for the hydric network since they constitute the elevated parts of the main watersheds. The highest points are Cerro Montecristo (2,418 MASL), El Pital (2,730 MASL) and Montaña de Guisayote (2,310 MASL). Relief at the base of the mountain is not as steep-sloped as in the mountains. 30
  • Extending from mid-mountain to where the plains begin, this zone is formed of alluvia and colluvia shaped by river currents and movements of soil from gravity. Soils are deeper and more productive and have a less dense drainage system. Intermediary plains are distributed throughout Trifinio at elevations under 800 MASL. The greatest extension of valley plains lies in the southwestern part of the region around Lake Guija. There is also a plains area in Chiquimula. Figure 7 Relief in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 The map shows three types of relief in Trifinio: intermediary plains, foothills and mountain areas. 6.1.2.7. DIVISION BY WATERSHEDS This region has three of the Central America’s most important watersheds, the Ulúa, Motagua and Lempa river basins6. The Lempa River runs through the three countries until emptying into the Pacific Ocean (one of the largest flows in Central America). 31
  • Figure 8 Watersheds located in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio, 2010 These three large watersheds are divided into subwatersheds: seven in the Lempa River basin, two subwatersheds that drain into the Motagua River and the subwatershed of the Higuito River that forms part of the Ulúa River basin. The Trifinio Aquifer zone is located in the subwatershed of the Upper Lempa River. Figure 9 Subwatersheds located in the Trifinio Region Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 32
  • 6.1.2.8. RECHARGE ZONES A bibliographical review found that the GIZ Water and Forest Project prepared a map of water recharge zones serving as a first approximation. This gives us an idea of the location of potential areas of greatest infiltration which should be managed so that this is maintained. Due to their physical, geological and topographical conditions, hydrogeological recharge areas permit infiltration of rainwater (precipitation) toward zones within the subsoil where they can be stored. These waters reach the surface via springs or are extracted through wells. Four types of hydrogeological zones have been identified in the Trifinio region based on capacity to store and transmit groundwater:  High infiltration zones or water recharge areas: These need to be protected to ensure both quantity and quality of water supply. Here it is recommended that forest be maintained or reestablished and that agricultural or industrial activity be restricted.  Medium infiltration zones where the water level is very deep-down: Human or agricultural activities can be carried out as long as fertilizer and pesticide use is restricted. Human settlements can be established using pit latrines as basic sanitation.  Medium infiltration zones where the water level is very close to the surface: Because of the closeness they are medium vulnerable but apt for human settlements with piping system or compost latrines. Agriculture and livestock activities should avoid use of highly toxic fertilizers and agrochemicals.  Low infiltration zones which because of their low vulnerability to water pollution are apt for human settlements, sites for solid waste disposal and agricultural and livestock activities with minimal restrictions. Figure 10 Potential Water Recharge Zones Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 33
  • The map shows the four categories of potential water zone categories. 6.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE ESQUIPULAS- OCOTEPEQUE-CITALÁ AQUIFER AREA (TRIFINIO AQUIFER) Base documents used for the hydrogeological information appearing below were: Informe borrador del Proyecto Desarrollo sostenible del medio ambiente y los recursos Hídricos de la cuenca Alta del Rio Lempa, of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Plan estratégico de la región trifinio 2010-2012, July 2011, GIZ-URBAL-IDB, and Plan de gestión para el desarrollo sostenible de la región del trifinio. This information is specific to the Upper Basin of the Lempa River where the Trifinio Aquifer is located. 6.2.1. GEOLOGY From a geological standpoint, the area corresponding to the Upper Basin of the Lempa River (hereon abbreviated as UBLR) is one of the most complex5. The rocks in this study zone are of Metamorphic type, meaning that they are made up of very dense materials with little or practically no permeability, especially ignimbrites and rhyolite-dacite lava. Because the ignimbrites are very compact and welded, they do not make up important aquifers unless altered by fractures or geological faults. The same occurs with intrusive rocks, which are fractured and highly meteorized. The watershed has sedimentary rock, including conglomerates, sandstone, red lutite layers, limestone and marl. There are also sedimentary materials accumulated in the depressions of the main valleys where the conjunction of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine sediments several meters thick can constitute reservoirs of groundwater. Figure 11 Geology Upper Basin of the Lempa River 5 CTPT, El Trifinio, Los recursos hídricos en la parte alta de la cuenca del Río Lempa. 34
  • Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio 2010 As shown on the geological map, the Trifinio aquifer area contains:  domes of lava and slag: andesitic and basaltic  Alluvium and exfoliation domes  Rhyolite obsidian domes  Felsic effusives composed of rhyolite dacite lava and acidic pyroclastic flows , ignimbrites and deposits of fallen coignimbrites 6.2.2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION The hydrogeological characterization of the Upper Basin of the Lempa River has been based on the integrated geological map (with its geological formations and members), the information obtained in vertical electric soundings, information obtained from the inventories of water sources (dug and perforated wells and springs) in the frame of the project and hydrochemical information obtained from samplings. Figure 12 Hydrogeology of the Upper Part of the Watershed of the Lempa River Descripción de las unidades Hidrogeológicas del mapa Sedimentos aluvionales y coluviales que constituyen las unidades “Acuíferos porosos” (porosida primaria, detrítico) de edad Cuaternaria Rocas fracturadas intercaladas con material volcanoclástico de edades Plioceno superior Holoceno que constituyen la unidad hidrogeológica “Acuíferos fracturados” Rocas poco fracturadas que constituyen la unidad “Rocas fracturadas de baja porosidad”. d En relación al tema de la información disponible de carácter hidrogeológico, para el área de a acuífero Trifinio. Existe la demarcación preliminar del mismo, de acuerdo al MAPA realizado po Fulgencio Garavito, INSIVUMEH, Guatemala. Mario Guevara Retana, SNET, El Salvador. Que podr servir de punto de partida para profundizar en la caracterización del acuífero TRIFINIO. Source: SIG/Plan Trifinio 2010 The Trifinio Aquifer area mostly presents fractured rocks of low porosity and porous aquifers in a part of the territory, along with a small extension of fractured and porous aquifers. According to the first characterization done by Garavito F. INSIVUMEH and Guevara M. SNET, the aquifer is a multi-layer, confined and unconfined system, predominantly the latter. It is of porous and fractured type, made up of sedimentary deposits in Quaternary alluvial valleys and Tertiary pyroclastics and intermediate-acid and acid lavas. Hydrothermal alteration can be observed in many areas. 35
  • Figure 13 First Approximation of the Delimitation of the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer Source: UNESCO-IHP-OEA ISARM, 2007 The shallow aquifer has an average depth of 20 m while the deep aquifer ranges from 100 to 150 m. There is a hydraulic connection between the rivers and aquifer system. Flow is predominantly northwest to southeast toward Nueva Ocotepeque, where its direction changes. Dominant physiographic elements are provided by the Tertiary volcanic chain, with elevations of up to 2700 MASL. Lahars occur. In terms of climate, this is a humid zone with a pluviosity variable of 1200 to 2000 mm a year, rains from May to October and average annual temperature of 23º to 25º C. 6.2.3. INFORMATION ABOUT WELLS Although wells are known to exist in the aquifer zone, information is difficult to access because these are private boreholes. During the consultancy access was provided to the lithologic or stratigraphic profiles of two wells, one in the valley of Esquipulas and the other in Los Pinos. (see annexes 3 and 4) 36
  • Location of well and research piezometers on the Honduran side, El Poy. Trifinio Well-drilling machinery Some wells have been drilled on the Honduran side for different uses, but have served for monitoring and obtaining information for groundwater investigations conducted in the area. Pumping test and water sampling Geophysical tests Tests with tracers Geoelectric sounding 37
  • ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION 38
  • 6.3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION While there is almost no biophysical or hydrogeological information specifically for the aquifer, information for the Trifinio zone in general can serve as the basis for generating the necessary information. 6.3.1. PROTECTED AREAS A system of official protected natural areas has been implemented as part of the strategy for conserving the richness of the ecosystems existing in the Trifinio region. Altogether, 15% of the Trifinio area belongs to one of the following protected areas: Table 7 Official Protected Areas in the Trifinio Region Protected Area Management Category Trifinio Area Description / Observations (km2) Montaña de Celaque national park El Pital biosphere reserve 266.3 37.9 Erapuca wildlife refuge 73.1 Guisayote biological reserve Lago de Guija to be defined Montecristo biosphere reserve San Diego La Barra national park (state) Volcán Pacayita biological reserve Volcán Ixtepeque definitive closed season zone 18.6 Volcán Suchitán regional municipal park 25.4 Volcán y Laguna de Ipala multiple-use area 22.8 Volcán Quezaltepeque regional municipal park 10.9 Cerro las Cebollas regional municipal park N/D Volcán Las Víboras definitive closed season area 24.4 Binational area, no legal protection 140.9 13.9 No legal protection 422.7 22.6 102.0 Largest extension of dry forest in El Salvador Home of the Lenca ethnic group Source: Estado de la Región Trifinio, GIZ, 2010. The Montecristo and Guisayote protected areas have water recharge influence on the Trifinio Aquifer, as can be seen on the following map. 39
  • Figure 14 Protected Areas Located in the Trifinio Zone Source: SIG/GIZ 2010 6.3.2. MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE  Deforestation at a regional rate of 1.7% per year in the last 24 years; the geomorphological unit of Montaña de Quezaltepeque in Guatemala is the most affected  Siltation of streams, rivers and lakes with critical scenarios in the Lake Güija geomorphological unit  Poor forest management at places like Esquipulas, where forest cover is barely 2%  Deficient management of protected areas in the Trifinio. Their limits are not well defined; of the 24 areas only eight are supported by technical aspects and some, like El Pital and Lake Güija, have not been legalized.  Environmental contamination from high-impact solid residues: for example, open-air dumps in Esquipulas affecting more than 21 thousand inhabitants, and a dump in Metapán that affects a population of over 15 thousand people.  Environmental contamination from residential water, particularly severe in the municipal seats of Metapán, Asunción Mita and Chiquimula; fecal coliforms average 92.59 NMP/100 ml  Environmental contamination from wastewater deriving from coffee processing with a high 40
  • impact, especially in the buffer zone of Montaña Montecristo and Montaña de Quezaltepeque  Risk of flooding, with the most recurrent in Lake Güija and Metapán  Risk of forest fires, placing 100 thousand ha in jeopardy. In 1998 incidence of forest fires was concentrated in the Montecristo Massif (south and east of Esquipulas, and northeast of Metapán). Main environmental problems for the Trifinio Aquifer zone (see figure 15) are:  Loss of forest cover from poor management  Deficient management of protected areas  Contamination from solid residues  Risk of fires  Pollution from coffee-processing wastewater Figure 15 Strategic Transboundary Environmental Problems Source: GIS/Trifinio 41
  • 6.3.3. WATER USES There is little information about use of the aquifer. The population of Trifinio is thought to depend entirely on water generated in the region for human consumption, domestic use, irrigation of pasturelands and agricultural zones, recreation, tourism, etc. Outside the region the main use of water from the Lempa River is in El Salvador, since San Salvador alone has 2,260,894 inhabitants (2006). In another part the document indicates that 800,000 inhabitants of San Salvador depend on the Lempa River for proximately 40% of their water supply. In addition, there are four hydroelectric dams whose waters come from Trifinio (Guajoyo, Cerrón Grande, 5 de Noviembre and 15 de Septiembre) and two irrigation districts (Atiocoyo and Lempa – Acahuapa). According to research conducted in 2002, SNET of El Salvador found that river behavior had varied over the past 30 years due to several factors, including change in soil use, variations in rain and evapotranspiration regimes and changes in demand , with more than 70% flow reduction during the dry season in some cases. Along with the trend toward reduction, supply of drinking water is deficient in terms of both quantity and quality. The main cities of the zone (Metapán, La Palma and Esquipulas) report supply irregularities: rationing, problems of quality and low coverage, and levels of needed investment to close the gap between supply and demand are very low. This has a significant impact on the population’s quality of life in terms of health, production and resources (time, energy and money). Various conflicts have arisen between communities over the use, availability and ownership of water sources. While these are not documented, at least three such conflicts have been reported between border communities in El Salvador and Honduras (personal communication from Héctor Aguirre, 2008). Additionally, drinking water coverage for the rural area is less than for cities. Guatemala is the country most affected by this problem, as shown in the table below. Table 8 Potable Water Coverage by Country in the Area of Influence of Trifinio Plan, Upper Lempa River Basin COUNTRY % COVERAGE OF POTABLE WATER Guatemala 56 El Salvador 66 Honduras 71 Source: ICI, APESA, NORAGRIC (2000) 42
  • 6.3.4. LOCAL ECONOMY’S DEPENDENCE ON ACCESS TO WATER RESOURCES According to studies by ISARM, in the dry season agricultural production is 100% dependent on springs and wells, as is livestock production, small and medium industry, and above all, human consumption. The dry season can last up to six months of the year. 6.3.5. WATER QUALITY According to ISARM, in general the natural quality of the aquifer system is good, although there is pollution that originates in the three countries. El Salvador has the greatest contamination since it is situated downstream of the aquifer. Contamination from coliform bacteria has been identified in wells dug on the Guatemalan side. There are few perforated wells making use of confined water, and there is no information on their water quality. As for chemical contamination, natural iron predominates, along with high values of calcium, sodium and nitrates. In the case of surface water, we detected that availability for industrial and agricultural uses and human consumption has been reduced due to high rates of contamination in most of the watershed’s rivers, with a series of effects on human health: a rise in gastrointestinal, parasitic and skin diseases, proliferation of epidemics and even cases of poisoning and intoxication. Water quality studies made of the Lempa River and its tributaries show that quality is fair, due to the presence of fecal coliforms (from 4 NMP/100 ml to 1, 000,000 NMP/100 ml), decline in dissolved oxygen, high biochemical demand (3.3 mg/l) and heavy metals that at some control points exceed internationally recommended standards for these parameters (CATIE, 2004; SHN/SNET, 2003). Water quality problems in most of the tributaries and in the main course of the Lempa River arise because domestic, agroindustrial and industrial residual water are dumped completely untreated into receiver flows. Coverage levels of latrines and rural basic sanitation are also deficient. Due to this situation, there is greater risk of groundwater contamination from home and industrial wastewater. Waters contain agrochemicals that accumulate in the soil and are then carried to aquifers. The greatest problem for the aquifer system is therefore related to pollution from domestic and industrial activity, especially near the border, and to over-use and loss of recharge areas as urban development and deforestation proliferate. Coordinated local and regional aquifer management is needed among the countries to make wiser use of groundwater in the border region of Guatemala and El Salvador to mitigate current and future impacts. 43
  • SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION 44
  • 6.4. SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION VAILABLE This is the type of information that has been generated most in the zone. Different studies have produced valuable information, albeit generalized for the entire Trifinio region as described previously. Notwithstanding, it provides a basis for obtaining specific information about the aquifer area. Summarized below is socioeconomic information that will be useful for executing the Groundwater Governance in Transboundary Aquifers project. 6.4.1. POPULATION DATA FOR THE TRIFINIO REGION In 1986, when the Trifinio Plan commenced, the region had a population of approximately 450,000 inhabitants. Twenty-five years later, the population is about to double; each year it increases by 14,000 people on average. Table 9 Expected Population by 2015 Source: Estado de la Región del Trifinio/GIZ 2010. The population of the Trifinio Region is made up of a high percentage of youth and children: 25.8% are under 7 years of age and another 25% are between 7 and 17. Both groups (under 18 years of age) together make up 51.9% of the entire population. Those over 18 and under 59 represent 41.7% and just 6.5% are older than 60. 48.6% of the population are men and 51.4% are women. The ratio of men to women changes according to age group. In those under 15, the ratio is 1.05:1, and for the population as a whole is 0.94 to each woman. The variation in distribution between age groups has to do with different rates of mortality and migration 6. 6 Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010 Datos socioeconómicos y ambientales de los municipios. GIZ November 2011. 45
  • Table 10 Population Data for the Trifinio Zone N° General Data Socioeconomic Characteristics Municipal Infrastructure 1 Communities with electric service Data 2 Drinking water service coverage 3 Piping services 4 Municipal markets 5 Kilometers of dirt roads 6 Kilometers of paved roads Education Sector 1 Students at pre-school level 2 Students at primary level 3 Students at basic level 4 Students at secondary level 5 Students at higher level 6 Pre-primary-level education centers 7 Primary-level education centers 8 Basic-level education centers 9 Secondary-level education centers 10 Higher-level education centers 11 Illiteracy rate Health Sector 1 Health centers 2 Hospitals Economic and Productive Sector 1 Human Development Index 2 Percent in absolute poverty 3 Percent in extreme poverty 4 Number of banks 5 Number of cooperatives 53 % 30 % 17 1,416 417 58 % 27,291 122,090 32,240 15,004 1,000 812 1,654 516 102 5 40 78 3 0.55 68% 42% 53 23 Source: Plan Estratégico Territorial 2008-2023 6.4.2 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Main economic activities in the Trifinio region are agricultural production and artisanal and tourism activities. The first is small-scale since most producers cultivate less than five hectares. Throughout the region, including urban areas, are homes that participate in the agricultural sector, mostly related to the production of basic grains and coffee. Vegetable growing is an interesting option for some rural families because of the high prices and extensive markets, like nearby San Salvador. Soils are apt and there is enough water for cultivating vegetables. (Estado de la región Trifinio 2010). Grown on approximately 24,000 ha at elevations from 900 t o 1600 MASL , coffee is an important source of income for campesino families, and also contributes to the economy because of the 46
  • high demand for temporary labor that cannot be met in the zone, requiring that workers be brought in from other parts of Central America. There is a great deal of tourism potential in the Trifinio region, which at present is receiving an estimated 1.7 million visitors. Each spends USD 31.50 on average, altogether generating USD 53.55 million a year (CATIE, 2005). The major center of attraction is La Basilica de Esquipulas in Guatemala, drawing more than a million visitors a year. Other tourist attractions include the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area, crafts in the Salvadoran towns of La Palma and San Ignacio and Ruinas de Copán, in Honduras. Of the sectors mentioned, tourism, coffee, vegetables and avocado especially offer potential for economic development in the region and a way out of the current situation of poverty. However, many residents decide to leave in search of a better life. It is estimated that 10% of those in the three Guatemalan municipalities of Agua Blanca, Esquipulas and Ipala have migrated to the United States. (CATIE, 2005) On this theme, Alwang, Elias 20087 concluded that:  Secondary education has a very large positive effect on wellbeing. Income of homes where the head of household has secondary schooling is over 60% higher than in the others.  The size of family parcels determines the type of life strategy and also has a very large impact on family wellbeing. Elasticity of household income with respect to the size of the parcel is 0.9: if a family increases its parcel by 1%, income will rise 0.9%.  The closer a household is to the market, the greater the wellbeing of homes in urban zones, although this result is not statistically significant for households in rural areas. Location also has an influence on wellbeing: it is more likely that a household in Guatemala and Honduras will be less poor than in El Salvador.  Probability of finding a poor household declines as altitude rises, but only up to 1100 meters above sea level; at that altitude the probability decreases. 6.4.3. MIGRATION Migration of the population to other national territories or to other countries (mainly the United States and Spain) is a phenomenon that in recent years has impacted significantly on the economy and structure of families in Central America’s northern triangle. 25% of the total population of the three countries has family members who have migrated (Programa Estado de la Nación 2011). In Trifinio municipalities the annual migration rate (per thousand inhabitants) ranges from 0 to 4%. The municipalities with higher rates are Chiquimula, San José la Arada and Concepción Las Minas. The rest maintain rates under 2%. For the specific case of the aquifer zone, the migration rate ranges from 0.1-2.0. 7 Estado de la región Trifinio 2008 47
  • 6.4.4. MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS According to the integrated appraisal made by Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa, the region’s primary socioeconomic problems are8:  Important migratory movements in the northwest and Corazón de Trifinio subsystem  High illiteracy rates in the subsystem of Copan Chortí and Erapuca  Sparse coverage of university centers in the trinational region of Honduras  Elevated malnutrition rates en los subsystem of Copan Chortí and Erapuca  Insufficiency of sanitation infrastructure in the Honduran trinational region  Scarce drinking water coverage in rural areas  High poverty rates in the Copan Chortí and Erapuca subsystems  Lack of technical, productive and financial assistance in the trinational region  Use of inadequate cultivation technologies in the Copan Chortí subsystem and throughout the trinational region  Low use of technified practices in the trinational region  Scarce industrial coverage in the trinational region  High cost of commercial transactions in the trinational region 6.4.5. PRELIMINARY STAKEHOLDER MAP IN THE TRINFINIO AQUIFER ZONE Table 11 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Guatemala CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SOCIETY Cooperativa Integral Trifinio PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Departmental Government of Chiquimula Municipal Mayoralty of Esquipulas Esquipulas Chamber PREVES of Commerce MAGA Municipal Cooperativa Mayoralty of COOSAJO Concepción Las Minas ANACAFE DDM MARN Mancomunidad Cooperativa Trinacional Chiquimuljá Fronteriza Río Lempa Asociación Ganaderos Esquipulas de PRODERT de 8 Tercer informe integral de desarrollo estratégico territorial Trinacional, Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza de Río Lempa. 48
  • MINEDUC Trinational ATRIDEST Commission of the Trifinio Plan MSPAS Asociación Ganaderos Concepción Minas de OIRSA de Las ADEMI FONAPAZ ADIPE ADISO INAB ADEGO CONRED ASIAPACTRI Source: Informe final consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Charchalac S. IUCN 2013 Table 12 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone for Ocotepeque Honduras CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SOCIETY PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Government of Ocotepeque Municipal Mayoralty of Ocotepeque Club de Leones Micro Empresa de Mujeres (OMM) Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa Secretariat of Health Municipality of Sinuapa Colegio de Abogados de Ocotepeque BANADES Forests and Watersheds Project TCTP ATRIDEST ADESCOS de Ocotepeque (45) Colegio de Peritos de Ocotepeque Banco de Occidente AMVAS Trinational Colegio de Commission Trifinio Médicos de Plan Ocotepeque Trifinio Banco Atlántida Ocotepeque Transparency Commission Sociedad Civil Plan del Rancho Chamber of Commerce PRONADEL Jóvenes sin fronteras Centro Empresarial de Negocios de Ocotepeque Human Rights Tourism Committee COPAOL 49
  • District Education Department Women’s Commission Cooperativa de Transportes San José Ltda. Departmental Education Department Women’s Organization Radio Etnia Chortí San Andrés Television channel 10 Etnia Nuevo Renacer Chortí Sinuapa Television channel 50 Grupo de Mujeres Chortí un nuevo Amanecer COPEM PRICMAH Cooperativa Mixta Ocotepeque Ltda. SIMPRODOH ASONOG ASOMYPE AGAO Catholic Church Evangelical churches Source: Informe final Consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Escamilla M. UICN 2013 50
  • Table 13 Stakeholders Identified in the Trifinio Aquifer Zone, El Salvador CENTRAL GOVERNMENT San Ignacio Local Risk Roundtable LOCAL GOVERNMENT Association of Municipalities of Cayaguanca CIVIL SOCIETY Asociación Agropecuaria de Citalá ASAGROCITALA PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM PROJECT Parque Ecológico el Manzano Riego Sostenible para la producción de hortalizas CATIE La Palma Local Risk Municipal ACOPASI Roundtable Mayoralty of Citalá Cooperativa la Semilla de Dios Centro de CLUSA El Atención turístico Salvador La Palma CAT-LA PALMA General Bureau of Municipal the Forest Mayoralty of San Planning, Fernando Watersheds and Irrigation Agency Asociación Agropecuaria Apícola Monte Tabor Caballero, Colegio Cristiano Lic. Arturo Cabrera La Palma ASAMOTAC General Bureau of Municipal Forest Planning, Mayoralty of La Watersheds and Palma Irrigation Dulce María Agency Asociación Colegio Cooperativa de Evangélico producción de Amigos servicios múltiples y productores orgánicos ACOPO RL National Asociación Tienda Carolina Municipal Agricultural Mayoralty of Dulce Agropecuaria de la Technology Center Nombre de María Palma La Palma ASAGROLAPALMA National Municipal Agricultural Mayoralty of San Technology Center Ignacio San Ignacio Cooperativa De Cafetaleros COOPALMA Farmacia Larisa 51
  • Women’s Multisectoral Roundtable San Ignacio, Sexual Exploitation Lempa River Trinational Association (associated municipalities) Asociación Hotel y Agropecuaria El Restaurante El Zarzal. ASAEZLAPA Roble Basic Education Trinational Asociación de Hotel y Commission Trifinio Ganaderos San José Restaurante La School Center Dr. Salvador Mendieta Sacare Palma ASAGROSACARE National Institute of Citalá ADESCONLO National Institute of San Fernando ADESCOPLAN San Fernando School Center School Center Canton of Los Planes Asociación de Productores de Palillos de San Ignacio APROPASI Caja de Crédito La Palma ACASIPAC, R.L. Asociación de Caja de Crédito Regante El Carmen Dulce Nombre de María Empresarios de Citalá Intersectoral Asociación Agropecuaria la ruta 119 Committee Nueva visión ADESACOS de San Fernando Asociación de Regantes Las Aradas ADESCOS La Palma (5) Asociación de Ganaderos El Pinar AGAPIR National Institute of San Ignacio ADESCO San Ignacio (10) Asociación de Regantes de El Rosario National Institute of the Canton of Las Pilas ADESCOS Dulce Nombre de María (5) Asociación de Cooperativas Agropecuarias de Hortaliceros El Rosario San Ignacio School centers (11) Cada de Crédito San Ignacio 52
  • National Civil Police Los Llanitos Water Asociación Force Comunal de Board agromercadeo, servicios turísticos y ambientales ACANCERTA Armed Forces Los Llanitos Water Asociación de th 4 Infantry Brigade Committee Mujeres Unidas por la Paz Peace Tribunal of San Fernando Asociación de desarrollo integral de la zona alta de Chalatenango y grupo de acción territorial ADIZALCAT Peace Tribunal of La Palma Comité Sociocultural de La Palma National Civil Police Force Dulce Nombre de María subdelegation Parroquia Inmaculada Concepción Citalá Court of First Instance Dulce Nombre de María Iglesia Asambleas de Dios Tourism police POLITUR-CAT San Ignacio Río Chiquito Iglesia Filadelfia Asambleas National Civil Police, Environment Parroquia La Palma 53
  • Health units of Citalá, San Fernando, La Palma, Dulce Nombre de María, San Ignacio, Cantón Las Pilas Iglesias Evangélicas Asambleas de Dios Dulce Nombre de María Cultural Centers of La Palma, Dulce Nombre de María and San Ignacio Parroquia Dulce Nombre de María El Salvador Postal Service La Palma branch San Ignacio de Loyola Catholic Church Source: Informe final Consultoría Acuífero Trifinio/Escamilla M. IUCN 2013 . 54
  • GENDER INFORMATION 55
  • 6.5. GENDER INFORMATION 6.5.1. GENDER PERSPECTIVE IN PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS IN THE TRIFINIO ZONE To analyze the incorporation of gender perspective in the different projects and programs implemented and those underway in the aquifer zone, a review was made of the information provided by the Trinational Technical Unit of the Trifinio Plan, institutions and organizations working in the zone and documentation on the website of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan. In 72% of the project documents or summaries analyzed (16 of 22), no qualitative or quantitative information was reported to indicating any sign that gender perspective had been incorporated in the components and activities of the projects and programs. Some documents include numbers on beneficiaries, but data are not disaggregated by sex. These projects were related to biodiversity conservation, institutional strengthening for citizen participation entities, and sustainable development of the upper watershed of the Lempa River, among other themes. Table 14 Programs and Projects Executed or Underway in the Trifinio Region No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective 1 No gender information found Master Plan of the La Fraternidad Biosphere Reserve (1987) European Union 2 Program for Institutional Strengthening of No gender information found Citizen Participation Entities of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (2002-2005) CARE El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras 3 Operations Plan of Japan in support to the No gender information found Trinational Program of Sustainable Development of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River (2002-2005) IDB Japanese Fund 56
  • No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective 4 Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area (2004-2005) Norwegian Funds- IDB No gender information found. Total population is 20,000 but there are no details on number of men and women. 5 Project Sustainable development of the No gender information found Environment and Water Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River (2005-2007) International Atomic Energy Agency 6 Rapid Ecological Assessment in the parts No gender information found that would form the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area in Guatemala and Honduran Territory (2005) GEF / IDB 7 Promotion of Water Administration as Revision of the logical framework showed no Regional Public Good in the Upper gender indicators. It mentions only that project Watershed of the Lempa River (ABPR) beneficiaries are the 305,000 inhabitants of the (2006-2009) Trifinio region composed of 20 municipalities, 8 in El Salvador, 7 in Guatemala, and 5 in Honduras. IDB 8 Integrated Management of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Area No gender information found IDB 9 Project on Creating Local Capacities for the No gender information found Promotion of Local Economic Development in Central American Zones (2010 – 2011) Austrian Cooperation 10 Program of Planning and Development of Sustainable Tourism in the Trifinio Region Shared by El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras No gender information found, only data on number of beneficiaries; direct: tourism MSMEs and indirectly 2000 MSMEs carrying out their activities in the Trifinio region 57
  • No. Name of the Project Incorporation of Gender Perspective (PROTUR_TRIFINIO) (2010-2013) Distributed in 6 associated municipal groups that bring together at least 25 governments in the region IDB - FOMIN 11 Project rla/8/045. Pilot Area: Olopa – Ocotepeque Subwatershed 12 Characterization of Water Resource No gender information found Contamination in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River/8/045). No gender information found Pilot Area: aquifers in the Güija – Metapán area Only six of the 22 project and program documents consulted (27%) refer to the theme of gender, whether mainstreamed or through sex-disaggregated data. In other cases they include indicators on the participation of men and women in the activities and benefits generated by the program. It should be emphasized that some projects took youth participation into account as part of the process of men’s and women’s empowerment . Data indicate that no specific gender strategies or budget existed for this theme in the contexts of the different groups or communities worked with. It is worth noting that in the Forest and Water program a situation analysis was prepared on gender in the eight communities of program intervention, resulting in a profile of activities, control and access to resources for each to achieve genuine integration of gender perspective in program activities. The need for more detailed description and analysis of gender relations in each community was also recognized. Activities focus on the productive, reproductive and community area. Some activities showing incorporation of gender perspective in projects where information was found are described below. 6.5.1.1. Synchronizing Information for Local-National Participatory Natural Resources Management –SINREM (2006-2008) The project’s objectives were to form a permanent network between public Central American and European universities and research centers and prepare a strategic plan to administer natural resource use and contribute to sustainable development in remote transboundary areas of Central America, including target groups that are local stakeholders and public sector organizations at several levels. 58
  • Information for the gender situation analysis done by the project was obtained through workshops with focus groups in each of the eight communities. Generic profiles were generated of productive, reproductive and community activities, along with generic profiles on access and control of goods and resources. 6.5.1.2. Trinational Project on Sustainable Specialty Coffee (PROTCAFES) The objective was to strengthen sustainable coffee production through socio-environmental and economic improvement in the Lempa River trinational region, promoting environmentally responsible coffee production and helping improve producers’ quality of life. The project has two components, business and productive, with crosscutting actions in the areas of rural tourism, gender, youth education and community relations. Four hundred fifty coffeegrower families were directly benefitted and 400,000 people indirectly, with no details on gender disaggregation. Small and medium coffee growers involved in this experience were organized and legally constituted—while groups already legalized were strengthened—in first and second-degree business figures which are now commercializing specialty coffees as a block in market niches of North America, Europe and Asia through Neumann export companies in each country or other important exporters. Some have optional certification seals such as Rainforest Alliance or organic, differentiated according to quality or attitudes of social-environmental responsibility, but most with more profitable productive operations than before the project and interesting signs of sustainability. 6.5.1.3. Rural Sustainable Development in Ecologically Fragile Zones in the Trifinio Region (PRODERT) Gender perspective was incorporated in one of the program’s five objectives, which was to “Promote, diversify and rationalize the economic and social participation of women and youth” to ensure the project would incorporate the goal of gender equity in strategic planning, expected outcomes, project activities and monitoring and evaluation indicators. For example, credit to support entrepreneurship was mainly awarded to women, inducing that Preparation of pickled vegetables as part of project the benefits of these activities improve food activities (PRODERT). patterns and those of their family. 59
  • In addition, incorporation of equity and gender aspects was considered, not only disaggregating information by sex but also encouraging gender analysis as feedback for planning, and linking mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of effects and impacts on men and women. Monitoring and evaluation also contemplated prior definition of differences and inequalities between men and women in relation to: a. domestic, agricultural and rural tasks b. workload c. Access to resources and development opportunities Other aspects incorporated were changes in gender differences, self-esteem, personal development opportunities and other qualitative changes in the conditions of men and women, which helped determined whether the project has contributed to increasing or reducing gender inequalities. The program made it possible to attend more than 20,000 families in the three countries, through sustained and sustainable use of renewable natural resources and income-generating activities and support infrastructure for populations located in vulnerable areas to minimize desertification of the Trifinio. 6.5.1.4. Program of Sustainable Development for the Watershed of the Lempa River Gender perspective was used with this program through training workshops specifically for women to build their capacities and foster their active participation in relevant stakeholder groups. It had a participatory approach stressing community and local organizations, integrating communities and women in the selection and execution of projects. Gender and equity perspective was also integrated in all activities. For example, goals of the promotion of economic diversification component included facilitating women’s incorporation in economic activities to raise family income through women’s business groups. The institutional strengthening component included strengthening of existing social organizations maintaining a gender perspective to foster citizen participation, especially of women and youth, as well as their empowerment in decision-making on prioritization and solution of their problems in the near, medium and long term. 6.5.1.5. Forests and Water Program Although gender equity is mainstreamed in all of the program’s activities, during the AOP 2011 planning process it was recognized that conceptual guidelines needed to be established to help staff make incorporation of gender perspective in their activities viable. In practice, they were 60
  • finding it difficult to achieve genuine implementation of gender perspective in field actions since each of the communities has its own specific sociocultural construction, which had not been taken into account until that time. he program’s area of action covers eight communities with great cultural, social and economic diversity in the Trifinio region, to help them achieve real integration of gender perspective in their activities. The need to describe and analyze each community’s gender relations in greater depth was recognized, resulting in a profile of activities, control and access to resources for each. Activities Figure 17. Group of men and women in focus on the productive, reproductive and work to protect soil as part of the actions of the Forests and Water Program. community area. 6.5.1.6. Innovations in Sustainable Value Chains of Specialty Vegetables in the Trifinio Region (MAP) This project is currently underway as part of the Mesoamerican Agro-Environmental Program. In keeping with the program’s governance principle, all activities must ensure that gender equity problems are integrated in all decisions on action promoted and supported by the project, and strategies and actions in turn must promote and reinforce integration of gender equity perspective. Figure 18. Women cleaning vegetables for local sale. In order to tackle this approach, the expected outcomes of the project take the following aspects into account: Outcome 1. Strengthening of innovation capacity in producer organizations. Proposes to include agricultural households and their members in this process. Rather than being limited to heads of families, the participation of rural women is promoted to strengthen their leadership and the economic benefits of productive activities such as worm composting, development of biological control agents and/or local sale of products. Spaces of discussion with equitable representation of men and women are also being promoted inside producer organizations, especially for decision-making. 61
  • Outcome 2. Promotion of multi-sectoral platforms of innovation. This outcomes aims at assuring gender balance in project participants who also make an effort to create an environment of discussion sensitive to gender equity. Outcome 3. National programs and policies. Work is being done on opening opportunities to improve gender equity through balanced participation in national political policies and forums. Processes of curricular design are also being fostered so that training and human development of national professionals is creative, critical and comprehensive in the approach to themes related to gender equity. Outcome 4. Promotion of information systems and learning, Wherein producers, field technicians and specialists are not seen as passive recipients of learning, but active members, providing feedback on the content of information with gender equity perspective. Furthermore, analysis of sustainable livelihoods of households participating in the program will enable a detailed evaluation of the participation of the different family members in the costs and benefits of the changes promoted by project actions. This will in turn provide feedback for the decision-making process of the producer organizations and their service suppliers on how to orient project interventions to achieve gender equity. 6.5.1.7. Program on Watershed Management in the Trifinio Region (Forests and Watersheds) The “Forest and Watershed” program is currently underway. According to the logical framework, one of the ends proposed is that by 2026, women will constitute 30% of participating beneficiaries that develop technologies or initiatives supported by the program. Indicators include the women’s integration in management of agroforestry and sylvipastoral systems, and 6000 families in a situation of poverty will be benefitted in 90 rural communities, 20 municipalities and seven state institutions. A preliminary training plan has been formulated to strengthen environmental management by municipal governments, local organizations, producers, associated municipalities, and leaders in themes related to the program objective, such as integrated water resource management and risk management. It should be noted that in this training plan, the participation of women producers and leaders has been made visible. In this sense, the most significant on-the-ground actions up to 2012 have been the collection of 1,316 investment application forms by the producer families for a coverage area of 2,204 ha. Division by gender of those presenting investment application forms in the 63 communities and cantons of the three countries show that 79% are men and 21% women. 62
  • The program’s annual operating plans mention that they are based on fundamental principles governing all parts of their implementation. These are horizontal cooperation, co-investment, facilitator program, environmental awareness, gender equity, respect for the customs and beliefs of social groups, solidarity and accompaniment, and quality and prudence of expenditure. Figure 19. Training for women and men in the frame of the Forest and Watershed program 6.5.2. GENDER PERSPECTIVE AT THE INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL Currently at the level of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan (TCTP) there is no gender equity policy to orient its work with respect to women’s needs and problems. Nor does its organic structure contain any entity representing gender in the institution, or a budget line for specific activities on gender equity such as promotion, awareness-raising, gender training, production activities or strengthening of organizations with gender work. Because gender perspective has not been internalized within the commission’s institutionality, most of its programs and projects likewise have not integrated gender in their actions. In most it has only been approached as “crosscutting theme,” but with no qualitative or qualitative visualization of the actual benefits to which women have had access. In other cases there is no mention of whether gender perspective has been considered in project formulation and implementation, so women’s participation and role in the different spheres of social and economic life are totally invisible. Figure 16 Organizational Chart of the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan Source: www.sica.int/trifinio 63
  • To date, cooperation agencies and executing institutions are carrying out gender work at their own initiative, but not in response to a commission policy or intervention strategy as there is no institutional promotion and convocatory strategy to promote joint work with the different institutions and stakeholders contemplating rural women’s and men’s participation in relation to gender equity perspective. 6.5.3. GENDER PERSPECTIVE AT LOCAL LEVEL Efforts have been made in municipalities to incorporate gender equity perspective in their policies, considering it a strategic crosscutting theme of human development. This has been mainstreamed at all levels of the Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza del Río Lempa and in local planning processes for all its project actions and coordination. This initiative arose from the population’s identification of priorities, coordinated by local institutions that have facilitated the theme’s incorporation among the different stakeholders. As example, the General Ordinary Assembly of Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, held in December 2012, in Ocotepeque, Honduras, included signature of the “Declaration on Gender Policy” as part of the interinstitutional commitment to incorporate gender perspective in all current and future activities of Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa and the municipalities comprising it. The activity was carried out with the participation of the mayors and members of councils and municipal corporations and delegates from the three countries, who lent their endorsement through validation and signature of the declaration promoting the following:  Establishment of institutional gender policy in both Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa and the municipalities comprising it  Incorporate gender perspective in strategic plans, programs, projects, work units, annual operating plans and institutional budgets  Design an institutional strategy for implementation of this declaration of indefinite duration, which includes training in gender equity themes for the board of directors, local authorities and staff of the individual municipalities and the associated municipal entity  Design a system for monitoring and evaluating actions with gender perspective deriving from this declaration on gender policy  Strengthen and forge strategic alliances with specialized entities to drive formal and horizontal cooperation to help put this declaration into practice  Spread information and knowledge resulting from this declaration  Raise the declaration to national governments in order to inform about efforts undertaken and secure their support for different initiatives This commitment assumed by Mancomunidad Trinacional will make it possible to promote gender equity and equality as fundamental element for improving the quality of livelihoods of the 64
  • transboundary population in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, in an atmosphere of peace and social, economic and environmental harmony. As concrete actions of the commitment assumed, municipal women’s offices have been created in the municipalities making up the associated municipal entity (El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras) and the Trinational Network of Women’s offices in the Trifinio Region has been created. Among others, its aims include sharing experiences; cooperation for carrying out joint action and sharing work instruments; formulating bi- or tri-national proposals or projects as a network, having training spaces and coordinating food security and nutrition matters. The network is operating through links, at least one per country, and one through the Mancomunidad Trinacional. These are coordinating to carry out the network plan in the municipalities and at the level of the associated municipal entity. Activities will also include promoting the theme of food and nutritional security. Municipalities of Guatemala and Honduras in Trifinio all have women’s offices, enabling a space for work and coordination to tackle gender equity in an ongoing and sustainable manner with the different programs and projects of the Trifinio Plan. In El Salvador not all of the Trifinio municipalities have women’s offices. Some local organizations are implementing initiatives aimed at strengthening gender equity perspective in Trifinio. Several organizations in Guatemala (ASORECH, APRORECH, AMCO, CHORTIFRESCA and CUNORI), Honduras (COPRAUL, CENOC, AGROINLAES and Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Rio Lempa) and El Salvador (ADIZAL, ACOPO and Mancomunidad Cayaguanca) are carrying out actions with gender equity perspective. These include training sessions and field visits concerning organic agriculture, dairy processing, preparation of substrates and bulking/commercialization relations where women and youth are protagonists. 65
  • POLITICAL-INSTITUTIONAL INFORMATION 66
  • 6.6. POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED AND AQUIFER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE TRIFINIO REGION9 6.6.1. REGIONAL STRATEGIES 6.6.1.1. Trifinio Plan On November 12, 1986, the Governments of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, with the support of the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States and the Inter-American Institute on Cooperation in Agriculture (IICA), signed a technical cooperation agreement to formulate a comprehensive development plan for the border region between the countries called the “Trifinio Plan,” updated in 1992. In November 1987, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras signed the “Declaration of the International Biosphere Reserve of La Fraternidad” to protect the zone, with a core area of cloud forest represented by the high parts, a buffer zone located below 1800 MASL that can be found in parts of the foothills, and a multiple-use area. According to the declaration, each of the States declared the corresponding part of the Trifinio under its national jurisdiction as protected nature areas in order to develop and protect their natural resources. Later on in 1997, the three States signed the Treaty for Execution of the Trifinio Plan, in which the region is described as “area of special interest to the three countries, which represents an indivisible unit in which only joint and coordinated action by the three countries can provide a satisfactory solution to the problem of populations and sustainable management of their natural resources” (article 3). Also created was the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan through which the States have jointly promoted and executed different programs and projects, including (among others):  Promotion of water administration as regional public good in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River1012 (development and promotion of trinational mechanisms for integrated and sustainable management of water as “regional public good”)  Forest and Water program (transboundary promotion and support for sustainable natural resource management)  Watershed management in the Trifinio region (management of subwatersheds , strengthening municipalities’ environmental management)  Integrated management of the Trinational Montecristo Protected Area 9 Compiled and prepared by the IUCN Environmental Law Centre (Dr. A. O. Iza; Juan Carlos Sánchez). The Upper Watershed of the Lempa River, comprising the program area, has an extension of 3587 km2, 54% corresponding to Guatemala, 32% to El Salvador and 14% to Honduras. It represents almost 50% of the territory known as the Trifinio region. 10 67
  •  Sustainable management of the environment and water resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River (including hydrogeological studies of the area) 6.6.1.2. Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development This initiative is carried out in the frame of the Central American Integration System made up of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Its objectives include “decrease in deforestation, reduction in levels of water and soil contamination, and adequate management of watersheds to ensure quality and quantity in diverse uses of water resources.” 6.6.1.3. Central American Strategy for Integrated Water Resource Management In 2009 this Strategy was formalized with the participation of the Central American Commission on Environment and Development (CCAD), the Regional Water Resources Committee and the Coordination Center for Disaster Prevention in Central America (CEPREDENAC). The objective is to foster integrated water resource management in sector programs and projects that affect use of the resource, as well as use of the watershed as management unit. Central American Plan for Integrated Water Resource Management (2010-2012) Also promoted by Central American Integration System, the plan establishes as its strategic objective that the Governments of the region adopt integrated water resource management, applying its principles in management and development planning instruments, with participation of local governments, associations and associated municipal entities, as well as social and private sector organizations. 6.6.1.4. Alliance for Conservation of the Trifinio Region Unlike the aforementioned strategies promoted by States, this is an alliance of NGOs with experience in socio-environmental development, participatory and inclusive management of protected natural areas and other conservation models such as municipal, private and communal natural areas. The aim is to drive biological connectivity and socio-environmental development in communities. 6.6.2. NATIONAL STRATEGIES 6.6.2.1. El Salvador A. National Policy on Water Resources The National Policy on Water Resources (2012) contains public policy guidelines and strategic proposals for their implementation through the execution of specific plans and policies related to planning, conservation and protection of water resources at the level of watersheds and 68
  • subwatersheds, including studies on availability, quality, uses and demand for surface and groundwater. The national policy is guided by principles: water as a common, finite and vulnerable good; comprehensive approach to managing water, whether watersheds or aquifers; citizen participation; the approach of watershed as management unit; water sustainability and efficiency. 6.6.2.2. Honduras A. Country Vision and Nation Plan: According to the Law on Establishment of a Country Vision and Adoption of the National Plan (2010), the national development process has as central element geographic regions defined around the principal watersheds (art. 2, Regionalization). This regionalization, however, does not replace political division nor exempt municipalities and associated municipal entities from their responsibilities and jurisdictions. Said law declares water a “strategic resource of national priority,” considering access to be a “human right” (art. 3). It also creates the Regional Development Councils as mechanisms of dialogue and convergence between the national government, civil society, local governments and cooperation agencies, for the formulation of proposals on the process of planning activities in the region, for which public negotiation should be facilitated (art. 25). B. National Water Policy The general objective of the National Water Policy, formulated by the Secretariat of Natural Resources and Environment (SERNA), is integrated management of water resources, aiming for their sustainable use and improvement of the population’s quality of life. The policy’s guidelines include, among others: consideration of watersheds as basic units for their comprehensive management, integrated management of national and shared watersheds, and special and differentiated management of surface and groundwater. 6.6.2.3. Guatemala A. National Policy on Integrated Water Resource Management and National Integrated Water Resource Strategy Both instrument proposals follow these principles: (i) social equity in access to water; (ii) economic efficiency in assigning rights and in provision of goods and services; (iii) environmental sustainability in the context of the hydrological cycle; (iv) comprehensive administration and (v) administration in solidarity. 69
  • The proposed strategic lines are distributed in four sectors: (i) drinking water and sanitation; (ii) conservation, protection and improvement of water sources, forests, soils and riversides in watersheds; (iii) hydrological planning and hydraulic works for water regulation and governance; and (iv) public policy and legal and institutional regimen of international watercourses11. 6.6.3. LEGAL REGIMEN IN RELATION TO MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHEDS AND AQUIFERS 6.6.3.1. International Instruments The main agreement in relation to the Trifinio region is the 1997 Treaty for the Execution of the Trifinio Plan signed by El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala, which delimits the geographic sphere of action in the trinational territory (described as “indivisible unit” for coordinated and sustainable management of its natural resources) and the three governments’ commitments to transboundary cooperation and sustainable management of shared natural resources as the foundation for executing trinational projects, programs and initiatives. In the Central American arena, the Central American Water Convention Project in the frame of the Central American Integrated System aims to expedite coordination mechanisms among the countries for integrated management of transboundary watersheds, developing joint actions for their use and sustainable management with the participation of the populations, local authorities and associated municipal entities. Also of importance are the United Nations Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, adopted by the General Assembly on May 21, 1997; and Resolution No. 63/124 on the law of transboundary aquifers, adopted by the General Assembly in December 2008. While these international instruments are non-binding, they incorporate generally accepted principles of international custom, thereby recognized as binding in that sense. Both instruments also serve as framework of reference for negotiating bilateral or multilateral treaties or conventions in this area. According to the aforementioned convention, general principles for management of transboundary water resources are: (i) States’ right to equitable and reasonable use of an international watercourse in their respective territories and participation, also equitable and reasonable, in their conservation and protection (art. 5); (ii) States’ obligation not to cause significant harm to another watercourse State resulting from the use of shared waters (art. 7); (iii) general obligation to cooperate in order to attain equitable and reasonable protection of the international watercourse (art. 8); (iv) regular exchange of data and information among watercourse States, in particular that of hydrological, meteorological, hydrogeological, and ecological nature and related to the water quality as well as related forecasts (art. 9); (v) obligation to notify regarding planned activities that could have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse States and consultations and negotiations if necessary (art. 11-19); (vi) prevention, 11 Aragón, Gloria; “Informe Final; Diagnóstico Político-Legal para Guatemala”; p. 33; “Fortalecimiento del marco jurídico en materia de gestión de los recursos hídricos en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua”; FAO, Guatemala; November, 2011. 70
  • reduction and control of pollution, individually by each State or jointly, and consultations for said purposes (art. 21). On transboundary aquifers, specifically, United Nations Resolution No. 63/124 incorporates similar principles (arts. 4-8), also including adoption by the States of appropriate measures for protecting and conserving associated ecosystems, as well as identifying recharge or discharge zones in their respective territories and the obligation to protect them (arts. 10 and 11). 6.6.3.2. National Regimens A. El Salvador The Constitution of El Salvador states that the State has the obligation to protect natural resources as well as the diversity and integrity of the environment “to ensure sustainable development” (art. 117). The Constitution links economic and social development through the increase of production, productivity and “wise use of resources” (art. 101). Until now, water resources in El Salvador have been administered from a sectoral perspective, addressing the different uses or exploitation of water12. The General Water Act presented to the Legislative Assembly in 2012 is oriented by the principle of management unit, attributing authority in this sense to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, including oversight and comprehensive management of water resources (articles. 16 and 17). Concerning groundwater, all hydraulic resources are national goods (art. 2, Regulations of the Lay on Irrigation and Drainage 1973); to the extent that their use belongs to all inhabitants this deals with “goods of public use” or “public goods” (art. 571, Civil Code). It recognizes, however, the right of owners to open up ordinary wells freely on their own land (art. 92, Regulations quoted above). The most recent legislation includes different regulations related to administrative intervention in groundwater management with, however, lack of more specific developments. The General Law Act project describes surface water as belongings of public domain (articles 4 and 5). Water recharge zones located in the upper parts of watersheds are considered “restricted use areas” (art. 23.d, Forest Law).Identification and the promotion of actions for their recovery and protection correspond to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (art. 71, Law on Environment). Use of aquifer water is subject to planning, assessment of its quality and availability (art. 69.a, General Regulations of the law in Environment). In addition, rates for pumping groundwater must 12 See Ramos, Nadia; “Diagnóstico Político-Legal para El Salvador. Informe Final”; Proyecto “Fortalecimiento del marco jurídico en materia de gestión de los recursos hídricos en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua”; page 31 and following. FAO, San Salvador, November 2011.11 71
  • be calculated based on natural recharge of the aquifer, aiming to maintain the water table level (art. 69, Regulations quoted above). Use of groundwater for agricultural purposes requires exploration permits and permit or concession for its use (article 92 and continued, Regulations of the Law on Irrigation and Drainage). Finally, industrial or commercial use of water resources (understood as including groundwater) requires an environmental impact study and permit from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (articles 20 and 21.i, Law on Environment). While current legislation in El Salvador does not regulate aspects of transboundary water, according to the General Water Act bill, the State may negotiate and sign bilateral and multilateral treaties and conventions on water in a basin with international drainage or shared waters in transboundary watersheds, subject to principles of international law on water resources, natural resources or environment (articles 26 and 27). B. Honduras: According to the Constitution of Honduras, domestic waters belong to the State, with their dominion being inalienable and imprescriptible (articles 10 and 13). Unlike Guatemala and El Salvador, Honduras has a General Water Act stipulating that groundwater aquifers are goods of public domain “in perpetuity and inalienable”. While not affecting law on ownership of the surface of the site, this statement does impact on the execution of works for groundwater use and carrying out any activity that may pollute or degrade the aquifer is subject to pertinent legal provisions (art. 26, General Water Act), including the need for use permits or concessions granted by the competent authority. On this basis, in the frame of a FAO project13 a regulatory project has been formulated on groundwater use, pending official approval. Among other regulations, this proposal includes the need for use permits or concessions, as well as protection of aquifers and recharge zones from point and non-point sources of pollution. These regulations mark a substantial departure from previous regulations (Law on Use of national Waters; 1927) wherein groundwater was considered accessory to soil ownership. Honduran legislation makes no specific reference to transboundary waters. In general, the General Water Act recognizes the possibility of watershed councils on border or transboundary rivers (of 13 “Fortalecimiento del marco jurídico en materia de gestión de los recursos hídricos en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua”; 2011. 72
  • shared management), in which case the representation of national government in these entities must include a representative of the Secretariat of Foreign Relations (art. 22). There is a rather murky reference as well to possible water transfers in “border and transboundary territories” (art. 83.4). C. Guatemala: According to the Political Constitution of Guatemala (1985), all waters are goods of public domain, inalienable and imprescriptible (art. 127). This statement includes groundwater as well as surface waters (art. 121). Their use and enjoyment is regulated by a special law (art. 127) pending approval. In addition, reforestation and forest conservation is declared of “national urgency and of social interest,” with forests and vegetation in the “vicinity of water sources” enjoying “special protection” (art. 126). Notwithstanding, the Civil Code (Law Decree No. 106; 1963) states that property owners may dig wells on their farms to obtain and bring up groundwater, and realize any work with the object of “seeking” their extraction (except when this affects pre-existing public services or private use of groundwater), in which case the extracted waters will belong to them even if they leave the property (arts. 581 and 584). Consequently, groundwater is considered accessory to ownership of the soil from which it is extracted. In practice, regulations of the Civil Code (prior to the current Constitution) continue operative. Concerning regulation of transboundary groundwater in the Trifinio region, specifically, in the case of Guatemala, draft legislation on Use and Sustainable Management of Water Resources (2007) in general proposes that groundwater adjacent to other countries be governed by the treaties, conventions and international legislation it has ratified (art. 2). 6.6.4. TRINATIONAL INSTITUTIONALITY For the execution of programs or activities related to management of the shared aquifer in Trifinio region, the Treaty for the Execution of the Trifinio Plan creates the following institutional structure. 6.6.4.1.Trinational Commission Comprised of the Vice-Presidents of Guatemala and El Salvador and a person designated by the Presidency of Honduras15; the commission is “the entity in charge of ensuring execution of the Trifinio Plan and its continuous updating”. It has its own legal identity and administrative, financial and technical autonomy (art. 5) and enjoys internationally and in each of the countries part of legal capacity for the exercise of its functions (art. 9). Basic functions (art. 7) are the following:  Act as permanent body of coordination and consultation for the definition of policies and 73
  • orientation of programs and projects;  Serve as high-level forum to analyze problems of sustainable development in the region and propose solutions through joint actions of competent authorities in the three countries;  Approve policies and annual plans and programs;  Examine and approve adjustments and updates of the Trifinio Plan;  Promote technical and financial cooperation for the execution of planned projects;  Accept donations and receive technical and non-reimbursable financial cooperation for the purposes of its creation;  Gather the opinion of the Consultative Committee of the Trifinio Plan in all matters of interest to associations, trade unions and local entities that make it up and address their initiatives through the Trinational Executive Secretariat, arranging required actions with competent national authorities;  Approve the annual operating plans of the Trinational Executive Secretariat, as well as its activities reports and financial statements; and  Approve its operating regulations and the operational rules of the Executive Secretariat and Consultative Committee 6.6.4.2. Trinational Executive Secretariat Acts as permanent executive body of the Trinational Commission. It is made up of the Trinational Executive Secretariat, with coordination functions, and a National Executive Director for each one of the State parties (art. 10). The Trinational Executive Secretariat has the following basic functions:  Execute the mandates of the Trinational Commission  Propose annual work policies, plans and programs to the Trinational Commission, in consultation with the National Executive Directors  Coordinate participation of the national institutions in relation to the programs, projects and actions of the Trifinio Plan, with the participation of the National Executive Directors  Arrange, through delegation of the Trinational Commission, technical and financial cooperation required for executing projects  Formulate partial and annual reports for presentation to the Trinational Commission  Channel demands for actions from national entities, local bodies and civil associations connected with the Plan and submit them to the Trinational Commission  Prepare the Annual Operating Plan in consultation with the National Executive Directors  Administratively direct the Trinational Executive Secretariat and do the necessary contracting for its functioning  Participate in and follow up on meetings of the Consultative Committee  Prepare and coordinate meetings of the Trinational Commission (art. 14) 74
  • The Trinational Executive Secretariat, headquartered in San Salvador, is also charged with periodic evaluation and updating of the Trifinio Plan, delivering progress reports to the Trinational Commission (art. 11). The National Executive Directors, in turn, report to their respective Vice-President or person designated by the presidency, serving as liaison and coordination with national entities and associations connected with the Trifinio Plan (art. 16). 6.6.4.3. Consultative Committee Formed as mechanism for participation, the consultative committee is made up of the governors of the departments (provinces) and municipal mayors of the Trifinio region in each country, and representatives of the Asociaciones del Trifinio para el Desarrollo Sostenible in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, cooperatives, nongovernmental organizations and other civil associations of any nature interested in the execution of the Trifinio Plan (art. 18). 75
  • INFORMATION GAPS 76
  • 6.7. IDENTIFICATION OF INFORMATION GAPS ACCORDING TO INDICATORS After reviewing information generated on the Trifinio region, the following gaps were identified with respect to applying indicators; the missing information must be generated as part of project execution. Table 15 Information Gaps Identified for the Zone of the Trifinio Aquifer Trifinio in Reference to Project Indicators INDICATOR DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR INFORMATION GATHERED 1. Defining or limiting the value of aquifers and their potential functions Medium to long term groundwater Guatemala: 80-90 mm/year 1.1 Average annual depth of recharge, including components of Honduras: 60-70 mm/year human origin (return flows, groundwater recharge El Salvador: 110-120 mm/year induced recharge, artificial (average annual recharge volume by unit of area) recharge), divided by area 1.2 Annual amount of renewable groundwater resources per capita Medium to long term groundwater Guatemala: 30-50 m³/yr/per capita(low) recharge, including components of El Salvador: 63-85 m³/year/per capita(low) human origin, divided by number of inhabitants in the area occupied by the aquifer Percent of area occupied by the 1.3 Natural quality of aquifer aquifer where natural water groundwater quality meets local drinking water standards Low in the three countries (20-40%) Ratio between volume stored and Information not identified medium-to-long term groundwater recharge 1.4 Aquifer storage capacity (equivalent to average dwell time) INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED Data needs to be checked and updated This information is not available for Honduras and must be generated, and that of Guatemala and El Salvador must be verified and updated. Data must be checked and updated. Information not available on recharge times from the limit of the watershed to the center of the aquifer 77
  • INDICATOR DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR INFORMATION GATHERED Expected degree of change in the High regimen of the hydric balance of 1.5 Aquifer’s vulnerability to Most of these aquifers are uncontained and groundwater in response to climate change renewable yearly since they are in alluvial changes in climate conditions zones Artificial contamination could be considered very low since the water filters Percent of its horizontal area through layers that are normally of clayish where aquifer is considered 1.6 Aquifer’s vulnerability to moderately to highly vulnerable to texture and silty clay or very fine-grained, contamination able to trap most of the contaminants contamination INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED A study is needed to determine variations in availability of aquifer water vis-à-vis climate change effects This type of investigation should be strengthened. At certain specific sites some type of natural contamination of geochemical origin can be found, such as carbonates, iron, pH, hot water and others. 2 Role and importance of groundwater for humans and the environment 2.1 Human dependence on groundwater 2.2 Human dependence on groundwater for supply of domestic water 2.3 Human dependence on groundwater as supply for agricultural purposes Percent of total groundwater extracted for human uses No information identified Includes routine domestic use and to meet Percent of groundwater extracted demands caused by religious tourism ,and for domestic use perforated or artisanal wells only a few meters deep are used. There is no exact data for these indicators for the aquifer zone because a complete inventory of wells has not been made in each of the countries. There is no precise data on water extracted for each of the main uses of groundwater extraction. Percent of groundwater extracted In this sense the main uses are for for agricultural use (mainly production of beef cattle (watering trough, irrigation) irrigation for pasture). In some cases, in addition to irrigation groundwater is also used in coffee processing. 78
  • INDICATOR DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR INFORMATION GATHERED 2.4 Human dependence on groundwater as supply for industrial purposes Percent of total groundwater extracted for industrial use INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED No information identified Water tables for artisanal wells in the Percent of aquifer area with 2.5 Dependence of Esquipulas Valley can be found at depths of shallow water table 5 m below the ecosystems on groundwater 1-35 m. Some wells are found In Honduras surface and depths can be 5-20 m. 2.5 Prevalence of springs Total annual discharge of groundwater through springs, divided by average annual recharge 3. Changes in the state of groundwater Current observed rate of progressive long-term decrease of stored groundwater (constant decline in groundwater levels), 3.1 Depletion of expressed as a depth equivalent to groundwater average water in the aquifer No information identified As in the case of wells, there is no complete inventory of springs or data on use, flows, prevalence during the year and others of importance There is practically no appreciable depletion It is important to set up a well of the shallow aquifer in the Esquipulas Valley because wells are located in alluvial monitoring network to determine groundwater behavior over time. zones, while springs are in mountainous areas with higher average rainfall. Something similar appears to occur in Ocotepeque, while in Citalá wells are located in the alluvial zone of the Lempa River. 79
  • INDICATOR 3.2 Contamination of groundwater DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED INFORMATION GATHERED In general terms, from a physicochemical standpoint the quality of groundwater is Contaminated areas observed as good. Wells without a lid show percentage of total aquifer area microbiological contamination. In dug or (contamination caused surpasses mechanical wells there tend to be greater drinking water quality standards) concentrations of minerals; layers with sedimentary rocks are found especially. There is no specific study on groundwater contamination, just some data on wells that have been monitored for different reasons, so it is important to conduct a study on this theme that includes pollution points, types of contaminants, level of contamination and other aspects. 4. Change drivers and pressure 4.1 Population density There is no specific data for the aquifer area, but there are base data that can be used to obtain the information; it can be Number of people per unit of area Population density in the Esquipulas Valley inferred by having the delimitation of the above the aquifer is 85 inhabitants per km². aquifer. Total annual extraction of groundwater divided by average 4.2 Pressure on groundwater annual long-term recharge INDICATOR DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR No information identified Data not available since there is no exact information on number of wells (artisanal and mechanical) and extraction from them. INFORMATION GATHERED INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED 5. Favorable environment for transboundary management of aquifers / groundwater management of the SIDS 80
  • 5.1 Transboundary legal frameworks / legal framework of groundwater management of the SIDS .2 Transboundary institutional framework / institutional frame on groundwater of the SIDS Until now water management has been oriented by sector criteria; however, steps are being taken toward adoption of integrated watershed management. Existence, status, and exhaustivity Honduras has advanced toward integrated of a binding agreement on the management with the new General Water transboundary aquifer or Act (2009) and the Law for Establishment of groundwater of the del SIDS under a Country Vision and Adoption of the Nation consideration Plan (2010). Existence, mandate and capacities of institutions or institutional arrangements for transboundary management of the aquifer or groundwater of the SIDS under consideration (all types of interventions) An important gap is noted in aquifer regulation, both national and transboundary , concerning comprehensive management of the specific aquifer shared by El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras in the Trifinio region in the frame of the treaty signed by the three countries for execution of the Trifinio Plan. It is recommended that a complementary agreement be adopted incorporating the principles in Resolution No. 63/124 on transboundary aquifer law, adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in December 2008. It is also recommended that legislation on exploration, use and control of groundwater be harmonized in the three countries. Establishing a legal-institutional framework that goes from the local to the trinational level is essential to ensure good governance of the aquifer with the participation and empowerment of all stakeholders. INDICATOR DEFINITION OF THE INDICATOR INFORMATION GATHERED INFORMATION GAPS IDENTIFIED 6. Implementation of management measures for groundwater resources (In TBA or SIDS) 81
  • 6.1 Control of groundwater extraction Current practices in the implementation of control measures for groundwater extraction Current practices in the 6.2 Protection of groundwater protection of groundwater quality quality No information identified None of the countries have practices that regulate extraction, nor are there measures to control excavation of wells. For most stakeholders in the zone, the Some organic coffee-processing businesses behavior of groundwater is unknown so no type of practice has been defined have taken the initiative by installing that can be applied to protect treatment plants because importer groundwater quality. companies recommend it. 82
  • VII. CONCLUSIONS  Information on the Trifinio aquifer is sparse, scattered and not classified. Nor is there a center of information where this information could be unified, so few of the proposed indicators in the evaluation matrix can be applied. There is, however, good information for the Trifinio region from which to extrapolate.  There are several international and national efforts underway to study the Trifinio aquifer, but the information requires validation since some studies and appraisals have been done mainly on the upper or shallow aquifer, not the lower aquifer that can be confined or semi-confined.  Delimitation of the Trifinio aquifer is preliminary and was done using superficial criteria, specifically, the dividing line of the watersheds determining three hydrogeological units: porous and fractured aquifers, porous aquifers, and low-yielding fractured rocks.  Project RLA/8/038 Sustainable Development of the Environment and Water Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River, funded by the IAEA and carried out by organizations such as INSIVUMEH in Guatemala; CEL, ANDA, UES, SNET (today the Environmental Observatory), in El Salvador and by EENE and SANAA in Honduras, is the study containing the most hydrometeorological, hydrochemical and isotopic information on groundwater, and has generated very useful information on characterization of the Trifinio aquifer.  Another project that generated information on groundwater in the region was that of Water Conservation through Transboundary Management of Natural Resources (CAMARENA, for its name in Spanish), which includes hydrogeological and hydrological data on the area.  The Forests and Water Project conducted the study Estado de la Región del Trifinio en el 2010, which contains valuable information that can be used to generate biophysical and socioeconomic information on the Trifinio aquifer.  The spirit of the Trifinio Plan is coordination between communities, organizations, authorities and institutions of the municipalities in the three countries comprising it. However, it is necessary to strengthen actions enabling closer interinstitutional coordination in order to improve effectiveness in resource use and obtain more sustainable outcomes in time and space.  In the Trifinio region conditions are coming into place to foster local development, so that women and men can create an environment permitting equitable participation, thus enabling them to overcome challenges and promote development.  The Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan, as governing entity of the official initiatives for the Trifinio area, does not have a strategy for applying gender perspective in area initiatives or in the Esquipulas- Ocotepeque-Citalá zone (Trifinio aquifer) so that this theme can be visualized.  Some parts of the Trifinio Plan display an information gap regarding the actual role women play in water management, as well as weaknesses, lacks, potentialities and strengths in their participation in decision-making on the resource.  Gender perspective should be mainstreamed, or considered in all actions of the project, and should contemplate specific resources for implementing strategies. In the case of transboundary projects, it is important to contextualize the theme and adapt strategy to each country’s situation. 83
  •  Until now water management has been geared toward sectoral criteria. However, steps are being taken toward adoption of integrated management of watersheds. Honduras has advanced toward integrated management with the new General Water Act (2009) and the Law for the Establishment of a Country Vision and Adoption of the Nation Plan (2010). VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS  Support the documentation center of the Trifinio Plan to improve the process of compiling, classifying, cataloguing, harmonizing and making available information generated. This needs to be concentrated in a single system serving as platform in future studies and evaluations, in order to support decision-making and make useful, timely and reliable information available to local and national users.  One of the first steps that must be taken is to define the limits of the Trifinio aquifer so that a good characterization can be made, and especially to conduct a study on surface geological formations to identify and describe the shallow aquifer on which most of the local population depends for supply of water for domestic use.  Maintain and support the trinational platform of researchers created with the IAEA project for the Trifinio aquifer and thereby continue specific research and studies on the region. Form a technical committee to monitor groundwater initiatives in the zone, and especially to generate the information that is missing in order to respond to the proposed matrix indicators for evaluating current and future conditions of the aquifer.  Conduct in-depth studies and information with respect to the geological and hydrogeological maps generated thus far so that a more detailed map can be generated enabling better characterization and assessment of the Trifinio aquifer.  Establish a program for building local technical capacity in the identification and delimitation of water recharge zones, and particularly groundwater use and management. This is essential to raise awareness of the different local stakeholders in the three countries, facilitating understanding of aquifer dynamics and the urgent need for actions to decrease its vulnerability and effects of climate change on its hydrological yield or water production, primarily for human use.  It is important to promote, strengthen and support interinstitutional and multisectoral coordination in the Trifinio region in order to integrate efforts in a single direction, achieve greater synergies and show that working in a unified manner with common objectives can yield better results and greater effectiveness in the use of physical, human and financial resources.  It is recommended that all stakeholders be involved when the Trifinio aquifer management plan is carried out so that this is participatory and everyone feels part of the process and committed to activities.  A complete inventory needs to be made of surface water sources (including their characterization), as well as an inventory of wells, to generate valuable information about supply and demand of both types of water.  It is important that women’s important role in the use, access and administration of water 84
  • resources in the different communities be recognized. In this sense, it is recommended that the Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan and the official representatives of the Vice-Presidencies of the three countries (Honduras – El Salvador – Guatemala) internalize gender perspective in their institutional activities through the construction of gender policy and strategy.  It is important to have a person in charge of gender within the Trifinio Plan who advises and coordinates all aspects in this theme in the different programs, projects and components in the zone and supports construction of annual operating plans in which gender equity is always well visualized.  It is recommended that all projects executed in the area of influence of the Trifinio aquifer have indicators that show impact on the transformation of inequalities between men and women in the components of those projects.  Specifically for comprehensive management of the aquifer shared by El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras in the Trifinio region in the frame of the treaty signed by the three countries for execution of the Trifinio Plan, it is recommended that a complementary agreement be adopted incorporating the principles of Resolution No. 63/124 on transboundary aquifer law, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2008. 85
  • IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ahti, k. 2007. Presentación – Devastación de la Ciudad Ocotepeque en 1934. 20 p. 2. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a. Agenda de los sujetos sociales que son compatibles con los objetivos y condicionantes del programa. 189 p. 3. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a. Diagnostico sobre las organizaciones existentes y que no forman parte de los CNI y se consideran importantes para el logro de los objetivos del programa y las actividades de los componentes. 23 p. 4. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). posteriores a la consulta y participación comunitaria. 96 p. s/a. Metodología para etapas 5. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a. Propuesta de organización y funcionamiento del comité nacional de involucrados. 36 p. 6. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a. Reglamento de funcionamiento Comité nacional de involucrados. 15 p. 7. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a Propuesta de organización y funcionamiento del comité nacional de involucrados. 15 p. 8. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS). s/a Sujetos sociales identificados en el área de la cuenca. 236 p. 9. AMVAS. s/a. Mapa de Actores, municipios: Ocotepeque, Sinuapa, Concepción y Santa FeHonduras. 4p. 10. BID, Vicepresidencia de Sectores y Conocimiento, Sector de Integración y Conocimiento, Programa de Bienes Públicos Regionales: L Bocalandro – R Villa. 2009. Publicación Bienes Públicos Regionales. 58 p. 11. Centro Agronómico Tropical De Investigación y Enseñanza. CATIE, Escuela de Posgrado 2009. Caracterización de la capacidad de innovación de los actores involucrados en los sistemas de producción de hortalizas bajo ambiente controlado, en la Región Trifinio (Honduras, Guatemala y El Salvador, 128 p. 12. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio, Programa para la Promoción de la Administración del Agua Como Bien Público Regional en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa en la Región del Trifinio: Mario Samuel Buch. 2009. Informe Final – Agenda Hídrica Trinacional: Una Propuesta Participativa Para la Gestión Integrada de los Recursos Hídricos en la Parte Alta de la Cuenca del Río Lempa. – El Trifinio: Los Recursos Hídricos en la Parte Alta del Río Lempa. 57 p 86
  • 13. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio, Secretaría Ejecutiva Trinacional, Programa Para la Promoción de la Administración del Agua como Bien Público Regional en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa. Plan de Monitoreo de la Calidad de Agua de la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa (CARL). 13 p. 14. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio, Secretaría Ejecutiva Trinacional, Curso: “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en la Gestión de los Recursos Hídricos”: Mario Samuel Buch. 2008. Aspectos legales e institucionales de la gestión de los Recursos Hídricos en el Trifinio. 14 p. 15. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio. 2012. Informe del Secretario Ejecutivo Trinacional del Plan Trifinio Miguel Alberto Pineda Valle. 15 p. 16. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio, El Salvador- Guatemala-Honduras. 2011. Plan de Gestión Para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Región del Trifinio 2010-2020, El Salvador-GuatemalaHonduras. Plan de Gestión Para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Región del Trifinio 2010-2020, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras. 23 p. 17. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio, El Salvador- Guatemala-Honduras. 2011. Plan de Gestión Para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Región del Trifinio 2010-2020, El Salvador-GuatemalaHonduras. 23 p. 18. Comisión Trinacional del Plan Trifinio- Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. 2005. Plan de Manejo Integrado del Área Protegida Trinacional Montecristo. 200 p. 19. Dirección Ejecutiva Nacional del Plan Trifinio El Salvador – Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa – Agencia de Cooperación Técnica Alemana (GIZ) – Proyecto APTM del Fondo Mundial del Ambiente (FMAM) – BID. 2011. El Salvador Plan Estratégico de la Región del Trifinio 2010-2020. 101 p. 20. Duarte Saldaña, J.R. 2009. Consultoría en Hidrología/Hidrogeología Programa Camarena/GTZ Bosques y Agua “Conservación del Agua a Través del Manejo Transfronterizo de los Recursos Naturales (CAMARENA)”. 90 p. 21. Fulgencio Garavito - Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología (INSIVUMEH) - Guatemala. Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)-El Salvador. s/a. Sistema Acuífero Transfronterizo Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citalá, Guatemala-Honduras-El Salvador. 4 p. 22. GOPA Consultants: José Roberto Duarte Saldaña, Iván Guerrero, Edwin Rivera, Carlos Roberto Melgar, Carlos Álvarez, Edwar Ismael Álvarez, Reginaldo Ramírez. 2010. Informe Final – Honduras Análisis Hidrogeológico y Sistematización de la Información Geológica e Hidrogeológica de las Zonas Copán Chortí y Lempa Ulúa (Área Honduras) de la Región Trifinio. 62 p. 23. GIZ – Ministerio Federal de Cooperación Económica y Desarrollo – Plan Trifinio. 2010. Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010, Anexo: Variables e indicadores por municipio. 53 p. 87
  • 24. GIZ – Ministerio Federal de Cooperación Económica y Desarrollo – Plan Trifinio. 2011. Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010, Datos socioeconómicos y ambientales de los municipios. 83 p. 25. International Conference “Transboundary Aquifers: Challenges and New Directions”(ISARM2010): Mario Samuel Buch; José Mario Guevara. TRIFINIO: Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Upper Lempa River Basin, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, in Central América. 4 p. 26. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras) – URBAL – INYPSA. s/a. Tercer Informe Plan Integral de Desarrollo Estratégico Territorial Trinacional. Desarrollo Territorial Trifinio. 572 p. 27. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras) – URBAL – INYPSA. 2010. Proceso Participativo Tercer Informe Plan Integral de Desarrollo Estratégico Territorial Trinacional. Desarrollo Territorial Trifinio. 269 p. 28. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras – URBAL. s/a. Mapa de Actores Claves Asociación Cayaguanca-El Salvador. 10 p. 29. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras – Asociación de Municipios Trifinio – URBAL. 2009. Mapa de Actores Claves Asociación Trifinio El Salvador. 112 p. 30. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras – Mancomunidad de Nor-oriente – URBAL. 2009. Mapa de Actores Claves Mancomunidad Nororiente. 12 p. 31. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras – URBAL. 2010. Política Pública Trinacional “Ciudad Limpia” Para La Gestión Integral De Desechos Solidos Urbanos de la Región Trinacional. 2 p. 32. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras. 2008. Planificación Estratégica Territorial Trinacional 2008-2023. 56 p. 33. Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras – URBAL. 2010. Política pública Trinacional “Ciudad Limpia” para la Gestión Integral de Desechos sólidos urbanos de la Región trinacional. 10 p. 34. Ministerio del Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales de El Salvador (MARN). 2010. Reserva de la Biósfera Trifinio Fraternidad. 69 p. 35. Plan Trifinio El Salvador 2011. El Salvador Plan Estratégico de la Región Trifinio 2010-2020, Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, la Agencia de Cooperación Técnica Alemana GIZ y El proyecto APTMdel Fondo Mundial del Ambiente (FMAM) a través del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), El Salvador 110 p. 88
  • 36. Plan Trifinio El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras. s/a. Plan Trifinio: Sus Programas y Proyectos. 21 p. 37. Plan Trifinio – URBAL – BID – Diputación de Huelva – CATIE – Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa, El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras. 2010. Política Pública Local Transfronteriza “Bosques Para Siempre” El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras. 2 p . 38. Proyecto PNUD CAM/94/001 Ejecutado por El Banco Mundial, con Ministerios de Agricultura, BID, FAO, FIDA, IICA, GOBIERNO DE GRAN BRETAÑA DFID. 2004. El Trifinio: Una Experiencia en busca de Medios de Vida Sostenible, EL Salvador 43 p. 39. Proyecto: “Conservación del Agua y de los Recursos Naturales en la Región Trifinio” (CAMARENA) en Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador. 2010. Cartillas municipales de zonas importantes de manejo del agua en los municipios de la región Trifinio. 29 p. 40. Red de Acción en Plaguicidas y sus Alternativas en América Central (RAPAC) - Centro Agronómico Tropical De Investigación Y Enseñanza (CATIE). 2003. Estudio sobre Políticas para la Reducción del Uso de Plaguicidas en la zona del Trifinio: Honduras, Guatemala y El Salvador. 31 p. 41. Organización de las Naciones Unidas Para La Educación, La Ciencia y La Cultura (UNESCO) - De la Cooperación Potencial al Conflicto Potencial (PCCP): Hernán Romero – El Salvador y César Reyes – Guatemala; Estudio de caso del sistema acuífero Ostua-Metapán, 73 p. 42. Organización de las Naciones Unidas Para La Educación, La Ciencia y La Cultura (UNESCO) – Programa Hidrológico Internacional – Organización de los Estados Americanos; Evaluación Preliminar - Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronterizos En las Américas. (evaluación preliminar); 188 p. 43. Organización de las Naciones Unidas Para La Educación, La Ciencia y La Cultura (UNESCO) – Programa Hidrológico Internacional – Organización de los Estados Americanos; Marco Legal e Institucional en la Gestión de los Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronterizos en las Américas. 120 p. 44. Organización de las Naciones Unidas Para La Educación, La Ciencia y La Cultura (UNESCO) – Oficina Regional de Ciencia Para América Latina y El Caribe, Programa Hidrológico Internacional – Organización de los Estados Americanos; Aspectos Socioeconómicos Ambientales y Climáticos de los Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronterizos de las Américas. 559 p. 45. Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica, Proyecto Manejo Sostenible del Ambiente y de los Recursos Hídricos en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa RLA |8|038. 2006. Informe Final de Misión – Segunda Reunión de Coordinación de los Proyectos Regionales RLA |8|038 Y RLA|8|040. 32 p. 46. Petra Albütz – Liliana Parra – Héctor Aguirre – Sebastien Longhurst – Andrea Matarrita. 2011. 4 foro de alto nivel sobre la efectividad de la ayuda BUSAN, Noviembre-Diciembre 2011. 6 p. 47. Sistema de Información Territorial Trinacional (SINTET) Región Trifinio Mancomunidad Trinacional Fronteriza Río Lempa – U CUNORI USAC. 2012. Informe Campaña de Recolección 2010. 89 p. 89
  • 48. Vice ministerio de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano (VMVDU) – FISDL: Estudios, Proyectos Y Planificación S.A. (EPYPSA). 2008. Plan de Desarrollo Territorial Para La Región Del Trifinio. 231 p. 49. Unidad De Asistencia Técnica Regional /Banco Mundial - Ministerio Británico Para El Desarrollo Internacional RUTA - DFID: Corina Mejía. 2004. Estudio de Caso Documento Final – El Trifinio: Una Experiencia en Busca de Medios de Vida Sostenible. 43 p. 50. USAID Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds Project. Juan Pablo Dominguez; Craig Mc Farland. 2009. Plan de Manejo del Área Natural Protegida Parque Nacional de Montecristo. 205 p. 51. USAID Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds Project. Manuel Antonio Escamilla Jurado; Remberto Antonio Erazo Ramos. Propuesta de Plan de Manejo Integral de Desechos Sólidos y Vertidos Líquidos Generados en el Parque Nacional de Montecristo. 85 p. 52. USAID Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds Project. Manuel Antonio Escamilla Jurado; Remberto Antonio Erazo Ramos; José Roberto Duarte Saldaña. 2009. Balance Hídrico de las cuencas: Ange, San José, Laguna de Metapan y Tahuilapa. 93 p. X. ATTACHMENTS 90
  • ATTACHMENT 1. Lists of participants in coordination and informational workshops with other stakeholders 91
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  • ATTACHMENT 2. Documents Reviewed to Identify Information Gaps Table 16 Documents reviewed to Identify Gaps in Biophysical and Hydrogeological Information TITLE AUTHOR BRIEF SUMMARY OF CONTENT CORRESPONDING INDICATOR “Desarrollo Sostenible del Medio Ambiente y lo Recurso Hídricos en la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa” INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY Hydrometeorological, geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical information 1. Defining and limiting the value of the aquifers and their potential functions 2. Role and importance of groundwater for humans and the environment 3. Changes in the state of groundwater 4. Drivers of change and pressures 5. Beneficial environment for transboundary management of aquifers / Groundwater Management El Salvador. Plan estratégico de la región trifinio 20102012, July 2011. GIZURBAL-IDB Plan de gestión para el desarrollo sostenible de la región del trifinio FUSADES Hydrogeological information Referential for the indicators above Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission El Salvador-GuatemalaHonduras GIZ Hydrogeological information Referential for the indicators above Socioeconomic and environmental information Referential for previous indicators Estado de la Región del Trifinio 2010 TRIFINIO PLAN TRINATIONAL COMMISSION 95
  • El Trifinio: Los Trifinio Plan/IDB recursos hídricos en la parte alta de la Cuenca del Río Lempa Hydrological information Referential for previous indicators on the upper watershed of the Lempa River Table 17. Documents Reviewed to Identify Gaps in the Environmental Theme TITLE AUTH BRIEF SUMMARY OF OR CONTENT CORRESPONDING INDICATOR Plan de Gestión para GIZ el desarrollo sostenible de la región Trifinio 20102020 Analysis of development Human dependence on groundwater for supply of domestic problems in Trifinio and water proposals for their solution through programs and projects Estado de la Región GIZ Trifinio 2010 Datos socioeconómicos y ambientales de los municipios. Information on the state Human dependence on groundwater for supply of of natural resources and agricultural water the socioeconomic situation of the population in the Trifinio region Also provides a vision of development levels and challenges facing the region. 96
  • Plan de manejo IDB integrado del área protegida trinacional Montecristo. Formulación participativa plan de manejo integrado y Programa de acción regional The management plan of Dependence of ecosystems on groundwater the Montecristo protected area and its buffer zone provides general lines for initiating protection. Aspectos Socioeconómicos, ambientales y climáticos de los sistemas acuíferos transfronterizos de las Américas Case studies on aquifers Referential information for the indicators in the Americas, including the Esquipulas- OcotepequeCitalá aquifer UNESCO Plan de Gestión CATIE Ambiental, Documento No.3 Serie de documentos base para Formulación del Plan Estratégico Trinacional del PTCARL Identification of potentialities and problems Environmental information on the upper watershed of the Lempa River and management guide Tercer Informe Plan Integral de desarrollo estratégico territorial trinacional Information on Base information for the indicator on “aquifer vvulnerability integration of territorial to contamination” visions and the region’s problems in different aspects Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities 97
  • Table 18. Documents Reviewed to Identify Gaps in Socioeconomic Information Description No Document Title Estudio de caso del sistema acuífero OstuaMetapán 1 Evaluación Preliminar Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronteri zos En las Américas. (evaluación preliminar 2 Author UNESCO De la Cooperación Potencial al Conflicto Potencial (PCCP): Hernán Romero – El Salvador and César Reyes – Guatemala Information Missing for the Indicators Year 2008 UNESCO – International Hydrological Program– Organization of American States 2007 Socioeconomic characterization, institutional legal framework in effect on the transboundary aquifer; biophysical Not related to any of the description, geological and hydraulic indicators in the database characteristics, hydric balance and degree provided by IUCN of vulnerability; main stakeholders, conflicts over water and existing policies on information among the parties A regional evaluation of the geographic interactions between water and environment in the theme of underground water resources sharing borders in the Not related to any of the Americas; on one page there is a brief indicators description of the Esquipulas- Ocotepeque-Cítala aquifer. 98
  • Marco Legal e Institucional en la Gestión de los Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronteri zos en las Américas (UNESCO – International Hydrological Program– Organization of American States 3 2008 Aspectos Socioeconómicos Ambientales y Climáticos de los Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronteri zos de las Américas UNESCO – Regional Science Office for Latin America and the Caribbean -OAS 4 2010 TRIFINIO: Transbounda ry Aquifer Systems in the Upper Lempa River Basin, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, in Central América 5 International Conference “Transboundary Aquifers: Challenges and New Directions”(ISARM 2010): Mario Samuel Buch; José Mario Guevara Document on a program aimed at promoting knowledge of transboundary water resources and collaboration of countries sharing that resource, in order to reach consensus in the legal, institutional, Not related to any of the socioeconomic, scientific and environmental indicators sphere; there is also a chapter with a legal analysis on countries located in the Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Cítala aquifer This document provides data for each Not related to any of the transboundary aquifer on extension, indicators population and groundwater use; availability and quality and current and predicted climate variations for each aquifer. Also indicates protected and conservation areas and aspects of groundwater planning and use, economic benefits from its use and forecasted use trends as transboundary resources; social and environmental analysis of the different aquifers in the region. Document summarizes how the biophysical Not related to any of the information of the three countries was indicators harmonized in the northern Lempa River watershed; identifies studies made on water quality in the entire aquifer zone in the different strata, with chemical data on the water found 2010 99
  • 7 This consultant report is a technical document on the upper area of the Lempa River watershed in the Trifinio region: biophysical description of the region; systematization and integration of geological, hydrogeological and hydrological data; and inventory Some of the information in the attachments can relate to indicator 2.6; which mentions Agua “Conservació n del Agua a Través del Manejo Transfronteri zo de los Recursos Naturales (CAMARENA) ” 6 Consultoría en Hidrología/Hi drogeología Programa Camarena/G TZ Bosques y of wells and springs in the study zone; makes a water quality analysis; proposal on a plan for additional hydrological and hydrogeological studies prevalence of springs. According to this information there is an inventory of springs and wells with flows. Informe Final – Honduras Análisis Hidrogeológic o y Sistematizaci ón de la Información Geológica e Hidrogeológic a de las Zonas Copán Chortí y Lempa Ulúa (Área Honduras) de la Región Trifinio Makes a technical analysis of the upper watershed of the Lempa River in the Honduran Trifinio region. Contains biophysical information, identifies recharge areas with existing geological structures and sources of inventoried waters; makes an analysis of the geological frame found, analysis of the hydrogeological context using satellite images; and inventory of water sources in the Honduras zone. Relates to indicator 2.6, which mentions prevalence of springs. According to this report there is an inventory of springs and wells with flows, and identifying their location. José Roberto Duarte Saldaña GOPA Consultants: José Roberto Duarte Saldaña, Iván Guerrero, Edwin Rivera, Carlos Roberto Melgar, Carlos Álvarez, Edwar Ismael Álvarez, Reginaldo Ramírez 2009 2010 100
  • Mapa Hidrogeológic o de la Región Trifinio 8 Cartillas municipales de zonas importantes de manejo del agua en los municipios de la región Trifinio 9 Shapes files de la información técnica generadas para la construcción de mapas 10 11 Modelación SWAT de Procesos Hidrológicos en San Ignacio Project: “Conservation of Water and Natural Resources in the Trifinio Region” (CAMARENA) in 2010 Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador Project: “Water and Natural Resource Conservation in the Trifinio Region” (CAMARENA) in Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador Project: “Water and Natural Resource Conservation in the Trifinio Region” (CAMARENA) in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador Dr. Jeffrey R. Jones 2010 Hydrogeological map of the Trifinio region with the location of water sources, location and differentiation of aquifers, direction of flow, location of geological faults, location of bodies of water and main road networks Relates to indicator 2.6; has location of water sources, location of main bodies of water According to the GIZ Water and Forests Not related to any of the program, in the Trifinio region municipal indicators charts were generated with the location of water sources, location and differentiation of aquifers, direction of flow, location of geological faults, locations of bodies of water and main road networks; locating the different infiltration zones for each municipality. 2010 GIZ provided the information of the Shapes Not related to any of the files utilized for making thematic maps and indicators municipal charts for zones important to water management in the municipalities comprising the Trifinio region. 2009 Technical analysis of the area of the Sumpul Not related to any of the River in El Salvador, in which a modeling of indicators technical parameters was done to support sustainable development in this zone. 101
  • 12 13 14 Informe Final – Agenda Hídrica Trinacional: Una Propuesta Participativa Para la Gestión Integrada de los Recursos Hídricos en la Parte Alta de la Cuenca del Río Lempa. – El Trifinio: Los Recursos Hídricos en la Parte Alta del Río Lempa Presentación – Devastación de la Ciudad Ocotepeque en 1934 Tercer Informe Plan Integral de Desarrollo Estratégico Territorial Trinacional. Desarrollo Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan, Program for Promotion of the Administration of Water as Regional Public Good in the upper watershed of the Lempa River in the Trifinio region: Mario Samuel Buch K a r i Lempa River Trinational A Border Association of h Municipalities (El t Salvador, Guatemala, i Honduras) – URBAL INYPSA 2009 2007 s/a Analysis of the final document of the project Not related to any of the executed in the upper watershed of the indicators Lempa River in the Trifinio region. Includes the trinational water agenda and water resources in the upper watershed area; evaluation of the results obtained in the goals proposed in each of the components of these projects that have been executed in a program of the Trifinio Commission. Explains why an early warning system is Not related to any of the important and how a hurricane in 1934 indicators devastated the city of Ocotepeque in Honduras Explains the development of the trinational Not related to any of the strategic plan which includes prospective indicators territorial proposals; summarizes existing problems and potentialities, makes a current model of territory and identifies current territorial problems Territorial Trifinio. 102
  • Participatory Process Tercer Informe Plan Integral de Desarrollo Estratégico Territorial Trinacional. Desarrollo Territorial Trifinio. Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras) – URBAL – INYPSA 15 16 2010 Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010, Anexo: Variables e indicadores por municipio GIZ – Federal Ministry of Economic and Development Cooperation– Plan Trifinio 2011 Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010, Datos socioeconómi cos y ambientales de los municipios GIZ –Trifinio Plan 17 2011 Explains: 1) action/coordination and Not related to any of the consultation in the territory of the indicators Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities: 2) channels of communication and accompaniment for the proposal on construction of the Strategic Plan of Trinational Territorial Development; workshops held with each of the associations of municipalities in order to be able to implement the territorial development plan This document has information for each Not related to any of the municipality; there is a page with the indicators variables and indicators obtained. This data summary could serve as a base for municipalities to update their situation profile in the future. Information is genderdisaggregated. Information on the state of natural Not related to any of the resources and the socioeconomic situation indicators of the population in the Trifinio region. Provides a vision of development levels and challenges the region faces, along with a biophysical analysis of current conditions, an analysis of risks facing the population, ecosystem and biodiversity analysis, analysis of demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population of the Trifinio region 103
  • 18 Informe Final de Misión – Segunda Reunión de Coordinación de los Proyectos Regionales RLA |8|038 Y RLA|8|040 IAEA, Project on Sustainable Management of Environment and and Water Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River 2006 Informe del Secretario Ejecutivo Trinacional del Plan Trifinio Miguel Alberto Pineda Valle Trunational Commission of the Trifinio Plan 19 20 Presentación: Mapa Elaborado en el Marco del Desarrollo del Sistema de Información Trinacional de la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa (SIT – CARL. Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan, Trinational Executive Secretariat, Program for the promotion of Administration of Water as Regional Public Good in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River 2012 Evaluation of the work plan of project Not related to any of the RLA|8|038; assessment of two regional indicators projects. The report stresses planned activities in the upper watershed of the Lempa River (Trifinio sector of El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala). Verified degree of progress in collecting technical information, geometry of aquifers, progress in geographic information system, logistical strengthening for participating organizations, training of human resources, and others. Study on work carried out in the Trifinio Not related to any of the region, consisting of strategic lines of work: indicators Social development in transboundary communities; Sustainable Economy, integrated natural resource management, regional integration and transboundary cooperation. Mentions progress and results according to strategic line and accounts for the amounts invested. Explains how the trinational information Not related to any of the system of the upper watershed of the indicators Lempa River is being formed; importance of this region as the origin of the three countries’ main watershed. Mentions all of the social and biophysical maps created for the Trifinio region, especially the upper watershed of the Lempa River. 104
  • 21 22 23 24 Una experiencia trinacional de gestión compartida del agua. Muñoz Jiménez, Julián Plan de Monitoreo de la Calidad de Agua de la Cuenca Alta del Río Lempa (CARL). Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission, Trinational Executive Secretariat, Program for the Promotion of Water Administration as Regional Public Good in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River Aspectos legales e institucionale s de la gestión de los Recursos Hídricos en el Trifinio. Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission Trinational Executive Secretariat, Course on “Conflict Prevention and Cooperation in Water Resource Management”: Mario Samuel Buch Plan de Gestión Para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Región del Trifinio 20102020, El SalvadorGuatemala- Honduras. Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras 2008 2008 2008 2011 Presentation given in Zaragoza on an Not related to any of the analysis of transboundary water use, which indicators mentions Trifinio Plan contributions in Governability and Governance; work in policies, strategies, search for solutions, actions implemented and lessons learned This document explains the water Not related to any of the monitoring plan to be implemented in the indicators upper watershed of the Lempa River; objectives of the monitoring plan; entities that will participate, participating associations of municipalities; monitoring parameters; sampling sites; sampling procedures; analysis methodology, Interpretation of findings; integration and dissemination of iinformation in the CARL Presentation explains how the trinational Not related to any of the commission was formed, the area making up indicators the Trifinio region, how the association of municipalities of El Trifinio was formed, trinational integration of the different stakeholders, involvement of the teaching sector Document with a social study of the Trifinio Not related to any of the region, placing the zone in the three indicators countries, description of ecosystems, current problems, does planning that includes objectives, programs, components, crosscutting themes and estimated budget 105
  • Publicación Bienes Públicos Regionales 25 Sistema Acuífero Transfronteri zo Esquipulas- OcotepequeCitalá, GuatemalaHonduras-El Salvador 26 IDB, Vice-Presidency of Knowledge Sectors, Integration and Knowledge Sector, program on Regional Public Goods: L Bocalandro – R Villa Fulgencio Garavito – National Institute of Seismology, Vulcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology (INSIVUMEH) - Guatemala National Service for Territorial Studies (SNET)-El Salvador 2009 This is a summary of Ocotepeque-Citala aquifer; to biophysical data; water reference to a location map 27 28 Informe Campaña de Recolección 2010 the Esquipulas- Not related to any of the makes reference indicators use; also makes of the aquifer s/a th 4 Top-level Forum on the Effectiveness of BUSAN Aid, NovemberDecember 2011 Document explains the regional public Not related to any of the goods in the Latin American zone; regional indicators public goods and their development; experience in collective action in Latin America. th Petra Albütz – Liliana Parra – Héctor Aguirre – Sebastien Longhurst – Andrea Matarrita 2011 Trinational Territorial 2012 Executive report for the IDB - 4 Top-level Forum on the Effectiveness of BUSAN Aid, November 29 to December 1, 2011. Participation of Latin American members of the Community of South-South Practice. Not related to any of the indicators Document makes reference to Trinational Territorial Information System facilitated by local governments and associations in Not related to any of the indicators 106
  • Information System (SINTET) Lempa River Trinational Association of Municipalities Trifinio Region- Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities – U CUNORI USAC 29 30 Política pública Trinacional “Ciudad Limpia” para la Gestión Integral de Desechos sólidos urbanos de la Región trinacional Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras – URBAL Política Pública Trinacional “Ciudad Limpia” Para La Gestión Integral De Desechos Sólidos Urbanos de la Región Trinacional. Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras – URBAL the Trifinio region (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras), in order to publicize the social, political, economic, cultural ethnic and environmental situation of the trinational region; has indicators, reports on public management of water resources, food and nutritional security, gender equity. 2010 2010 Document containing the entire policy with Not related to any of the principles and foundations of trinational indicators public policy, conceptual framework, policy objectives, possible impacts of policy implementation, basic elements to be considered to strengthen the policy, actions and strategies, technical aspects, interinstitutional coordination and policy instruments. This information is in a 3-page brochure with Not related to any of the information about the trinational policy indicators aimed at improving current management of urban solid waste, providing comprehensive manage through sorting, recycling and composting, as well as provision of public services by the association of municipalities. 107
  • Política Pública Local Transfronteri za “Bosques Para Siempre” El SalvadorGuatemala- Honduras 31 32 33 34 Mapa de Actores, municipios: Ocotepeque, Sinuapa, Concepción y Santa FeHonduras Mapa de Actores Claves Asociación Cayaguanca- El Salvador Mapa de Actores Claves Asociación Trifinio El Salvador Plan Trifinio – URBAL – IDB – Diputación de Huelva – CATIE – Lempa Rver Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras A M V A S Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras – URBAL Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras – Asociación de Municipios Trifinio – URBAL 2010 s/a s/a 2009 This information is a 3-page brochure about Not related to any of the transboundary policy on sustainable forest indicators management for the conservation of natural areas with the joint participation of national and local governments, communities and private owners, through financial mechanisms and incentives, public and private, at the municipal, national and trinational levels. Stakeholder mapping for the Honduran Not related to any of the municipalities of Ocotepeque, Sinuapa, indicators Concepción and Santa Fe. This is a matrix with the following information: name of organization, municipal where headquarters are located, contact person, telephoneemail, main themes addressed, investment in the area, coverage Stakeholder mapping information of Not related to any of the Asociación Cayaguaca. Matrix with indicators information on municipality, multi-sector, sector, institutional and sector representative. Stakeholder mapping information of Not related to any of the Asociación Trifinio. Matrix with the indicators following information: multi-sector, sector, subsector, key stakeholder, representative and participants 108
  • 35 36 37 38 Mapa de Actores Claves Mancomunid ad Nororiente Corredor Biológico Trinacional Montecristo, El Salvador- GuatemalaHonduras Caracterizaci ón de la capacidad de innovación de los actores involucrados en los sistemas de producción de hortalizas bajo ambiente controlado, en la Región Trifinio (Honduras, Guatemala y El Salvador)” Planificación Estratégica Territorial Trinacional 2008-2023 Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras – Mancomunidad de Nororiente – URBAL C B T M Thesis submitted for consideration to the Graduate School of the the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Learning Center (CATIE). Wendy Leonela Castellanos Valerio Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities, El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras 2009 s/a 2009 2008 Stakeholder mapping information for Not related to any of the Asociación Nor-Oriente. Matrix with the indicators following information: multi-sector, sector, subsector, key stakeholder, representative and participants Presentation explaining the importance of the Montecristo Trinational Biological Corridor (CBTM), existing problems, participants in the region, composition of the CBTM management committee, and preliminary maps of the biological corridor by country This thesis document has conceptual framework information; makes a description of the controlled environments found and evaluated, characterization of producers, characterization of greenhouse production systems, makes an analysis of the knowledge management of producers in the study, capacity of agroecological innovation for greenhouse production, selection criteria for planting crops, main diseases of greenhouse crops in San Ignacio-La Palma, intervention strategy of the proposal. Not related to any of the indicators Not related to any of the indicators Document explaining trinational territorial Not related to any of the strategic planning for the three countries in indicators the Trifinio region with a presentation on the associations of municipalities making up the region; explains the indicators set out for the association of municipalities, SWOT analysis for territorial development, investment plan for the proposed strategic objectives, possible financing sources and publicizing of the territorial strategic plan. 109
  • Plan de Desarrollo Territorial Para La Región Del Trifinio 39 40 Estudio sobre Políticas para la Reducción del Uso de Plaguicidas en la zona del Trifinio: Honduras, Guatemala y El Salvador Reserva de la Biósfera Trifinio Fraternidad 41 42 El Salvador Plan Estratégico de la Región del Trifinio 2010-2020. Vice-Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (VMVDU) – FISDL: Estudios, Proyectos Y Planificación S.A. (EPYPSA) Red de Acción en Plaguicidas y sus Alternativas en América Central (RAPAC) - CATIE Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of El Salvador (MARN) National Executive Directorate of the Trifinio Plan El Salvador– Lempa River Trinational Border Association of Municipalities – German Technical Cooperation Agency (GIZ) –APTM project of the Global Environment Fund– IDB 2008 2003 2010 2011 This report has an explanation of how the Not related to any of the Territorial Development Plan for the Trifinio indicators region has been prepared, and contains: Integrated Appraisal and Reference Scenario, Proposed Territorial Model, Instruments for the Plan; Territorial Zoning and City Planning Proposals; Development Projects Bank, Project Files. This document analyzes the link between Not related to any of the extreme pesticide use and policies at the indicators level of individuals, family, trade association, financer, technical assistance and regulatory agencies; analysis of how the individuals, family, trade associations, financers, regulatory agencies and intermediaries operate in pesticide use; also analyzes use of organic agriculture. Document explains how the area comprising Not related to any of the the biosphere reserve was selected and indicators criteria used in El Salvador for designation of the territory; contains social, biophysical, and biological information, conservation information and institutional aspects. Document explains the strategic plan of the Not related to any of the Trifinio region in El Salvador; has a indicators socioeconomic and environmental assessment, physical territorial aspects, effects that climate change is having on the region, territorial scenarios of the Trifinio region, strategic plan with its respective core themes and the search for sources of financing. This plan provides genderdisaggregated population data. 110
  • 43 Estudio de Caso Documento Final – El Trifinio: Una Experiencia en Busca de Medios de Vida Sostenible Plan Trifinio: Sus Programas y Proyectos 44 45 Regional Technical Assistance Unit /World Bank – British Ministry for International Development RUTA - DFID: Corina Mejía Plan Trifinio El SalvadorGuatemala-Honduras s/a Document explains the programs and Not related to any of the projects implemented in the Trifinio region indicators and their importance for water production for the three countries. 2009 CAPACITY WORKS Resultados de los grupos de trabajo Video: Reserva de la Biosfera la Fraternidad 2004 This case study is based on the experience of Not related to any of the the Trifinio Plan and the integration process indicators undergone by the region’s inhabitants. Has socioeconomic information; process of adopting sustainable livelihoods for the region Montecristo Protected Natural Area PPT presentation explaining how the work Not related to any of the groups worked; also makes an analysis of indicators the matrix of cooperation from each of the countries of the Trifinio region; analysis of processes in the Trifinio zone. s/a Explains the formation of the biosphere, its Not related to any of the ecosystem services, biodiversity, water in indicators the zone and agroecosystems 46 47 Estado de la Región Trifinio 2010, indicadores por municipio Plan Trifinio; GIZ 2010 Document with variables and indicators by Not related to any of the municipalities with population data on men indicators and women 111
  • 48 49 50 51 Estado de la región trifinio 2010, Datos socioeconómi cos y ambientales de los municipios Diagnostico sobre las organizacione s existentes y que no forman parte de los CNI y se consideran importantes para el logro de los objetivos del programa y las actividades de los componentes Sujetos sociales identificados en el área de la cuenca Agenda de los sujetos sociales que son compatibles con los objetivos y condicionant es del programa Plan Trifinio; GIZ Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) 2011 s/a s/a s/a Document explains surface and groundwater Not related to any of the hydrology, biophysical data on the Trifinio indicators region; ecosystems, natural risks facing the population; existing ecosystems and biodiversity; human capital, constructed capital. This document makes a social analysis of the Not related to any of the different stakeholders found in the upper indicators watershed of the Lempa River, specifically in the Trifinio region, preparing a legal, political and civil society frame of reference; also analyzes scenarios of civil society participation in the implementation of the program proposed by ASODIS; has a map of the different stakeholders in the three countries. Document with the different social Not related to any of the organizations --public, private and indicators community—in the watershed, specifically in the municipalities located in the Trifinio region. There is a level of detail of all the agents found in the upper watershed of the Lempa River, Trifinio region. Document contains components of the Not related to any of the different country agendas; social, indicators environmental and economic development components of the zone; also identified the different stakeholders carrying out actions in the Trifinio region in the three countries. 112
  • 52 53 54 55 Metodología para etapas posteriores a la consulta y participación comunitaria Propuesta de organización y funcionamien to del comité nacional de involucrados Reglamento de funcionamien to Comité nacional de involucrados Propuesta de Plan de Manejo Integral de Desechos Sólidos y Vertidos Líquidos Generados en el Parque Nacional de Montecristo Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) s/a s/a Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral Sostenible (ASODIS) s/a USAID Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds Project. Manuel Antonio Escamilla Jurado; Remberto Antonio Erazo Ramos 2010 Document explains methodology for Not related to any of the community identification and prioritization indicators of needs; its implementation requires, among other things, training, information collection in the field, formulation of proposals, and drafting of the annual operating plan until its approval by the National Committee of those involved. Document on the formation of the national Not related to any of the committee of those involved, the bases of indicators that committee, membership, structures and functions of the CNI, meetings held and the type of meetings to be held. Document on the regulations that should Not related to any of the govern the CNI concerning: formation, indicators denomination, domicile, duration and responsibility, functions and objectives of the members; structure of the CNI; committee sessions; parliamentary regimen; financing of the CNI; and final dispositions Document makes an analysis of the Not related to any of the communities living with the Montecristo indicators Protected Nature Area in El Salvador, and how the area is seen; also sets out strategies, programs and projects that should be followed for management of solid waste and liquid discharges generated by inhabitants and visitors to the zone. 113
  • 56 57 58 Plan de Manejo Integrado del Área Protegida Trinacional Montecristo Plan de Manejo del Área Natural Protegida Parque Nacional de Montecristo Trifinio Plan trinational Commission - IDB USAID Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds Project. Juan Pablo Domínguez; Craig Mc Farland USAID Improved Balance Hídrico de las Management and cuencas: Ange, San José, Conservation of Critical Laguna de Metapan y Watersheds Project. Tahuilapa Manuel Antonio Escamilla Jurado; Remberto Antonio Erazo Ramos; José Roberto Duarte Saldaña 2005 2009 2009 Integrated Management Plan for the Not related to any of the Montecristo Trinational Protected Natural indicators Area. Provides a biophysical description and social, economic and cultural analysis, problems and their causes, management considerations, proposed management programs and implementation strategies for the plan. Management Plan of the Montecristo Not related to any of the National Park in El Salvador: biophysical indicators description; social, cultural and economic description of the park’s area of influence; legal analysis; sets out programs and projects that should be executed to manage the park over a 5-year period. This document makes a biophysical and social analysis of the intervened watershed, along with an inventory of all water sources used for irrigation, human consumption and industry in the area and forecasts on the state of the water resources in 10, 25 and 50 years. This report relates to indicator 2.6, which mentions water sources used and water used by the different ecosystems. This document covers the zone of the Metapán municipality and related to the Metapán-Ostua aquifer 114
  • 59 60 61 Proyecto RLA 8 /038 Desarrollo Sostenible de los recursos ambientales e hídricos en la cuenca Alta del Rio Lempa Proyecto RLA 8 /038 Desarrollo Sostenible de los recursos ambientales e hídricos en la cuenca Alta del CURSO TEÓRICO PRÁCTICO Interacción Agua Subterránea con otras componentes del Ambiente International Atomic Energy Agency Trinational Commission of the Trifinio Plan: INSIVUMEH, ENEE, SNET-MARN, ANDA, CEL, UES, MAG International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission: INSIVUMEH; ENEE; SNET-MARN, ANDA, CEL, UES, MAG Carrillo Rivera, J 2009 2009 2008 The document has general information Not related to any of the about the project “Sustainable Development indicators of Environmental and Water Resources in the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River”: general objectives, location of projects, participants, etc.; general biophysical information on the project area; characterization of hydrogeological units in the area of the Trifinio region, characterization of hydrogeological units and aquifers, discussion of results from information collected in the field, conceptual hydrogeological model of the Trifinio region of the upper watershed of the Lempa River. Climatological information for the different Not related to any of the seasons found in the Trifinio region, data on indicators geological information, stratigraphic data on soils, hydrological data, geophysical data of the different seasons, hydrochemistry of water in the different seasons, evaluation of water quality in ANEXOS seasons and Rio Lempa: different different uses Presentation at a workshop held in Not related to any of the Mexico on groundwater interaction with indicators components of the environment. The content of this document focuses on water’s importance in our lives, quantity on the planet, water use and extraction in Mexico, types of aquifers and over-exploited aquifers in Mexico. 115
  • 62 63 64 65 Análisis de los resultados del Proyecto Rla/8/038 y Prospectivas y definición de las tareas en el proyecto RLA/8/045 Análisis geoquímico RLA 8038 Consultoría: Apoyo a los Procesos para la Creación y Puesta en Marcha de un Plan de Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos en la región Trifinio – Área el Salvador Descripción Hidrogeoquí mica de los Acuíferos Cusmapa, CandelariaGuajoyo, Angue, Metapán y Tahuilapa, y los Acuíferos Colgados de Cuyuiscat y Nunuapa International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission s/a International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission PROJECT RLA-8038 s/a 2010 2009 Presentation with the goals to be achieved Not related to any of the from implementation of the project in the indicators upper watershed of the Lempa River, assessment of climatological elements of the Trifinio region, data from soundings of the geochemistry of groundwater, analysis of data on geochemistry of water in the Trifinio region and conclusions of the work carried out. Document with different types of analysis Not related to any of the conducted at points selected by IAEA indicators RLA8038: geochemical analyses of surface and groundwater in the Trifinio region This document contains a description of the Not related to any of the activities carried out, in particular: support indicators to processes for integrated management of water resources in the Trifinio region, follow-up on IAEA project RLA-8045, support to the Forests and Water Project; miscellaneous activities and products This report has a hydrogeochemical analysis Not related to any of the of some aquifers in the Trifinio zone, indicators explains general aspects of the report, location of sampling points, sampling method, sampling results, interpretation of results, used in each of the aquifers. 116
  • 66 67 68 69 Análisis físico- químico SAGRISA Plan de manejo del Lago de GÜIJA Con énfasis en la Pesca PREPAC; MAG, OIRSA, y la Acuicultura Government of TaiwanMAG-PAES-CATIE. Caracterizaci ón hidrogeoquí mica de las aguas de la región Trifinio Estratigrafía de la región Trifinio International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission PROYECTO RLA-8038 International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission PROYECTO RLA-8038 2007 s/a 2006 Report on groundwater analysis, well Not related to any of the y tests; o, del El Poy-Cítala pumping bacteriológic capacity;agua del pozo indicators well capacity in successive stages; constant flows of the well, ANDA report; electric recording of wells; wellwater analyses; report on well drilling; attachments Presentation explaining the Lake Guija Not related to any of the Management Plan with a biophysical indicators description of the lake; physical; biological– fishery; environmental and socioeconomic. Analysis of water in lake tributaries; identifies problems according to different areas; explains functioning of the entity responsible for the lake’s protection; explains which laws apply to lake protection; and planning on how to improve the state of the lake. Document provides a geochemical Not related to any of the characterization of different sampling points indicators of water found in the Trifinio region Document with a stratigraphic description of Not related to any of the the areas forming the Trifinio region in each indicators of the countries 2009 117
  • 70 71 Informe Hidroquímico de las nternational Atomic Energy Agency Aguas Superficiales Trifinio Plan Trinational y Subterráneas de la cuenca Alta del Río Commission PROYECTO Lempa RLA-8038 Investigación Hidrogeológica a Isótopos Ambientales Caracterizaci ón: 72 73 Evaluación de Impactos del Programa Trinacional de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Cuenca Alta del Rio Lempa. International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission Project RLA8038 International Atomic Energy Agency Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission Project RLA-8038 2005 s/a 2008 Trifinio Plan Trinational Commission Final Report 2011 Document provides a geochemical Not related to any of the description of surface and groundwater in indicators the Trifinio region; explains the analytical procedures used and makes an analysis of findings. Document gives a hydrogeological description of rainwater using isotopes utilizando Not related to any of the indicators Presentation Química Físico- on physical-chemical and de las related Aguas Superficiales de la Cuenca Alta d e Isotópica Not to any of the isotopic characterization of surface water in indicators the upper watershed of the Lempa River and groundwater of the alluvial valley of Ocotepeque; explains sampling extractions and the location of rivers; makes an analysis of findings at different sampling points in the Trifinio area. This document mentions the monitoring and Not related to any of the evaluation system of the Trinational indicators Program on Sustainable Development of the Upper Watershed of the Lempa River. All of the information is made on the basis of the different components being implemented in the Trifinio zone. 118
  • ATTACHMENT 3. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in the Esquipulas Valley 119
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  • ATTACHMENT 4. Lithological Profile of a Well Located in La Palma, El Salvador 122