THE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
Pretashkent Transboundary Aquifer
Report under the Contract №: 4500195723
1. Pretashkent transboundary aquifer
Pretashkent transboundary aquifer represents the artesian basin, the structure
of which includes several aquifers and complexes separating their by aquitards.
From the South of the basin border there are Koytash mountains and the range of
Nuratau mountains, from the East there are Ugam ranges and Karzhentau
mountains, from the North there are Pretashkent Chuli. On the west the border is
identified conditionally along the water course of the Syrdarya river.
The region has severely continental climate with hot, long and dry summer
period; the winter is short with often thaw periods. The length of the period with
above-zero temperature is more than 9 months per year. Average annual
atmospheric temperature is about 11.5°C. Average annual atmospheric temperature
in January – 9.9°C (temperature absolute minimum -37°C), and of the most hot
July is +28.9°C (absolute maximum temperature +45°C).
At the valleys atmospheric precipitation amount is about 328 mm per year
(Darbaza meteorological observing station), in a submountain region of the Ugam
range – 470 mm per year (Turbat meteorological observing station), in mountains up to 1000 mm per year.
The surface of Pretashkent artesian basin within the territory of the Republic
of Kazakhstan is represented by plain of lateral planation of hilly terrain or plain
with the absolute marks at 350-500 m with the fill-in-fill terraces of rivers Keles,
Kuruk-Keles and their feeders. In whole, the surface is inclined in the South-West
direction to the Syrdarya river.
High-mountain ranges (up to 4482 m) Ugam and Karzhantau encasing the
Pretashkent artesian basin from the East within 120 km. South-west side of the
mountain range faced to the direction of Pretashkent basin are represented with
low gradient slopes. These ranges are of river-cut type valleys oriented
transversely to the ranges spread with the depth of incision up to 300 m.
The system of Pretashkent Chuli is of poorly broken relief type elevated
above the whole other territory up to 500 and 875 m of absolute, limiting the
Pretahskent basin from the North and can be traced from the Syrdarya river to the
The Syrdarya river valley elevational points of 170 – 250 meters above the
sea level are distinctive by very flat slope in the direction of Aral sea. At the left
bank area of the Syrdarya river there is a sandy desert Kyzylkum. The primary
forms of sandy relief are the ridges and knobs.
The main artery of the basin where all other rivers disembogues themselves
into within the area of the artesian basin is the Syrdarya river. The Syrdarya traces
its roots in the Fergana valley where the confluence of Naryn and Karadarya rivers
takes place. The rivers nourishment is of snow and ice type. The high water period
starts in the middle of March and ends in August when the period of deglaciation
finishes. The river flow is controlled by the water reservoirs. Within the area of
Pretashkent basin it is controlled by the Shardara water reservoir. The average
longstanding discharge of river for the lower tail bay of the reservoir is about 514
m3/s. Maximum monthly average discharge of river is observed from May to July
equal to 1400-1800 m3/s. The lowest – in September-November – 50-56 m3/s.
The mineralization and chemical content of the river water within a year are
not of constant nature. In a flooded condition the water is of hydrocarbonate and
sodium-calcium type with the grade of mineralization up to 0.5 g/l. The water turns
into sulphate calcareous and nitric type of water during the autumn and winter
period of low-water season with the level of mineralization 0.9-1.3 g/l.
The other rivers within the area of artesian basin are represented by feeders
of the Syrdarya river from the right side.
Keles river originates from the range of Ugam mountains. Its flow forms for
account of atmospheric precipitations and melting of snow. The flood occurs in
March-June with the amount of river flow up to 168 m³/s. Low stream flow in
July-October hardly reaches the value of 0,1 m³/s.
The mineralization level during the flood flow is within the limits of 0.3-0.5
g/l and it increases during the low water period up to 0.8-1.4 g/l.
The Kuruk Keles river originates in Pretaskent Chuli for the account of
discharged ground water with saline taste. During the spring period there is formed
the torrential flood in connection with the snow melting, and within the other
periods the water discharge amount doesn't exceed the value of 30 l/s. The river
runs dry in summer periods of respective years. The level of river water
mineralization during the low-water season comes up to 4.5-5.0 g/l.
As regards to the geological and structural matters the Pretashkent artesian
aquifer is confined to basin of mesozoic-kainozoic age with the depth of down to
Palaeozoic basal complex of 2000 meters. The Pretashkent basin enters into huge
Syrdarya tectonic depression which forms the South-East part of spacious Turan
From inside the platform has such structures of low range evolved as:
Pretashkent basin, Keles depression and elevation of Pretashkent Chuli.
There are two structural floors distinctly evolved in the construction of the
basin: the lower one is Palaeozoic, and the upper one is mesozoic-kainozoic.
Intrusive and effusive palaeozoic rocks of the basement considerably
dislocated and broken by the differently directed dislocations with a break of
Mesozoic-kainozoic sedimentary cover is composed of Cretaceous,
paleogenous, neogene and quaternary deposits.
On a stratigraphical basis there are distinguished such sediments as the
Neocomian age, the Aptian Age, the Albian-Cenomanian age, the lower and upper
Turonian age, Cenonian Epoch. They have been formed under the continental
conditions. Only the precipitations of the lower Turonian age and Cenonian age are
represented by the marine continental facies, and the Neocomian age is represented
by the lagoon facies.
The Paleogene Period sediments within the whole concerned territory are of
marine genesis. They are of green color and predominantly loamy. In the bottom
layer and in the central portion there are layers of dolomites, chalky clays,
limestones and sandstones. Aggregate thickness of the sediments is about 500
The upper part of the platform sedimentary cover is construed of red color
and grey color sediments of the Miocene (clays of thickness up to 300 meters) and
the Pliocene (sands of the thickness up to 150 meters).
The complex of alluvial upper-quarternary and contemporary sediments are
represented by sands, loamy light sands and argillo-arenaceous grounds. The
thickness of the sediments is up to 100 meters.
The hydrogeological section of the Pretashkent artesian basin is composed
of the following hydrogeological subdivisions (figure 1-2):
Aquiferous Quartenary alluvial complex (aQ)
Locally aquiferrous Plocen-Quartenary terrigenous complex (N2-Q)
Aquiferous Upper Turonian-Senonian terrigenous complex (K2t2-sn)
Aquiferrous Albian-Cenomanian terrigenous complex (K1--2al-s)
Fractured aquifier of volcanic rocks of Paleozoic (PZ)
Regional aquitard locally aquiferous Paleocene-Miocene terrigenousmarine complex (P1-N1)
Local Lower-Turonian marine aquitard (K2t1)
Aquiferous Quartenary alluvial complex (aQ) is spread in the high-water
beds and terraces of the rivers. It is represented by gravelly shingle beds, sands
with rare intercalations and lenses of clay loams and loamy light sands. The
thickness of the complex is from 0,5 to 45 m. The waters are of gravity-feed type.
Their levels are embedded at the depths of 0.5-7.6 meters.
The complex abundance of water level is characterized by the flow rate of a
well up to 4.6-9.8 l/s when the surface level is depressed up to 2.8-3.6 m and 32.666.6 l/s when the level is depressed down to 4.25-8.9 m. The hydraulic
conductivity of the sands is about 27-37 meters per day and 39.4-139.0 meters per
day for the gravel. Conductivity of the levels is up to 1x103 - 5x103, water yield is
about 0.18-0.23. The water-transmissivity of the complex is within the limits of
203-1585 m2 per day.
The runoff of the complex ground waters is predominantly directed along
the water flow. The complex feeding is performed by the atmospheric
precipitations and by the river overflow waters.
The mineralization and chemical content of ground waters most commonly
determined by hydrochemistry of superficial waters. The waters are mostly freesalined with the level of mineralization about 0.2-0.6 g/l or light-salted up to 1.5
There are 5 groundwater reservoirs developed within the bounds of the
present aquifer in the territory of Kazakhstan which demonstrate general
exploitable resources up to 119.8 thousand m³ per day.
Aquiferous Upper Turonian-Senonian terrigenous complex (K2t2-sn) area
extent is within the major part of the basin under the Paleocene-Miocene watertight stratum. The complex comes out to the day in the submontane area and within
the Pretashkent chilies. The complex is composed by the consertal sands,
sandstones, gravels divided by the clay layers. The lower Turon impermeable
aquifer underlies the complex. The complex thickness is up to 500 meters, the
thickness of the aquiferrous layers doesn't exceed 200 meters. Their hydraulic
conductivity is up to 5 m per day, the water-transmissivity is up to 100 m² per day.
The ground waters are of pressure water type. The pressure surfaces are usually set
above the ground level. The well rate doesn't exceed 17-20 l/s. the waters are
slightly saltish of up to 3 g/l, but within the proximity of the feeding area they are
of free saline type. Used within the unexplored areas.
Aquiferrous Albian-Cenomanian terrigenous complex (K1--2al-s) extents
within the territory of the basin to the North from the South border of the Shardar
water-storage reservoir under the lower Turon loamy regional water-tight stratum.
The complex has the underlay of aquiferrous area of fracture porosity of Paleozoic
igneous rock. The complex comes out to the day in the pudmontane area and in the
area of Pretashkent chilies.
The complex is represented by interbeddings of sands and sandstones with
the loams and aleurolites. It is embedded from several meters deep within the area
of feeding and down to 1700-1800 m in the central area. The total thickness of the
complex is up to 320 meters, and the net thickness value equals to 80-10 meters.
The hydraulic conductivity is up to 1 meter per day, and the water-transmissivity is
up to 100 m2 per day.
The groudwaters are of high pressure type, and the potentiometric surface is
usually set significantly above the ground surface. In total the potentiometric
surface of the complex is embedded 50-300 meters above the potentiometric
surface of the Upper Turonian-Senonian terrigenous complex. Well production
rates are about 9-16 l/s. The non saline type of waters prevails. The waters with the
mineralization of up to 1.5 g/l are spread to a lesser extent. Depending on the depth
of complex testing he water temperature at the outflow point is about 25-74 °C.
Formation of the ground waters of the aquiferrous Albian-Cenoman
terrigenous complex occurs by means of infiltration of atmospheric precipitations
in the piedmount areas and mountain range areas of Ugam and Karazhantau and
also in Pretashkent Chilies at the points of outflow to the surface of the complex
rocks. The area of groundwaters formation is located within the borders of the
territory of Kazakhstan.
Within the territory of the basin there was explored the Saryagash reservoir
of thermomineral groundwaters. Mineral groundwaters were disclosed within the
territory of Saryagash health-resort at the depth of 867-1057 meters, in the area of
Saryagash – 1264-1440 meters. Represented by sandstones and sands.1
The net thickness of the complex is from 70 to 118 meters. Abundance of
water within the rocks is of high value, the wells well production rates are within
5-20 l/s when the water level decreases down to 80-205 meters. The thermomineral waters are of high pressure nature, the potentiometric surface are placed at
the level of 82-227 m above the ground surface level. Within the area of the
reservoir the thickness of the aquiferrous complex is about 90 meters and the
water-transmissivity is about 20-50 m2 per day, the piezoconductivity is about
3x106 m2 per day. The assessment of recourses for the period of 25 years of
depreciation was performed by means of the simulation approach.
The exploitable resources of the mineral groundwaters of Saryagash
reservoir were established in 1983 equaling 1.904 thousand m3 per day within the
territory of Kazakhstan and 2 044 thousand m3 per day within the territory of
Fractured aquifer of volcanic rocks of Paleozoic (PZ) within the territory
of the submerged part of the basin is not studied. In the mountain framework of the
basin the thickness of the aquiferrous area reaches the value of up to 50 meters and
contains non saline ground waters. The area feeding occurs for an account of the
infiltration of the atmospheric precipitations when almost whole amount of
subsurface water flow pinches out into the rivers and just partly feeds the
cretaceous aquiferrous complexes.
Locally aquiferrous Plocen-Quartenary terrigenous complex (N2-Q)
extents within the whole area of the Pretashkent territory. The complex is
constructed of alluvial and proluvial gravels, sands, gravels among the loamy
clays, sand clay and clays, lymnetic fine-grained sands and clays. The total
thickness of the complex in the area of the basin reaches 800 meters, and the net
aquiferrous thickness is about 250 meters.
The complex underlay is represented by impermeable locally aquiferrous
Paleocene and Miocene terrigenous marine complex (P1-N1).
The hydraulic conductivity of the gravels reaches the value of 100 meters
per day. The water-transmissivity value of the complex within the area of the basin
is about 1000-3000 m2 per day.
The direction of the complex ground waters flow is from the Karazhantau
mountains to the West and to the South-west in direction of the Syrdarya river. The
complex is fed by for the account of infiltration of atmospheric precipitations and
filtration of river waters within the piedmont areas. The complex waters are partly
During the exploration and assessment of the groundwater recourses of the Saryagash
groundwater reservoir within the sections of the complex there were marked such aquifers, as the
Cenoman (K2s) and Albian (K1al) terrigenous aquifers, separated by terrigenous Cenomanian
unloaded into the Pretashkent Chulies in the form of springs with the slightly
In the piedmont area the non saline type of waters prevail. The water
mineralization content increases up to 1-3 g/l and within the specific areas up to 57 g/l in North and North-West directions.
Regional aquitard locally aquiferous Paleocene-Miocene terrigenousmarine complex (P1-N1), separates the Cainozoic hydrogeological subdivisions
from the Mesozoic. The water-tight stratum is composed of greenish marine clays
of Paleocene and of the Eocene and also of variegated terrigene loamy formations
of the Oligocene and the Miocene. The clays are of montmorillonite carbonate-free
compact and viscous plastic type. Only in the piedmonts areas they are substituted
with beidellite and hydromicaceous types. The complex thickness reaches 500
meters and more.
In the section cut of the water tight stratum within the bounds of the basin
and particularly in its piedmont part at the depth of 96-236 meters there may occur
the interbeds of semi-consolidated sandstones, conglomerates, fine grane sands of
total thickness up to 56 meters, which may contain high pressurized ground waters.
The potentiometric surfaces are set above the ground surface level. The well
production rate when self spoutingis about 3.8-6.0 l/s, and when pumping 9.3 l/s
(water level decrease – 37.1 meters).
Local Lower-Turonian marine aquitard (K2t1) extents over the most part of
the basin. The water tight stratum composed of e greenish-grey clays and
aleurolites with the sand bands and sandstones. Its thickness eaches the value of
100 meters. The water tight stratum divides the Aquiferous Upper TuronianSenonian terrigenous complex (K2t2-sn) from the Aquiferrous Albian-Cenomanian
terrigenous complex (K1-2al-s). The water tight stratum distinct clearly in the
electric logging diagrams by the low values of apparent resistivity from 5-7 to 8-12
Forecasted resources of the Aquiferrous Albian-Cenomanian terrigenous
complex (K1-2al-s) for the area of 9600 km2 with the average weighted module of
the forecasted resources for the Syrdarya artesian basin of 0.64 l/s km2 measured as
6.1 m3/day or 530.84 thousand m3 per day. The module of the forecasted resources
will decrease down to 0.222 l/s km2 taking into account the actual hydrogeological
characteristics of the aquiferrous complex within the borders of the Pretashkent
artesian aquifer and their total amount for the whole Pretashkent aquifer with the
surface area of 9600 km2 will be equal to 184.1 thousand m3 per day.
2. General functions of the groundwater resources of the Pretashkent
The Aquiferrous Albian-Cenomanian terrigenous complex (K1-2al-s) of the
Pretashkent artesian aquifer in accordance with the contractual conditions are used
in balneology for bottles filling and for domestic, household and practical needs.
3 The methods of the ground water resources assessment of Pretashkent
The assessment of ground water resources of Pretashkent transboundary
aquifer as the Saryagash reservoir of thermomineral ground waters was performed
in the year 1982.
To the 1982 the cone of depression reached the sizes of 1256 km2. However
up to this time from the day of the reservoir place development (1955) the quality
of water, its temperature and all other balneologic characteristics hasn't been
changed. Ground waters in all wells are of sodium bicarbonate I type of water
(soda type) with the value of mineralization from 0.56-0.70 g/l (Saryagash –
Kazakhstan) up to 0.59-1.10 g/l (Tashkent city – Uzbekistan).
The recalculation of the exploitable resources was performed for such areas
as Saryagash (Kazakhstan); Central, North-East and West area of Tashkent city
The aimed purpose of the ground waters reservoir – for the needs of
balneology and for alimentarius purposes.
There were implemented two methods of assessing of the exploitable
1. Hydrodynamic calculation of interacting wells.
2. Analog mathematical modeling.
The exploitable resources of the reservoir were established in 1983 in
amount of 1.904 thousand m3 per day (22.04 l/s) in the territory of Kazakhstan and
2.044 thousand m3 per day (23.66 l/s) – within the territory of the Uzbekistan, in
total 3.948 thousand m3 per day (45.7 l/s).
Forecasted resources of the groundwaters were defined on the basis of
potential possibility of their extraction by means of intakes within the period of 25
years reaching the decrease of the potentiometric surface of the aquiferrous
complex at the level of 200 meters below the ground surface. Inasmuch as the
aquifer is embedded significantly below the level of 200 meters the potential useful
groundwater resources generated only for the account of the flexible capacitative
reserve drawdown. Taking into account the great excessive pressure above the
ground surface the decrease of potentiometric surface when performing the
calculation of predicted resources were accepted as 350 meters.
The module of groundwaters predicted resources (l/s*km²) without notice of
the dynamic groundwater resources (possible part of feeding of groundwaters
within the exploitable resources) was defined in accordance with the following
10 3 10 6 S *
1.27 S *
25 31.5 10 6
S – the value of decrease of the potentiometric surface down to the depth of
200 meters below the ground surface level, m;
μ* - flexible water yield value of the aquiferrous complex.
With the μ*=5*10-4, S=350 m, MGWPR = 0,222 l/s*km². The potential
exploitable resources of the groundwaters of the complex of area 9600 km2 equal
to 2,131 m3/s or 184,1 thousand m3 per day.
According to the abovementioned assessment values the exploitable
resources come up to 2% of the predicted resources.
4 The legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in relation to the water
The state water resources management in the Republic of Kazakhstan is
performed in accordance with the Water Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of
July 09, 2003 No.481-II revised and expanded and the Law of the Republic of
Kazakhstan as of June 26, 2010 No. 291-IV "On subsurface and subsurface use".
In accordance with the article 10 item 4 of the Water Code the relations
occurring in the area of geological examination, development and complex
development of the underground resources, protection of the ground waters and
underground facilities from the detrimental affect of the waters, subject to the
regulations of the appropriate legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the area
of underground resources and mineral resources management, industrial safety in
exception of the items 3 and 4 of the article 66 of the Water Code.
The groundwaters represent the constituent element (component) of the state
underground resources fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The management
procedures of the state underground resources fund as the subject of state property
is performed by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
State management procedures in the area of utilization and protection of the
underground resources is performed by the authorized body – Committee of
geology and subsoil use of the Ministry of industry and new technologies of the
Republic of Kazakhstan. The Committee has interregional territorial bodies: state
institutions of East-Kazakhstan, West-Kazakhstan, North-Kazakhstan, CentralKazakhstan, South-Kazakhstan intraregional territorial departments of geology and
subsurface resources management.
Chairman Committee of geology and subsoil use
Nurabayev Bazarbay Kanayevich
8 (7172) 74-29-04
The head of administration of geology and engineering geology under
Committee of geology and subsoil use
Ashimov Serik Klyshbekovich
Phone number +7 717 2 74 34 59
the legal address of Committee of geology and subsoil use of Ministry of
industry and new technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan is as follows:
0100000 Astana city, Esil district, Orynbor street, 8, building "House of
The right of subsurface resources management according to the article 28 of
the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On the underground resources and
subsurface resources management" (as of June 24, 2010; No.291-IV) provided for
performance of the following types of activities:
State geological examination of the subsurface resources,
Exploration and production in combination,
Construction and (or) utilization of the underground facilities no
connected to the exploration and production.
In accordance with the Water Code the Committee of Water Resources
under the Ministry of the environment protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan
represents an authorized body in area of utilization and protection of the water fund
The Committee of Water Resources performs complex administration of
superficial water resources of the hydrogeographic basin on the basis of watershed
management principle etc., including the issue, suspension of validity of a licence
or permission for the operations of special subsurface resources management,
defines the limits for subsurface water utilization etc. the competence of the
Committee of Water Resources in relation to the subsurface waters management
spreads to water utilization in amount of 50 – 2000 m³ per day (article 66, item 3
The administration of groundwater resources of transboundary aquifer is
performed by the subdivision of the Committee of geology and subsoil use of
Ministry of industry and new technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan –
Governmental institution South Kazakhstan intraregional territorial department of
the Committee of geology and subsoil use.
5 The legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in a part of water
The water resources management is regulated by the Water Code of the
Republic of Kazakhstan as of July 29, 2003; No.481-II as revised and expanded
and in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of June 24, 2010,
No.291-IV "On subsurface and subsurface use".
According to the article 64 of the Water Code the subsurface water
management is divided into general, special, self-standing, combined, initial,
secondary, permanent and temporary.
The Article 66 of the Water Code determines the definition for special form
of the water management and limits of rights for special subsurface water
Special water management – represents such type of water management
which includes utilization the surface and ground water resources directly from the
water body by means of extraction or without the one and using the facilities or
technical means for satisfaction of potable and domestic needs of the public, needs
of agricultural industry sector, industrial needs, needs of energy sector, fishbreeding and transport management sectors including such issues as need of
discharge of industrial, economical and domestic, drainage and other types of
water wastes into the surface water bodies.
Basin authority of the Committee of Water Resources of the Republic of
Kazakhstan performs the issue of licenses or authorizations for special water
The Code implies the limitations on utilization of the ground waters with
obligatory concluding of a contract on ground waters management. The utilization
of domestic and potable waters or industrials and technical ground waters from the
part of the underground resources with the limits of extraction established from 50
(0.6 l/s) up to 2000 m³ per day (23.15 l/s) will be performed on the basis of the
authorization issued by the Committee of Water Resources in the order established
by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The utilization of resources
from the part of mineral water resources to which the ground waters of Pretashkent
aquifer are referred shall be performed on the basis of the provided right for
subsurface resources management by means of drawing up of a contract irrelative
of the limits of extraction.
In accordance with the Code the water management operations may be
implemented without the obligatory official preparation of license or authorization
when using dug-out wells, wellpoint system, filter well up to 20 meters deep,
water-catchment plants, operating without forced level lowering when extracting
water amounts in any case no more than 50 m3 per day from the first aquifer from
the ground surface not utilized for the purposes of centralized water supply.
In accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On subsurface
and subsurface use" the production of subsurface waters shall be implemented on
the basis of the provided right for subsurface water management. The right to
perform subsurface resources management operations, production, cooperative
exploration may be provided by means of concluding of the contract the procedure
of concluding of which is determined by the Government of the Republic of
Kazakhstan. The conditions and stipulations of the contract are defined on the basis
of the mutual consent of the parties and shall be in strict compliance with the
legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The obligatory application to the Contract is the Working schedule which
shall be approved by the Committee of geology and subsoil use.
The subsurface resources user is entitled to perform any operations in
relation to underground resources management within the contractual territory
provided to him in accordance with the conditions specified in the contract.
The production of water from the transboundary Aquiferrous AlbianCenomanian terrigenous complex (K1-2al-s) within the territory of the Republic of
Kazakhstan in accordance with the Law "On subsurface and subsurface use" shall
be performed in accordance with the contracts.
6 Contemporary status of the interstate cooperation and control over
the ground water resources of the Pretashkent transboundary aquifer
In spite of the centralized management of the water resources policy the
issue of water apportioning related to the ground water resources of Aquiferous
transboundary Albian-Cenoman complex of Pretashkent artesian basin between
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan first occurred in 1970s during the former USSR. The
possibility of extraction of subsurface waters Aquiferous transboundary AlbianCenoman complex of Pretashkent artesian basin without the damage to its
resources under the conditions of enormous value of water shortage within the
same region was assessed during the exploration and reevaluation of exploitable
resources of the Saryagash reservoir of mineral waters. In 1970-1980s the State
Reserves Committee of the USSR has established the exploitable resources of the
reservoir (protocol No.9179 as of February 18, 1983) in amount of 1.904 thousand
m3 per day within the territory of Kazakhstan and 2.044 thousand m3 per day
within the territory of the Uzbekistan.
Before 1991 such allocation and limitation of water use was managed by the
water basin authorities of the USSR. After the country has obtained the
independence the super-government ended but there are no anymore intrastate
agreements on utilization and control over the amounts and quality of the
groundwaters of Aquiferous transboundary Albian-Cenomanian complex of
Pretashkent artesian basin.