George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 5
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George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 5

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Seminar on Branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods ...

Seminar on Branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods
Tartu University, Estonia 13-14 May 2014
George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD
//disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com
http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos

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George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 5 George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 5 Document Transcript

  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Danesi’s Brand Semiotics: The poetic logic • A brand is a logical construct, a name evoking an unconscious system of thought • The logical reasoning used is hardly ‘rational’ ; it is based on the poetic sense built into words • Brands are essentially metaphors (Vico), they are part of a ‘social logic’ as unconscious system of reasoning and inference that is tied to the rhetorical value of brand names. • Poetic logic is evidence that we use our imagination in tandem with our senses to understand the world • BRANDS ARE FIRST AND FOREMOST IMAGINARY CONSTRUCTS, YET OF PRACTICAL RELEVANCE AND CARRYING VALUES THAT MAY BE LOGICALLY ARTICULATED • It is no wonder that brand names have become metonymically sign-posts for entire product categories • Anyone got any post-its? ---- Do you have small pieces of paper for note-taking? • Google it --- Look for information about topic X by using a web-based search–engine • To hoover --- To clean carpets • Pass me a Kleenex ------ Give me a tissue • •
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Danesi’s Brand Semiotics: The connotative index • Brands may be viewed as signification systems, that is culture-specific meanings and attendant mental constructs that are evoked by a brand. • Brands as signs enter into relations with other signs in a culture and gain their ‘value’ from them. • The connotative index: The higher the number of connotations a brand generates, the greater its psychological force • Also see Keller’s richness of brand associations BUT • RISK OF DILUTING BRAND DNA AND CORE BRAND PROMISE Danesi’s Brand Semiotics: Brands as texts • Text: A ‘putting together’ of signifying elements (words, sounds, images, etc.) to produce a meaningful message . • The form brands are given in advertising campaigns is called their textuality • 4 levels of textuality: • Surface text: It identifies a product and presents a situation or image, while unfolding as an action sequence. • Subtext: The generation of sensations through synesthetic effects that are produced from the interaction between two or more signs(e.g., an ice-cube rubbing a neck) • Intertext: Connotations that emerge from signs that are employed in ads by virtue of their intertextual embeddedness (e.g., familiar representations that carry conventionalized meaning due to their recurrent portrayal in films) • Metatext : The creation of different kinds of texts for each medium which results in an overall text or ‘metatext’ • Note: This notion also surfaces in the relevant literature as transmedia storytelling
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Floch’s Marketing Semiotics • Floch pioneered in the application of Greimasian structuralist semiotics in marketing theory and research • His main work Marketing Semiotics (2001) that exemplifies his approach which is complemented by Visual Identities (2000), even though not furnishing a coherent branding theory, is interspersed with insightful conceptual and methodological remarks borne out of his active involvement in applied marketing semiotic research. Floch’s approaches to branding research • Expanded Greimasian semiotics to the visual territory (logos, ad signs) • Applied Greimasian structuralist semiotics to services (banking, metro), retail (Carrefour), fmcg’s (pharmaceuticals), durables (Citroen) • Adapted the semiotic square’s binarist rationale to both depth and surface structure readings • Multimodal reading grids of packaging and advertising elements (effets de sens) • Universal axiological mapping by projection on the veridictory square
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Criticism of Floch’s adaptation of the structuralist depth grammatical binarist rationale to visual surface discursive structures • Floch, by analyzing mostly print ads in the pharmaceutical category of psychotropic medication found that “this discourse had not been put together in a haphazard way, but according to a very specific encoding, the awareness of which enabled us to avoid taking for granted the incorporation of such details as the stable nature of a line, the dissymmetry of a form, the graphics of a design or the contrast of two values” (Floch 2001). • By drawing on recurrent stylistic patterns Floch identified twelve distinctive visual categories in psychotropic drug advertising, such as “clear vs dark”, “shaded vs contrasting” • However, binarist pairs in the visual sign are not as clear-cut, as Sonesson argues. • “Oppositions may be in absentia, or true oppositions, or in praesentia, or contrasts. Thus, in pictures there is no obvious equivalent to the system of (constitutive) oppositions present in the phonological and semantic organisation of verbal language” • Over-reliance on the binarist model • As against Rastier’s criticisms of the binarist semiotic square (developed in collaboration with Greimas) • By implication, not taking into account advances in structuralist semiotics in the connectionist territory Floch’s Marketing Semiotics • According to Floch (2001), the first principle is that “the thrust of semiotics is the description of conditions pertaining to the production and apprehension of meaning” • The second principle (the so-called immanence principle) is that “semioticians look closely at the system of relations formed by the invariants of these productions and apprehensions of meaning by analyzing specific components known as signs” (Floch 2001). • “Semiotics seeks to work from texts, to work on and in that very place where signs signify” (Floch 2001) • According to Floch, textual semiotics lies at the heart of marketing research
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Floch’s adaptation (?) of Greimas’s generative trajectory of signification • Based on the generative trajectory of signification a brand acquires meaning by passing through different levels or structures, viz., depth, semio-narrative and discursive structures. • “Semio-narrative structures consist of the entire set of virtualities the enunciating subject has at its disposal; it is that supply of values and programmes of action from which he or she can draw in order to tell his or her story or speak of any given topic” (Floch 2001). • Discursive structures “correspond to the selection and ordering of these virtualities. They relate to the choice of a specific referential universe” (Floch 2001). • Despite positing the generative trajectory as generic marketing semiotic blueprint, Floch progressively distanced himself from the generativist rationale of the trajectory in favor of surface structural reading grids, while viewing depth structures as effets de sens (effects of meaning) of verbo-visual surface structures. •Piecemeal adaptation of Greimas’s generative trajectory of signification; wavering between early and mid-period Greimasian theory. Limitations in Floch’s structuralist semiotic approach • Adaptation of Greimas’s (Propp’s) semio-narrative typologies and modalities without taking into account the particularities of branding discourse as genre • Significant differences from the literary genre, which was the primary field of application of Greimasian semiotics • Extrapolation of universal value territories from a specific brand/category perspective (CRF/retail) • Not taking into account competition in most of the analyses
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Floch’s Marketing Semiotics: CNS • Floch imports directly in his applied marketing semiotic analyses Greimas’s canonical narrative schema • The canonical narrative schema constitutes an a priori model for the organization of a narrative’s structure into four phases, • contract, competence, performance, sanction •The four phases of the canonical narrative schema are intertwined in a relationship of logical presupposition and accompanied by four requisite modalities (see Greimas and Courtés 1979). • In order to accomplish a performance, an actant must be equipped with the deontic modality (i.e., having-to-do [devoir-faire]), but also with wanting-to-do [vouloir-faire] and being capable-of-doing [pouvoir]; in order to be capable of doing one must possess the epistemic modality (i.e., knowing-how-to-do [savoir-faire]) •The completion of a narrative action is deemed successful if it leads to sanction, whereby a receiver (destinataire) recognizes the message of a sender (destinateur) as truthful/veridictory. The original conception of CNS
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Criticisms of Floch’s adaptation of the CNS in the analysis of advertising discourse from a brand generativist POV • Brand discourse varies markedly from literary discourse in terms of motivation and intentionality behind the text’s manifest structure, as well as in terms of discursive style. • The invariant functions and characters that were discovered by Propp and adopted by Greimas may not be uncritically assumed as deductive principles for the semio-narrative reconstruction of an ad film. • This is further complicated by the incidence in the ad film not only of verbal, but also of visual (and sonic) modalities • The point of the non-universally relevant functions offered by Propp has also been stressed by Rastier (2005c): “l’inventaire des fonctions doit s’adapter aux discours (juridique, politique, etc.) et même aux genres”. •Not taking into account the motivated structure of an ad filmic text has repercussions alongside the generative trajectory’s strata. Criticisms of Floch’s adaptation of the CNS in the analysis of advertising discourse from a brand generativist POV • From a brand equity point of view that is concerned primarily with differential brand associations, the CNS is not sufficient in accounting for how associations may be projected in a differential fashion. •In order to account for the way whereby a narrative schema in the context of brand discourse hangs together as string of narrative programs we must complement the actantial syntax that is driven by the acts of determinate actantial figures and a determinate set of actantial modalities furnished by Greimas with a transformative syntax that is incumbent on rhetorical operations and figures. • while taking into account issues of multimodal rhetoric
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Floch’s major contribution regardless of the abandonment of the generative trajectory: Emphasis on brand discourse as semi-symbolic sign system • Assuming as point of departure the famous ‘commutation test’ • “Commutation is […] the relation of reciprocal presupposition between the expression plane and the content plane” (Floch 2001) • It is only in the process of looking for such correspondences between the two planes of signification that “we begin to take note of the actual visual or aural qualities that constitute the aesthetic of a given brand” (Floch 2001: 8-9), while a brand’s textual structure emerges through distinguishing between core or invariant and peripheral or variable signifying elements. •“This kind of coupling between the expression and content of a language constitutes a semi-symbolic system” (Floch 2001: 75; also see Floch 2000: 46 and Broden 1996: 21). • The commutation test is of paramount importance in maintaining brand coherence, but may not account for the need for consistency among variable surface ad textual manifestations which mandates the adoption of a diachronic outlook in a competitive setting. Floch’s semi-symbolic structures  “This encoding was produced by coupling the category ‘euphoria’ versus ‘dysphoria’ which underlies the overall content of the advertisements examined with the twelve visual categories that constituted the expression categories of values and colours, of composition and of techniques or ‘styles’. As a semantic category, euphoria versus dysphoria has to be viewed as the articulation, the minimal structuring of the universe of thymia, that is of the field that accounts for such notions as well-being, pleasure, tranquility and calm on the one hand and sadness, anxiety, pain or dread on the other. THIS KIND OF COUPLING BETWEEN THE EXPRESSION AND CONTENT OF A LANGUAGE CONSTITUTES A SEMI-SYMBOLIC SYSTEM” (Floch 2001: 75)  Semi-symbolic vs. symbolic and semiotic systems (Hjelmslev)  Symbolic systems: Languages whose two planes are in total conformity  For each element of the plane of content there is one element at the plane of expression  Semiotic systems: Languages where no conformity exists between the two planes  Semi-symbolic: Correspondence between the two planes not at the level of individual signs, but at the level of categories (second and third levels of reduction/articulation)  “Semi-symbolic systems are signifying systems characterized by a correlation between categories concerning the plane of expression and the plane of content” (Floch 2000; e.g., chromatic category and thymic category or ‘bright colors’ being correlated with ‘euphoria’).  AND I WOULD ADD STRUCTURES THAT ARE DEFINED BY FLUID IMAGINARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PLANES, RATHER THAN STRICTLY SYMBOLIC ONES. SEMI- REFERS TO THE OSCILLATION OF THE CONCERNED EXPRESSIVE UNITS’ SEMANTIC CONTENT BETWEEN THE IMAGINARYAND THE SYMBOLIC.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Semprini’s approach to brand image research • Built on and advanced Floch’s structuralist semiotic approach to branding and advertising. • More integrated approach to how brand identity is constructed • Combining semiotics with systems theory • In line with Greimas’s generative trajectory of signification, offered a 3ple structure of brand identity along axiological, narrative, surface levels. • Also taking into account marketing discourse, rather than applying structuralist semiotics in a theoretical vacuum. Semprini’s approach to brand image research • For Semprini (1992), a brand is essentially an inter-subjective contract between sender and receiver in perpetual motion. • Brands constitute semiotic constellations in virtually infinite configurations. • Brand meaning, however, is not exhausted in the relationship between sender and receiver, but depends on the concurrence of a constantly shifting competitive landscape which is compounded by cultural transformations that impact on the value-systems of a brand’s audiences. • These factors contribute to what Semprini calls by allusion to the 2nd law of thermodynamics the “entropy of the brand”. • Hence, “brand identity is the result of continuous interactions and incessant exchanges amongst three sub-systems that we call encyclopedia of production (sub-system A), environment (sub-system B), and encyclopedia of reception (sub-system C)” (Semprini 1992: 40).
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Semprini’s approach to brand identity • Semprini’s structuralist semiotic heritage emerges quite compellingly in his account of how a brand identity system may be constructed. • Evidently writing under the influence of Floch, but also drawing implicitly on basic Greimasian postulates, Semprini contends that a brand identity system is made up of a multiplicity of discourses in a hierarchical ordering. • A brand discourse is made up not only of discrete elements, but also of differential relations among elements. • In order to account for these relational structures among the elements making up a brand identity system, Semprini proposes a three-level structural system that bears considerable resemblance to Greimas’s system of signification as a multi-level generative trajectory. Semprini’s brand identity system (example of Levi’s identity)
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Semprini’s approach to brand identity • This perspective on brand identity distinguishes amongst three different levels of brand meaning, in terms of depth/surface level signification, namely the base or axiological level, the narrative level and the surface/discursive level. • At the heart of a brand identity system lies the intermediate level of brand narrative. “At this level, the base values are organized in the form of narratives. A narrative grammar allows for the ordering of base values in relations of opposition” (Semprini 1992). • The discursive level allows for the endowment of abstract base values with concrete manifest representations, such as fleshing out the values of mastery and virility by situating the Marlboro brand myth in a rough and difficult environment. • “The discursive or surface level is where base values and narrative structures are enriched by figures” (Semprini 1992). • In other terms, the surface level is where a brand personality is invested with concrete features, such as a face, a bodily posture, a profession, a context of action and all the contextual elements that allow for a brand’s identification and differentiation. Semprini’s adaptation of Floch’s axiological brand map • The fundamental building blocks consist of practical and utopian values. • Practical (or base) values= functional aspects of a brand’s ownership and usage (comparable to Keller’s primary brand associations) • Utopian (or existential) values= abstract values (comparable to Keller’s secondary brand associations) • By projecting these fundamental values on a Greimasian semiotic square, Floch came up with their opposites in the form of critical and ludic values.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Limitations in Semprini’s brand semiotic approach • Uncritical adaptation of Floch’s universal axiological framework. • Largely non category-wide competitive salient set as analytical groundwork (e.g., extensive analyses of Benetton, Marlboro ads in a non-competitive context). • Regarding the mode of exposition of the interlocking levels in a brand identity system, what is still missing is a demonstration of the proclaimed fundamental value of accounting for the modes of connectivity amongst the elements of the three levels. • Not demonstrating how transitions among the levels of the trajectory are effected • each level has a unique morphology and syntax. Typologies of brands as signs Author/Year Theory Product-based Non-product based Keller 1998 primary and secondary brand associations primary brand associations pertain to tangible aspects of brands (e.g., ingredients and direct usage benefits) secondary brand associations pertain to the intangible aspects of brands, such as user and usage imagery Nöth 1988 3 prototypical frames whereby brands as signs may be examined utilitarian: associated with features related to practical use-value, such as durability, reliability, usefulness. commercial: signifies a brand's exchange value or its price. Socio- cultural: relating a brand to the social group or culture with which it is typically associated. Floch 2001 practical (base) vs. utopian brand values practical values relate to basic tasks that are fulfilled by products utopian values reflect abstract values with which brands may be invested Danesi 2006 (Barthes) denotative vs. connotative function of brands denotative function: Gucci shoes are protective gear. connotative function: Gucci connotes elegance and artistry
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Peircean semiotic approach to brand identity: Brand Triangle (Lencastre & Corte-Real 2010, 2013) • Descriptive approach to branding that draws on Peircean triads • Three basic pillars: identity: the sign or a set of signs understood in the strict sense of signs which are legally protectable as brands which identify the brand itself and the brands that it potentially covers. object: marketing actions understood in the literal sense of actions aimed at establishing a given exchange relationship of a product in a market of the main product and other potential products covered by the brand. response: brand associations understood in the broad sense of cognitive, affective, conative or behavioural reactions that individuals have to any component of its identity or object. Peircean semiotic approach to brand identity: Brand Triangle (Lencastre & Corte-Real 2010, 2013) • Descriptive approach to branding that draws on Peircean triads • Three basic pillars: identity: the sign or a set of signs understood in the strict sense of signs which are legally protectable as brands which identify the brand itself and the brands that it potentially covers. object: marketing actions understood in the literal sense of actions aimed at establishing a given exchange relationship of a product in a market of the main product and other potential products covered by the brand. response: brand associations understood in the broad sense of cognitive, affective, conative or behavioural reactions that individuals have to any component of its identity or object.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Peircean semiotic approach to brand identity: Brand Triangle (Lencastre & Corte-Real 2010, 2013)  Core, Actual, Augmented Identity  The core identity is the sign used for most immediate identification of all its products (e.g., brand name).  The actual identity corresponds to the way or ways the core identity is expressed graphically or the means whereby the core identity may become legally protectable.  All other signs that may be afforded protection as legally recognised brands and which complement the actual identity.  Core, Actual, Augmented Object  The core object is the brand’s most direct presentation of its activity and its main market, in other words, its main exchange relationship.  The actual object concerns other exchange relations that are important to sustain a brand’s main exchange relationship.  The term augmented object refers to all the marketing tools used to place each of the brand’s offers in their specific markets. Sociosemiotic analysis of airlines’ logos (Thurlow and Aiello 2007)  Sociosemiotic reading of how symbolic/cultural capital is created through aesthetic/design patterns of airplanes’ tailfin logos.  Corpus: 561 logos from globally operating airlines.  Three levels of analysis  Descriptive text analysis: Identification of expressive inventory through content analysis.  Interpretive text analysis: Reconstruction of the ‘latent’ grammar of visual design by consideration of how meaning potentials are established, with a focus on the role visual perception and cultural signification play in creating visual meaning in tailfin design.  Critical text analysis: Consideration of the link between the semiotic strategies used for generating (or leveraging) symbolic capital and the power relations which appear to frame the practices of global corporate branding.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Sociosemiotic analysis of airlines’ logos (Thurlow and Aiello 2007): Descriptive text analysis  “This analysis of the primary visual content revealed a strikingly limited visual lexicon.”  “As social semioticians point out, visual meaning is best thought of as the manipulation or exploitation of resources rather than the application of codes (Jewitt and Oyama, 2001).” Sociosemiotic analysis of airlines’ logos (Thurlow and Aiello 2007): Interpretive text analysis  Logos largely maintained a balance between ‘national pride’ and global cultural capital by drawing on national emblems, yet redesigned in such a fashion as to enhance their global appeal.  Key mechanism whereby this ‘glocalisation’ was achieved: Kinetic stylization  darting, gradation, diagonalization, tapering and, for Air New Zealand, brush stroking.  “Rebranding also entails an increasing abstraction of logos whereby specifically national semantic content is visually diluted (e.g. the geographic compass location for Northwest, the localized crane motif for JAL, the national colours for Gulf ).”  “In the case of Georgian Airlines, the rebranding involves a total change of tailfin design which drops the Georgian flag altogether in favor of a generically consistent (i.e. the spiral) but nationally ‘insignificant’ pattern. This diminishing of national specificity seems to be an even more strategic move to re-evalute the visual currency in pursuit of greater profit margins and extended, global reach.”
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Sociosemiotic analysis of airlines’ logos (Thurlow and Aiello 2007): Interpretive text analysis  Logos largely maintained a balance between ‘national pride’ and global cultural capital by drawing on national emblems, yet redesigned in such a fashion as to enhance their global appeal.  Key mechanism whereby this ‘glocalisation’ was achieved: Kinetic stylization  darting, gradation, diagonalization, tapering and, for Air New Zealand, brush stroking.  “Rebranding also entails an increasing abstraction of logos whereby specifically national semantic content is visually diluted (e.g. the geographic compass location for Northwest, the localized crane motif for JAL, the national colours for Gulf ).”  “In the case of Georgian Airlines, the rebranding involves a total change of tailfin design which drops the Georgian flag altogether in favor of a generically consistent (i.e. the spiral) but nationally ‘insignificant’ pattern. This diminishing of national specificity seems to be an even more strategic move to re-evalute the visual currency in pursuit of greater profit margins and extended, global reach.” Sociosemiotic analysis of airlines’ logos (Thurlow and Aiello 2007): Critical text analysis  “Micro-level analyses are able to show how globalism is being worked out in practice.”  “This is what Fairclough (2003) refers to as ‘textualization’ – the process whereby social and economic realities are represented and established discursively. It is also the socially constructed, discursive nature of ‘globalization’ which makes it so suitable for analysis by social semioticians and critical discourse analysts.”  “The synergistic relation between the perceptual and the cultural in visual imagery appears nicely to parallel the global/local synergism of the ‘transnational imaginary’ (Wilson and Dissanayake, 1996).”
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Semiotic criticism of the cognitive psychological account of the formation of brand associations (Bauters 2007)  Offering a ‘holistic’ context of interpretation of Finnish and Italian beer brands’ labels that takes into account the interpreter, the social context, the history of the studied brands as signs and the role of emotions in a decision making process.  Interdisciplinary approach that blends social psychological perspectives (Mead, Moscovici, Damasio) with semiotic ones (Peirce, Tarasti, Kress & Van Leeuwen)  The signification of the object changes constantly, but so does the ‘meaning’ of the cognizing subject (as sign)  The outcome of the signification process depends on the shifting hierarchical structure in the mass of multiple associations.  This hierarchy changes, thus bringing about different interpretations at different times when the interpretant still perceives the same sign.  Among these are the Interpreting Mind’s former experiences (memory) and the social network that affects the Interpreting Mind.  The influence of the social network can be named societal semiosis.  The Interpreting Mind belongs to the semiosic process. The role of social networks/community in bringing about consensus about interpretations or how target groups form common interpretations of signs (Bauters 2007)  Social psychological theories could gain from the Peircean approach the idea that an individual is essentially social in nature and belongs to triadic processes.  The interpretation or the creation of meaning in any artefact requires “collateral experience”.  The individual is not able to proceed in its semiosis all by him/herself, but needs interaction with society.  It is not possible to separate the semiosis that goes on within the person and that which goes on between the person and the Umwelt.  Peirce’s philosophy of mediation highlights the idea of semiosis as the main element from which one can begin searching for the dynamics between signs, groups and individuals and the investigation of meanings, attitudes and belief formation.  “Otherness and meaning are given together in our experience of our self as being embedded in a network of relations – more specifically, enmeshed in the ‘semiotic web’” (Colapietro 1989).  To belong to a group means that at least some of the values, habits and partially the world- view/lifestyle are agreed among the individuals  Habits, norms and attitudes which grow through the process of intertwining with the Umwelt. 
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Major gaps in the marketing semiotic literature • No coherent models available, focusing on brand equity, rather than branding in general • Structuralist semiotic perspectives have been largely employed for analyzing descriptively (interpretively) ads, rather than focusing on ad texts as sources of brand equity • Binarism still dominant in a theoretical landscape that favors connectionist approaches • Lack of quantification of qualitative phenomena
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Major gaps in the marketing literature • Focusing on the encoding stage of brand texts, rather than decoding. • Adopting a brand textuality perspective in addressing and managing brand associations. • Adding rigor to the employment of semiotic perspectives in marketing research. • Projecting brand equity in a category-specific context by mapping out a category’s semic microuniverse, its expressive inventory and modes of connectivity among expressive elements. • Focusing on operations of semantic transformation and modes of connectivity, rather than expressive elements, a significantly under-researched area • with an emphasis on rhetorical relata