George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 3
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George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 3

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Seminar on Branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods ...

Seminar on Branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods
Tartu University, Estonia 13-14 May 2014
George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD
//disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com
http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos

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George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 3 George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 3 Document Transcript

  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Emerging perspectives in branding research  The traditional approach to marketing planning has been criticized for its undue focus on cultural variables.  Increasing emphasis on the impact of culture in shaping bottom-up the very manner the notion of brand has been defined, the stakeholders who impact on its performance and the components that should be managed in a brand planning process have resulted in a proliferation of perspectives on branding  Community branding approach (Fournier, Muniz & O’Guinn)  Cultural branding approach (Belk, Arnould, Thompson, Schroeder, Holt)  Postmodern branding (Brown, Firat, Venkatesh, Holbrook, Hirschmann)
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Community branding  Challenges the transactional perspective to brand management.  A brand community is a social entity where consumers interact socially with a brand as the pivotal point of their interaction.  Brand communities take place in internet-based settings, in geographically bound clubs, and at so-called brandfests (social gatherings arranged by the marketer). Heding et al.  The brand community perspective that emerged in the late 1990s views  the consumer as a cultural player in a social context  the consumption experience as the source of important personal social experiences.  Communities of consumers are autonomous agents capable of collectively rejecting marketing actions.  This shift in negotiation power influences the creation of brand meaning and brand equity as the negotiation of brand meaning primarily takes place on consumers’ terms. Jeep Community
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Ethnographic research into brand communities  Ethnographic research, also known as observational research or participant observation is characterized by researcher ‘immersion’ in a cultural community  Migrated to consumer research from cultural anthropology and sociology (ethnomethodology/symbolic interactionism)  Understanding people in the ethnographic research tradition means understanding them in their own socio-cultural milieu and from the perspective of the participants.  Common data types are interviews (more or less structured), depth interviews, videography, netnography.  Qualitative data may be triangulated with quantitative measures.  Ethnography allows for creative interpretations and thick descriptions (Geertz). Ethnographic and stories-based analysis of brand communities  Muniz and O’Guinn (2001) highlighted the importance of storytelling among consumers in establishing shared meanings in brand communities.  It is the tropes that simultaneously unite and differentiate interpretive communities.  As Ritson and Elliott (1999) found in their study of how advertising discourse circulates in ordinary parlance, metaphor is a key tropic manner of creatively transferring commercial meanings from text to life and brands.  What distinguishes interpretive communities are the particular ways that consumers use figurative language.  Knowledgeable application of the various branches of literary criticism is key to unpacking the cultural meanings and interpretive strategies that constitute brand- related social configurations.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Ethnographic and stories-based analysis of brand communities • An interpretive community is a cultural formation with a shared social and historical context that delimits the potential of marketing communications (Kates)  Members of various audiences have significant connections to their social locations or positions and use broadly similar repertoires of interpretive strategies, resulting in similar interpretations of marketing communications  Membership of an interpretive community is characterized by structured polysemy that allows for a limited range of readings relevant to the cultural identifications and social positionings of consumers (Hirschman, 1998; Ritson and Elliott, 1999)  Common themes permeating community-oriented branding research (Kates)  Brands help negotiate a sense of social affiliation  Brand meaning that is relatively oppositional to others emerges in brand-related interpretive communities.  Identity is negotiated and constructed in brand subcultures and communities. Ethnographic and stories-based analysis of brand communities  Brands have a ‘linking value’ that connects consumers to each other through a set of common meanings or activities.  For example, fashion discourses about brands allow consumers to create a style that is acceptable to self-relevant social cliques or help them fit in socially (Kates)  In Fournier’s (1998) study of consumer–brand relationships, women construct different types of gender identities (caring matriarch, working single mother and young female university student) through consumer narratives, attesting to the structuring effects of gender on brand meaning.  The analysis of the interpretive strategies (that in turn, comprise an interpretive community) during an ethnographic study requires identifying, exploring, tracking and unpacking the different cultural meanings inscribed on brands and products that unite a given interpretive community (kates)
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date The SAAB brand community (Muniz & O’Guinn) The cultural branding perspective  The ‘cultural branding’ approach (Holt) draws on sociological/anthropological perspectives such as Bourdieu’s cultural sociology and McCracken’s anthropology of consumption  both consumers and producers are seen as mediators of cultural production  Brands are considered to be important parts of and contributors to mainstream culture.  The perspective assumes as its point of departure ‘counter-brand’ movements and ways of opposing dominant brand discourse by brand hijackers (Kozinets).  It explores genealogically ways whereby marketers can use cultural forces to build strong brands (or what Holt calls brand icons) and how brands contribute to culture.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date The cultural branding perspective (Holt)  The brand is a storyteller, endowed with cultural meaning and an important factor in the intricate web of cultural meanings used in the collective identity projects of consumers.  Brand value is created through playing an active role in mainstream culture.  The brand is subjected to social and cultural changes and thereby influenced by changes completely outside the brand manager’s control.  A brand gains competitive power by providing the consumer with the appropriate web of associations and the most powerful myths of its time. The cultural branding perspective (Holt/McCracken)  Pivotal in the theory of cultural consumption is the notion of culture and consumption operating as a system. • Products do not only have a utilitarian character, they also convey cultural meaning.  Meaning is transferred from the culturally constituted world to consumer goods; in turn, through the consumption of consumer goods cultural meanings are integrated into consumers’ lives.  This conceptualization of the transfer of cultural meaning draws minimally on semiotics.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date The cultural branding perspective (Holt/McCracken)  Pivotal in the theory of cultural consumption is the notion of culture and consumption operating as a system. • Products do not only have a utilitarian character, they also convey cultural meaning.  Meaning is transferred from the culturally constituted world to consumer goods; in turn, through the consumption of consumer goods cultural meanings are integrated into consumers’ lives.  This conceptualization of the transfer of cultural meaning draws minimally on semiotics. The cultural branding perspective (Holt)  Consumption objects are seen as cultural artefacts carrying meaning from the culturally constituted world to consumers.  Brands are regarded as cultural resources just like movies, social movements, books, magazines, etc.  Brand icons perform more representative and powerful myths to mainstream culture than identity brands.
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date 4 basic components of iconic brand communications  1. Iconic brands are capable of relieving cultural oppositions, of enacting powerful myths that accommodate these tensions (Holt)  Brands compete in myth markets  2. Iconic brands create original expressive cultures just like artists. In terms of aesthetics, they lead the way, do not just follow trends.  3. Iconic brands develop an authentic voice. A brand must be perceived as a credible representative of a subcultural movement, a folk culture or a social movement which is where new non-commercial culture is being created.  4. Iconic brands display a deep understanding of the point of view they represent. Comparison between the mindshare and the cultural branding models Holt
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Brand truth as conventionalization of cultural mediators’ stories (Holt)  A brand emerges as various ‘authors’ tell stories that involve the brand.  Four primary types of authors are involved:  Companies  The culture industries  Intermediaries (such as critics and retail salespeople)  Customers  Brand stories have plots and characters and they rely heavily on metaphor to communicate and to spur imagination.  AS THESE STORIES COLLIDE IN SOCIAL LIFE, CONVENTIONS EVENTUALLY FORM  Marketers often like to think of brands as a psychological phenomenon which stems from the perceptions of individual consumers. But what makes a brand powerful is the collective nature of these perceptions.  The stories have become conventional and so are continually reinforced because they are treated as truths in everyday interactions. Constructing brand culture through multiple stakeholders’ narratives (Holt) Brand Culture Shared,Stories, images & associations The Firm Popular Culture Influencers Customers Brand Stories Brand Stories Brand Stories Brand Stories
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Cultural branding research methods  The cultural approach displays a variety of methods and data ‘borrowed’ from different interpretive research traditions (Heding et al.)  A common interpretive approach is to incorporate the macro-cultural POV into brand specific texts and consumer narratives.  In order to document a brand’s cultural and political authority a brand manager should look back in time to comprehend what historical activities constrain or enhance the future myth-making ability of the brand (brand genealogy)  Textual semiotic methods for analyzing and interpreting ads, packages, brand-related consumer stories involve questions about  What does brand A mean to consumer segment X in social context F?  How are distinctive cultural discourses interwoven in consumer accounts of experiencing brand H?  Brands as inter-textual formations  Ethnographic studies  Phenomenological interviews  Long interviews aimed at understanding uniquely lived aspects of consumption experiences (cf. McCracken’s The long interview) Post-modern branding: Decentralization of brand meaning  In ‘postmodernity’ the conditions of fragmentation, decentering, and ambiguity have problematized the interpretation of brands and marketing promotions for both consumers and marketers.  Consumers construct different meanings from brands’ intended positioning, depending on personal background and contexts of consumption.  Meanings are not simply imposed by the textual aspects of advertising, direct mail or other brand stimuli  rather, meanings emerge between the texts of marketing communications and the bodies of cultural knowledge shared by consumers (Eco, Scott), co-creating the brand as a complex bundle of personal and sociocultural meanings.  Over-restrictive conceptualization of textuality
  • George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Postmodern branding Firat & Venkatesh