George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 2

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Seminar on Branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods
Tartu University, Estonia 13-14 May 2014
George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD
//disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com
http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos

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George rossolatos seminar on branding, brand equity, brand semiotic models and research methods part 2

  1. 1. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date What is strategic marketing/brand planning?  Marketing planning is a structured way of identifying a range of options for a company, of making them explicit in writing, of formulating marketing objectives which are consistent with the company’s overall objectives and of scheduling and costing out the specific activities most likely to bring about the achievement of the objectives.  It is the systemization of this process which is distinctive and which lies at the heart of the theory of strategic marketing planning. McDonald  Brand planning is the translation of a marketing plan into brand-specific plans
  2. 2. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Steps in a strategic marketing planning process McDonald Steps in a strategic marketing planning process McDonald Iterative process of Planning / Implementation / Control through regular brand audits A brand audit assesses the health of a brand; it consists of a brand inventory and a brand exploratory. The brand inventory is a detailed internal description of how the brand has been marketed. The brand exploratory is an external investigation of what the brand means to consumers.
  3. 3. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Components of each step in a strategic marketing planning process and the place of promotion strategy McDonald Advertising (Promotions) strategy in the context of a brand strategy (traditional approach)  How the stated marketing objectives in a strategic brand plan may be translated in terms of a communicative strategy  Examples of marketing objectives:  Increase sales, market share, penetration, frequency of purchase  Decrease rate of churned consumers  The communicative strategy includes objectives that must be met by the employment of a communications mix  Examples of advertising objective(s) by marketing objective(s)  Marketing objective Advertising objective  Increase market share Increase share-of-voice in category AtL advertising  Increase frequency of purchase Increase promotional intensity on POP and airing of customized promo TVCs (or tags)  Increase levels of consumer Design a bespoke brand community site on Facebook engagement  The communicative strategy is split into copy and media strategy  Copy strategy= Choices about the creative structure of ad messages  Media strategy= Choices about vehicles and levels of investment
  4. 4. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Marketing communications mix  According to Kotler & Keller the marketing communications mix consists of six major modes of communication:  1. Advertising (TV, print, radio, outdoor): Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a brand.  2. Sales promotion: A variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service (e.g., discount coupons, free product volume).  3. Events and experiences: Company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create brand-related interactions with consumers (e.g., sponsored live or fashion shows).  4. Public relations and publicity:A variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company's image or its individual products (e.g., sponsored articles in popular magazines or blogs) .  5. Direct marketing: Use of mail, telephone, e-mail, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects (e.g., catalogue marketing, e-mail marketing).  6. Personal selling: Face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders. (Kotler & Keller) And I would add:  7. Peer-to-peer brand-related communications: Communication exchanges taking place among consumers that are centered around brand-related themes on social media (e.g., new brand launches, new promotions, experiences from service encounters, etc.) Marketing communications mix  According to Kotler & Keller the marketing communications mix consists of six major modes of communication:  1. Advertising (TV, print, radio, outdoor): Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a brand.  2. Sales promotion: A variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service (e.g., discount coupons, free product volume).  3. Events and experiences: Company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create brand-related interactions with consumers (e.g., sponsored live or fashion shows).  4. Public relations and publicity:A variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company's image or its individual products (e.g., sponsored articles in popular magazines or blogs) .  5. Direct marketing: Use of mail, telephone, e-mail, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects (e.g., catalogue marketing, e-mail marketing).  6. Personal selling: Face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders. (Kotler & Keller) And I would add:  7. Peer-to-peer brand-related communications: Communication exchanges taking place among consumers that are centered around brand-related themes on social media (e.g., new brand launches, new promotions, experiences from service encounters, etc.) The IMC mix: Streamlining communicative media and messages in a coherent plan with view to enhancing synergies and accountability vis- à-vis bottom-line results.
  5. 5. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date The IMC Wheel (Pickton and Broderick) Issues in planning and implementing a brand/communications strategy  Fragmentation of mediascape  Increasing need for employing more than one vehicles in the deployment of a media strategy  Increasing popularity of social media and progressive erosion of traditional advertising forms  BUT in some sectors (e.g., FMCGs) advertising still constitutes the dominant medium in terms of investment  Consumers becoming more knowledgeable of copy strategies and creative tactics  Increasing need for cutting through the clutter with standout communications  The above mandate even more compellingly focus on the effectiveness of a message strategy over time in a dynamically shifting competitive setting McDonald
  6. 6. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Marketing communications and brand equity • Marketing communications contribute to brand equity by establishing the brand in memory and by crafting a brand image (Kotler & Keller)  Although advertising is often a central element of a marketing communications program, it is neither the only, nor the most important one in terms of building brand equity. The (information theory) communication model adopted in standard brand equity theory  “The model emphasizes the key factors in effective communication. Senders must know what audiences they want to reach and what responses they want to get. They must encode their messages so that the target audience can decode them. They must transmit the message through media that reach the target audience and develop feedback channels to monitor the responses. The more the sender's field of experience overlaps with that of the receiver, the more effective the message is likely to be.” (Kotler & Keller)  Kotler & Keller
  7. 7. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Assumptions made in effecting this communicative ‘overlap’  The right consumer is exposed to the right message at the right place and at the right time.  The ad causes the consumer to pay attention to the ad but does not distract from the intended message.  The ad properly reflects the consumer's level of understanding about the product and the brand.  The ad correctly positions the brand in terms of desirable and deliverable points-of- difference and points-of-parity.  The ad motivates consumers to consider purchase of the brand.  The ad creates strong brand associations with all of these stored communications effects so that they can have an impact when consumers are considering making a purchase. (Kotler & Keller)  Kotler & Keller Logical claims (brand themes) vs. figuratively rendered messages (ad taglines) Brand Theme Ad Tagline Our hamburgers are bigger. Where's the Beef? (Wendy's restaurants) Our tissue is softer. Please, Don't Squeeze the Charmin (Charmin bathroom tissue) No hard sell, just a good car. Drivers Wanted (Volkswagen automobiles) We don't rent as many cars, so we have to do more for our customers. We Try Harder (Avis auto rental) We provide long-distance phone service. Reach Out and Touch Someone (AT&T telecommunications) Kotler & Keller
  8. 8. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Brand identity planning model (Aaker) BRAND-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP core
  9. 9. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Brand identity planning model: Nike • Core identity • Product: Sports and fitness • User profile: Top athletes • Performance: Performance shoes based on technological superiority • Enhancing lives: Enhancing peoples’ lives by being associated with athletes Extended identity • Brand personality: Exciting, provocative, spirited, cool, innovative • Logo: Swoosh symbol • Slogan: Just do it • Organizational associations: Connected to and supportive of athletes and their sports • Endorsers: Top athletes • Value proposition • Functional benefits: High-technology shoe that will improve performance and provide comfort • Emotional benefits: The exhilaration of athletic performance: feeling engaged, active and healthy • Self-expressive symbolic benefits: Self-expression is generated by using a shoe with a strong personality associated with a visible athlete Aaker The Brand Prism (Kapferer) Physique Personality Self-imageReflection Relationship Culture Picture of Recipient Picture of Sender
  10. 10. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date The Brand Prism (Lacoste) Physique Personality Customer’s self-projection Customer’s reflection Relationship Culture Quality Sportswear Crocodile Discreet Without fancy Belonging to a club Neither hyperfeminine or hypermasculine Transgeneration Social conformity and distinction Individualism Classicism Lacoste Brand Key (Unilever) Persil
  11. 11. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Direct and indirect branding research methods • Methods for eliciting directly brand personality and brand image (ad-hoc or tracking) • Quantitative: Use of categorical or interval data (e.g., agreement/disagreement on image attributes through direct questioning OR scoring of attributes on Likert scales, e.g., 1-7) • Qualitative: Direct questioning in focus-groups about the position of a brand in perceptual maps • Methods for eliciting indirectly brand values in a wider axiological framework and for gauging level of familiarity/TOM awareness • Value: Qualitative: Laddering • Familiarity/TOM: Word completion, adjectives (card) sorting • Quantitative: Use of dendrograms for grouping co-occurring brand image attributes that are employed in quant studies or that emerge from qualitative studies that employ a grounded theoretical approach
  12. 12. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Measuring brand image through direct questioning Now I would like to know your opinion on a few alcoholic beverages. Here are some statements written down. Please tell me for each statement to which of these brands it applies. For each statement you can name one or more brands or none. BrandA Baileys Ballantine‘s Campari BrandE JimBeam JohnnieWalker Martini BrandV Is a sensous brand Is of high quality Is drunk by the "in" crowd Has a good price performance ratio Is for young people Is preferred by men Is enjoyed among a group of friends You hear a lot about this brand Is for people who know what they want Is becoming even more popular Like to offer it to my guests Is especially well-suited as a gift Is a brand with special tradition and heritage For people who enjoy their life Is a brand for people like me Is a brand for trendsetters Is rather prefered by elder people Measuring brand image through direct questioning BALLANTI NE’S FAMOUS GROUSE JACK DANIEL’S DEWAR’S % % % % Is a sensous brand 42 42 53 41 Is of high quality 57 41 65 61 Is drunk by the "in" crowd 49 55 63 49 Has a good price performance ratio 59 50 71 56 Is for young people 59 55 77 56 Is of high quality 53 63 67 81
  13. 13. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Qualitative perceptual mapping (Brand personality) Laddering technique: Peeling the consumer values / choice onion  Used for tapping into the deeper reasons why a person attributes equity to a brand  Based on means-end theory  Means-end theory suggests that there is a hierarchical organization of consumer perceptions and product knowledge that range from attributes to consumption consequences to personal values  the ‘‘diet’’ attribute in a cola has the consequence of deterring weight gain  Each consequence, in turn, supports one or more important values in that person’s life  Laddering uses a series of progressive questions that allow an interviewer to understand how a product’s attributes, the consequences of using it, and the personal values it satisfies are linked.  Unearthing through progressive probing the latent values that underpin consumers’ life-projects as non-directly observable and unconscious choice-drivers behind purchase and consumption decisions.  Hierarchical value maps allow researchers to slowly ‘‘climb the ladder’’ to get to the real reasons why consumers buy and use certain products. (Wansink)
  14. 14. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Laddering technique: Hierarchical value map Laddering technique: Hierarchical value map Example of progressive probing: “A:Haagen-Dazs tastes great and it’s low in fat. Q:Why is food low in fat important to you? A:I like to watch my weight and live a healthy lifestyle. I like to eat Honey Bunches because it tastes good and it fills me up in the morning, so I’m not hungry an hour later. Q:Why is it important that you are not hungry an hour later? A:First of all, I have more energy and tend to get more accomplished at my job. And simply not having to stop work to eat something keeps me working and I get more done at work.”
  15. 15. George Rossolatos MSc, MBA, PhD //disruptiVesemiOtics// email: georgerossolatos123@gmail.com http://uni-kassel.academia.edu/georgerossolatos Ref.ppt Date Dendrograms for grouping co-occurring brand image attributes that emerge from qualitative studies that employ a grounded theoretical approach

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