The Transformation Of Japan From Tokugawa To Meiji
The Tokugawa Shogunate A shogun is a military governor Ruled as temporary stand-in for Japanese emperor from 12th to 16 th century Emperor was a figurehead Shogun monopolized power through cooperation with other military leaders When cooperation ended, civil war common
Tokugawa Ieyasu Able To Establish Military government In 1600 Dynasty lasted until Meiji Restoration in 1867 Goal was to stabilize rule and end civil war Needed to control hereditary lords (Daimyo) who ruled from hereditary land holdings
Tokugawa Shogunate Isolates itself and returns to feudalism
Economic Crises and Decline Early 19th Century Agricultural Production Decline And High Taxes Led To Economic Hardship Among Rural Population Economy In Cities Not Much Better Even Samurai And Daimyo Class Fell Into Debt Result Was Protest And Rebellion
Responses Shogun Responded With Conservative Reform Debt Of Samurai And Daimyo Class Canceled Merchant Guilds Abolished Peasants In Cities Forced To Return To Land To Increase Agricultural Production
The Opening of Japan Beginning In 1844, British, French And United States Merchants Began To Demand Diplomatic And Commercial Relations
A U.S. Navy Squadron Under Commodore Perry arrived In Tokyo Bay In 1853 fnd Forced a treaty of friendship Shogun was forced to Accept Britain, Netherlands and Russia also demanded similar rights
Meiji Rule Domestic Reaction Forced The Collapse Of The Tokugawa Shogunate
After a brief civil war, shogun armies defeated by foreign trained opponents.
Meiji Rule On Jan 3, 1868 the Emperor Mutsuhito was returned to power under reginal name Meiji (enlightened rule).
The Meiji Reforms Reforms were Supported By Conservative Coalition Of Daimyo, Imperial Princes, Court Nobles And Samurai Goals Of New Government Rich Country, Strong Army
The Meiji Reforms Government Turned To United States And Europe For Knowledge And Expertise Students And Officials Sent To Study Technology, Political Organization, Economic Development, Etc. Students Returned To Help Japan Develop With The Support Of The Government
The Meiji Reforms 1870: the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. The country was restructured into prefectures. New governors replaced old nobility Samurai Class Given Stipends To Give Up Their Special Rights And Privileges
The Japanese Constitution Meiji Constitution Established In 1889 As Gift To The People From The Emperor Modeled On New German Constitution Legislature (Diet) Made Up Of House Of Nobles And Elected Lower House With Limited Authority
Powers of the Emperor Emperor Retained Considerable Power Commander Of Armed Forces Appointed Prime Minister And Cabinet Right To Dissolve Parliament At Any Time Parliament Advised, But Did Not Control The Emperor
Economic Reforms Modern Transportation And Communications Developed Railroad, Telegraph And Steamship Lines National Educational System Established Guild Restrictions And Internal Tariffs Revoked
Peasant Uprisings Cost Of Reform High For The Peasants Who Paid Most Of The Tax 40 To 50 Per Cent Of Crop Yield In Some Cases Resulted In Peasant Uprisings In 1883 Military And Police Put Down Rebellion
Peasant Uprisings Like In Russia, Labor Union Activity Prohibited At Cost Of Some Social Unrest And Low Standard Of Living For The Poor, Japan Built Itself Into A World Power
Foreign Relations By 1895, Japan Was Able To Defeat China In War And Gained Control Of Formosa (Taiwan) And Korea In 1902 Britain Recognized Japan As An Equal Power In A Mutual Alliance By 1905 Japan Was Able To Defeat A Major European Power, Russia
Summary Confrontations With European Powers Or The United States Showed Japans’ Weakness Internal Revolt Also A Problem Conservatives In Russia, China And The Ottoman Empire Limited Reform And In The Case Of China Defeated It These Countries Remained Weak
Summary Only In Japan Where The Shogunate Collapsed Was The Government Able To Carry Out The Large Scale Reform Needed To Make The Country Powerful.