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AP World History lecture.

AP World History lecture.



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    Nationalism Nationalism Presentation Transcript

    • Nationalism Nationalism and the Unification of Italy and Germany
    • Nationalism Cultural Nationalism Focused on uniqueness of each group of people Not better, just different Created appreciation for history of national community Fostered pride in cultural accomplishments
    • Nationalism Political Nationalism Demanded loyalty from members of national group National culture was best Preserved when all people of that culture were contained in one national state
    • Nationalism Political Nationalism
        • Sought to gather all members of one national group into a single nation
        • Especially strong in German language areas
        • Also felt among various Slavic groups in Austria-Hungary, Italy
    • Nationalism The Unification of Italy
    • Nationalism Factors Hindering Italian Unification
        • At the end of the Napoleonic Era in 1815, certain factors mitigated against Italian unification.
    • Nationalism Factor One
        • There was political division within the Congress of Vienna.
        • Austria was opposed to Italian unification because it controlled the province of Venetia in northern Italy and fought any effort at unification.
    • Nationalism Factor Two
        • The papacy was opposed because they did not want to lose control of the Papal States.
    • Nationalism Factor Three
        • There was discord among nationalists.
        • Some favored a republic
        • Others favored a liberal monarchy
        • The existence of secret, patriotic societies would overcome these difficulties.
    • Nationalism
        • United Italy movement led by Count Camillo di Cavour of Piedmont and Sardinia.
        • Allied with France to expel Austria in 1859.
    • Nationalism
        • Combined with Giuseppe Garibaldi to free southern Italy.
    • Nationalism
        • Southern Italy united with north
        • under King Victor
        • Emmanuel in 1860.
        • Additional territory absorbed in next decade.
    • Nationalism
        • Last to be included were the Papal States in 1870.
    • Nationalism Problems After Unification
        • The new Italian government was weak.
        • The people of Italy lacked democratic tradition and responsibility.
        • Ambitious nationalism existed without the real political and military power to accomplish it.
    • Nationalism The Unification of Germany
    • Nationalism Factors Hindering Unification
        • In the north:
        • Protestant
        • Manufacturing
        • Commerce
        • In the south:
        • Catholic
        • Agricultural
    • Nationalism Factors Hindering Unification
        • Opposition of Austria.
        • Influential in post-Congress of Vienna Europe.
        • Suppressed liberal and nationalistic movements within Germany.
    • Nationalism Factors Hindering Unification
        • Opposition of France.
        • A unified Germany would challenge France’s leadership in Europe.
        • France felt more secure with weak neighbors.
    • Nationalism Factors Promoting Unity
        • Common nationality.
        • Napoleon’s influence: aroused German nationalism against him.
        • Weakened Austrian authority.
        • Reduced German states from 300 to less than 100.
    • Nationalism The Failure of 1848
        • Liberals convene the Frankfurt Assembly
        • Proclaim a united Germany
        • Wrote a constitution
        • Offered the position of Emperor to the King of Prussia
    • Nationalism The Failure of 1848
        • Frederick William IV refused the offer.
        • Liberals lacked military power to enforce ratification.
        • Many liberals fled German territory.
        • The way was open to autocratic leadership.
    • Nationalism Wilhelm I of Prussia (r.1861-1888)
    • Nationalism
        • Conservative.
        • Doubled the size of the Prussian army.
        • Junkers supported the king when the Reichstag refused monies for military expansion.
        • Wilhelm then chose an aristocratic Junker as prime minister.
    • Nationalism Otto von Bismark
        • Unification the work of Otto von Bismarck prime
        • minister of Prussia.
        • He was a master
        • of realpolitik, the
        • politics of reality.
    • Nationalism Otto von Bismark
        • Opposed parliamentary government but was not against a constitutional monarchy with a strong monarch.
        • He also knew that Prussia, and eventually Germany, would need a strong industrial base.
    • Nationalism
        • In series of wars from 1864 to 1870 Bismarck united previously independent German states using the expanded army.
    • Nationalism
        • Victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 sealed the expansion.
    • Nationalism
        • Wilhelm I of Prussia became Kaiser of
        • Germany.
        • This began
        • the Second
        • Reich.
    • Nationalism Results of German Unification
    • Nationalism
        • Powerful new central European state created.
        • Rich in natural and human resources.
        • Militarily and economically, the German Empire will be stronger than Prussia had been alone.
    • Nationalism
        • The unification of Germany was a blow to European liberalism because the new state was a conservative creation.