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Chinese Imperial Crisis

Chinese Imperial Crisis






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    Chinese Imperial Crisis Chinese Imperial Crisis Presentation Transcript

    • Imperial China in Crisis The Decline of the Qing in the 19 th Century
    • Imperial China in Crisis The Qing (Manchu) dynasty plagued by numerous problems… Population pressures Natural disasters (droughts and disease epidemics)
    • China Resists the West
        • Under the Qing, China resisted outside trade and influences.
        • Emperor Qianlong refuses British trade envoys.
    • Political System
      • The Qing political system was overstrained and outdated
      • Public works (roads, bridges,
      • dams) neglected
      • Corruption (He Shen was the worst,
      • 800 million taels of silver stolen!)
      • Ethnic tensions
    • Political System
        • Cixi
        • (or Tz'u-hsi or Hsiao-ch'in)
        • the empress dowager autocracy, 1861-1908
        • (47 years in political control)
    • Social and Economic Crises
        • Rise of secret societies (White Lotus, triads, Taiping, Nian, Hongmen)
        • Local militarization (militias) and increased violence
        • Family problems and moral decay
        • Economic bottleneck and financial crisis
    • The Western Challenge and Imperialism
    • Western Imperialism
        • Trade concessions demanded by the Portuguese, Spaniards, British, Americans
        • East India Company and the opium trade
        • Opium use created a silver shortage
        • The addictive population increased causing social instability
    • The Opium War 1840-1842
        • Britain paid for its imports of tea, silk and porcelain mainly with silver.
        • But the growth of the opium habit in China created an outflow of silver from China.
        • The Qing banned the import and smoking of opium.
    • The Opium War 1840-1842
        • 1839: the areas of Canton where British and American merchants were permitted to operate were blockaded
        • 20,000 chests of opium seized and publicly destroyed on the Canton beaches.
        • Britain declared war
        • Britain declared war. Chinese arms were no match for European technology.
    • The Treaty of Nanjing
        • The First Opium War ended in a decisive defeat for China.
        • The humiliating Treaty of Nanjing resulted.
        • Five ports were opened to foreign trade.
    • The Treaty of Nanjing
        • Hong Kong island was ceded to the British.
        • The status of “ extraterritoriality ” given to her merchants (they were not subject to Chinese laws).
        • Huge reparations were imposed for the destroyed opium.
    • The Treaty of Nanjing
        • The U.S. and France extracted similar concessions two years later
        • 1856: The Second Opium War
        • Renewal of war with Great Britain (later joined by France).
        • China again defeated.
    • Treaty of Tientsin 1858
        • Legalized the opium trade
        • Allowed freedom for Christian missionaries
        • Increased ports and trading privileges to Western merchants
        • Imposed further war reparations
    • Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864
        • Western capitalism and Christian missionaries affected Chinese society, causing revolutionary upheavals
        • Led by H ong Xiuquan (1814-64)
        • Hong was a Christian who sought reform of corrupt Qing regime
    • Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864
          • 1853: 1 million peasants had joined
          • the revolt. Controlled large areas of southern China
          • Internal power struggles led to the demise of Taiping regime
          • Qing and foreign forces eventually defeat the rebellion. 20 million died
    • Self Strengthening Movement
          • Dowager Empress Cixi resisted reforms but did support “self strengthening”.
          • Sought to update political, educational and military institutions.
      Arsenals to manufacture modern weapons set up.
    • Self Strengthening Movement
          • Mixed results since arsenals still run by mostly foreigners.
          • Imbalance of trade from import of machinery, raw materials.
    • Spheres of Influence
    • Spheres of Influence
          • Foreign nations took advantage of China’s weakness and established colonial footholds.
          • Extraterritoriality applied in t hese foreign enclaves.
          • U.S. favored an “ Open Door Policy ” to prevent outright colonization.
    • The Sino-Japanese War
          • By 1895, Japan defeated China and gained control of Formosa (Taiwan) and Korea.
          • This defeat and the failure of the Self-Strengthening Movement highlighted the need for reform.
          • Chinese conservatives disagreed.
    • The Hundred Days Reforms
          • June 11 to September 21, 1898: Emperor Guangxu ordered a series of reforms aimed at making sweeping social and institutional changes.
          • The edicts attempted to modernize China and promote practical studies instead of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy.
    • The Hundred Days Reforms
          • Conservative ruling elites opposed the reforms. Proposed moderate change.
          • Empress Dowager Cixi engineered a coup d'etat on September 21, 1898, forcing Guangxu into seclusion.
          • Cixi took over the government as regent.
    • The Hundred Days Reforms
          • The Hundred Days' Reform ended with the rescindment of the new edicts and execution of six reformist leaders.
    • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
          • Began as a backlash against foreigners.
          • Secret societies such as the “Righteous and Harmonious Fists” attacked foreigners and Christian missionaries.
          • Dowager Empress Cixi secretly supported the Boxers while publicly denouncing them to foreigners.
    • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
          • Boxer forces besieged foreign compounds in Beijing for months
          • A multinational relief force was dispatched
          • The Boxers were eventually defeated
    • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
          • A humiliating treaty was imposed on the Qing government
          • Chinese resentment rekindled demands for reform and inspired nationalist movements
          • The "New Policy" (reform which was too little, too late)
    • The Guomindang
          • The National People’s Party (Guomindang) under Dr. Sun Yat Sen was formed in 1905
    • The End of a Dynasty
          • In 1908 Guangxu “died”. Cixi died the next day.
          • PuYi , Guangxu’s three
          • year old nephew,
          • ascended the throne.
    • Revolution of 1911
          • Because Qing dynasty supported the failed rebellion and they refused to reform, they lost support in China and the revolution in 1911 removed them from power.
    • Revolution of 1911
          • The 1911 Revolution ushered in a new political era, but with little social significance.
          • Guomindang
          • flag