Chinese Imperial Crisis
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Chinese Imperial Crisis






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Chinese Imperial Crisis Chinese Imperial Crisis Presentation Transcript

  • Imperial China in Crisis The Decline of the Qing in the 19 th Century
  • Imperial China in Crisis The Qing (Manchu) dynasty plagued by numerous problems… Population pressures Natural disasters (droughts and disease epidemics)
  • China Resists the West
      • Under the Qing, China resisted outside trade and influences.
      • Emperor Qianlong refuses British trade envoys.
  • Political System
    • The Qing political system was overstrained and outdated
    • Public works (roads, bridges,
    • dams) neglected
    • Corruption (He Shen was the worst,
    • 800 million taels of silver stolen!)
    • Ethnic tensions
  • Political System
      • Cixi
      • (or Tz'u-hsi or Hsiao-ch'in)
      • the empress dowager autocracy, 1861-1908
      • (47 years in political control)
  • Social and Economic Crises
      • Rise of secret societies (White Lotus, triads, Taiping, Nian, Hongmen)
      • Local militarization (militias) and increased violence
      • Family problems and moral decay
      • Economic bottleneck and financial crisis
  • The Western Challenge and Imperialism
  • Western Imperialism
      • Trade concessions demanded by the Portuguese, Spaniards, British, Americans
      • East India Company and the opium trade
      • Opium use created a silver shortage
      • The addictive population increased causing social instability
  • The Opium War 1840-1842
      • Britain paid for its imports of tea, silk and porcelain mainly with silver.
      • But the growth of the opium habit in China created an outflow of silver from China.
      • The Qing banned the import and smoking of opium.
  • The Opium War 1840-1842
      • 1839: the areas of Canton where British and American merchants were permitted to operate were blockaded
      • 20,000 chests of opium seized and publicly destroyed on the Canton beaches.
      • Britain declared war
      • Britain declared war. Chinese arms were no match for European technology.
  • The Treaty of Nanjing
      • The First Opium War ended in a decisive defeat for China.
      • The humiliating Treaty of Nanjing resulted.
      • Five ports were opened to foreign trade.
  • The Treaty of Nanjing
      • Hong Kong island was ceded to the British.
      • The status of “ extraterritoriality ” given to her merchants (they were not subject to Chinese laws).
      • Huge reparations were imposed for the destroyed opium.
  • The Treaty of Nanjing
      • The U.S. and France extracted similar concessions two years later
      • 1856: The Second Opium War
      • Renewal of war with Great Britain (later joined by France).
      • China again defeated.
  • Treaty of Tientsin 1858
      • Legalized the opium trade
      • Allowed freedom for Christian missionaries
      • Increased ports and trading privileges to Western merchants
      • Imposed further war reparations
  • Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864
      • Western capitalism and Christian missionaries affected Chinese society, causing revolutionary upheavals
      • Led by H ong Xiuquan (1814-64)
      • Hong was a Christian who sought reform of corrupt Qing regime
  • Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864
        • 1853: 1 million peasants had joined
        • the revolt. Controlled large areas of southern China
        • Internal power struggles led to the demise of Taiping regime
        • Qing and foreign forces eventually defeat the rebellion. 20 million died
  • Self Strengthening Movement
        • Dowager Empress Cixi resisted reforms but did support “self strengthening”.
        • Sought to update political, educational and military institutions.
    Arsenals to manufacture modern weapons set up.
  • Self Strengthening Movement
        • Mixed results since arsenals still run by mostly foreigners.
        • Imbalance of trade from import of machinery, raw materials.
  • Spheres of Influence
  • Spheres of Influence
        • Foreign nations took advantage of China’s weakness and established colonial footholds.
        • Extraterritoriality applied in t hese foreign enclaves.
        • U.S. favored an “ Open Door Policy ” to prevent outright colonization.
  • The Sino-Japanese War
        • By 1895, Japan defeated China and gained control of Formosa (Taiwan) and Korea.
        • This defeat and the failure of the Self-Strengthening Movement highlighted the need for reform.
        • Chinese conservatives disagreed.
  • The Hundred Days Reforms
        • June 11 to September 21, 1898: Emperor Guangxu ordered a series of reforms aimed at making sweeping social and institutional changes.
        • The edicts attempted to modernize China and promote practical studies instead of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy.
  • The Hundred Days Reforms
        • Conservative ruling elites opposed the reforms. Proposed moderate change.
        • Empress Dowager Cixi engineered a coup d'etat on September 21, 1898, forcing Guangxu into seclusion.
        • Cixi took over the government as regent.
  • The Hundred Days Reforms
        • The Hundred Days' Reform ended with the rescindment of the new edicts and execution of six reformist leaders.
  • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
        • Began as a backlash against foreigners.
        • Secret societies such as the “Righteous and Harmonious Fists” attacked foreigners and Christian missionaries.
        • Dowager Empress Cixi secretly supported the Boxers while publicly denouncing them to foreigners.
  • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
        • Boxer forces besieged foreign compounds in Beijing for months
        • A multinational relief force was dispatched
        • The Boxers were eventually defeated
  • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
        • A humiliating treaty was imposed on the Qing government
        • Chinese resentment rekindled demands for reform and inspired nationalist movements
        • The "New Policy" (reform which was too little, too late)
  • The Guomindang
        • The National People’s Party (Guomindang) under Dr. Sun Yat Sen was formed in 1905
  • The End of a Dynasty
        • In 1908 Guangxu “died”. Cixi died the next day.
        • PuYi , Guangxu’s three
        • year old nephew,
        • ascended the throne.
  • Revolution of 1911
        • Because Qing dynasty supported the failed rebellion and they refused to reform, they lost support in China and the revolution in 1911 removed them from power.
  • Revolution of 1911
        • The 1911 Revolution ushered in a new political era, but with little social significance.
        • Guomindang
        • flag