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Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013
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Collaboration Without Chaos - STP Spring 2013

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Sometimes software testers overvalue the adherence to the collective wisdom embodied in organizational processes and the mechanical execution of tasks. Overly directive procedures work—to a …

Sometimes software testers overvalue the adherence to the collective wisdom embodied in organizational processes and the mechanical execution of tasks. Overly directive procedures work—to a point—projecting an impression of firm, clear control. But do they generate test results that are valuable to our stakeholders? Is there a way to orchestrate everyone’s creative contributions without inviting disorganized confusion? Is there a model that leverages the knowledge and creativity of the people doing the work, yet exerts reliable control in a non-directive way? Griffin Jones shares just such a model, describing its prescriptive versus discretionary parts and its dynamic and adaptive nature. Task activities are classified into types and control preferences. Griffin explores archetypes of control and their associated underlying values. Leave with an understanding of how you can leverage the wisdom and creativity of your people to make your testing more valuable and actionable.

Note: There is a lot of technical detail, and the animation being flattened out of the slides makes it harder to understand than when I present it.

You also don't have have stories, explanation, or the ability to answer your questions.

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  • 1. 1www.CongruentCompliance.comCOLLABORATIONWITHOUTApril 2013SESSION 702Collaboration Without ChaosGriffin Jones, Consultant, Congruent Compliance
  • 2. 2www.CongruentCompliance.comCOLLABORATIONWITHOUTApril 2013
  • 3. Introduction• About me• Questions– What does control look, sound, feel like?– What does chaos look, sound, feel like?– What collaboration look, sound, feel like?• Why I care– Regulated and risky products• I have to explain my approach to skeptics– My early formative career experiences• Nuclear Industry and KIMSApril 2013 3www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 4. Qualifying Human ExpertsHow many facesdid you see?Qualifying Human ExpertsCount the number of facesin each of the followingpicturesFast Example ExerciseApril 2013www.CongruentCompliance.com 4
  • 5. Motivation to Create …• Was asked, “How do you delegate control?”– Dissatisfied w/some answers I hear/see from others• “As little as possible”: One big brain, controlling people likemachines/puppets• Seems to be about people managing or coping w/their anxiety– My ANS: “Competence, Authority, Responsibility, Experience”• I noticed I had a strong emotional reaction to the Q&A• I prefer– Collaborating with thinking sapient people who test– Giving tactical control of check activities to thinking people• They choose how/when to use tools like automation and scriptedprocedures, to do what the tools do best – no more.• Tools are made to serve people, not …• Just because I could micro-manage to deal with my anxiety, …April 2013 5www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 6. … this Presentation• Realized that I was being intentional– But some archeology of my process was required• Where did all the pieces come from?• How do they all fit together?• Benefits of a “Grand Unified Model”– “Adaptive Discretionary Control Model”– Creates (for me) a framework for conversation,exploration, and formal explanation• By sharing this, I hope it is helpful to you– Stimulates you to explore your own thoughts– Creates space to allow thinking collaborative testingApril 2013 6www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 7. Historical Example: “The Flying Problem”• Powered flight research prior to 1900– Focus was on Control via• “Inherent Stability” versus “Dynamic Stability”• Why did they make that control choice?– How is the situation similar to testing software?April 2013 7www.CongruentCompliance.comLangleyAerodromeWright Flyer I2 3
  • 8. Outline: Collaboration Without ChaosAdaptive Discretionary Control Model• Fit the pieces together from these models:– Feedback Controllers• and the Controller’s Internal Model– Administrative Controls• Prescriptive versus Discretionary Controls– Control Choices• Organizational and Activity Types. How to choose.– OODA Model (Observe/Orient/Decide/Act)• The “Orient” process– “Values” Archetypes• Example “Values” to Orient on– Adaptive Team Model• The three ways to adapt– Summary / Thought Experiment / References / QuestionsApril 2013 8www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 9. Spoiler Alert! Two Big Points, …A. Chaos is the manifestation of inconsistency.– It is a sign that the controller is failingB. To get Collaboration, you need to value it and beconsistent– You can’t have collaboration using primarilyprescriptive procedures• even if your values are aligned to collaborate– You can’t have collaboration using discretionaryprocedures• if you values are primarily aligned against collaborationApril 2013 9www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 10. “Values”Archetypes(Inspired byItaly Talgam)Adaptive Team ModelATM(Entin, Serfaty, Deckert)Feedback Controllersand theController’s Internal Model(Jerry Weinberg)How to MakeControl ChoicesOrganizationandActivity Types(Reasons & Perrow)Administrative ControlsPrescriptiveversusDiscretionary(James Reasons)OODA ModelObserveOrientDecideAct(John Boyd)Finding the Path through these Models…April 2013 10www.CongruentCompliance.com4 - 10Adaptive DiscretionaryControl Model
  • 11. Feedback ControllersApril 2013 11www.CongruentCompliance.com4
  • 12. Feedback Controllers - Overview• The system of control must have– an image of the desired state (D)– the ability to observe the actual state (A) (Testing Info & Other Outputs)– The ability to compare state A and D for differences– The ability to act on the system to bring A closer to D. (Resources & Req.)• Control is exercised through Resources and RequirementsApril 2013 12www.CongruentCompliance.comControllerTesting InformationOther OutputsReq.TestingResourcesRandomnessReq.ResourcesRandomnessReq.Testing InformationOther Outputs
  • 13. ControllerFeedback Controller’s Model• The system of control must have– an image of the desired state (D)– the ability to observe the actual state (A)(Testing Info & Other Outputs)– the ability to compare state A and D for differencesApril 2013 13www.CongruentCompliance.comTesting InformationOther OutputsTestingTesting InformationOther OutputsDesired State (D)orModelControllerActual State (A)orInformation≠?11
  • 14. Administrative ControlsApril 2013 14www.CongruentCompliance.com5
  • 15. Intermittent additions of organizational wisdom to Principles,Rules, Procedures – as a result of Incidentsand Non-Conformance.Frequent comparisons of output measures w/org. objectives.Deviant performance corrected.Frequent comparisons of output measures w/org. objectives.Deviant performance corrected. Congruent performance storedas rules & procedures.Administrative ControlsApril 2013 15www.CongruentCompliance.comOUTPUTFeedforward / Prescriptive Feedback / DiscretionaryOrganizationalStandards,ObjectivesPrinciples, Rules, ProceduresHumanPerformanceTraining, Experience,Using ToolsProcessbeingControlledOutputMeasuresXZeroDeviationIncidents,Non-Conformance
  • 16. Integrating Prescriptive/Discretionary Controlswith Resources/RequirementsApril 2013 16www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingTesting InformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionaryAdministrative ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomness
  • 17. April 2013 17www.CongruentCompliance.comHow to Make a Control Choice6
  • 18. Rules and procedures notapplicable. Task performance atthe discretion of theindividual.Requires a mixture ofprescriptive control by rules andprocedures and discretionaryperformance by the individual.Requires mixture ofprescriptive and discretionaryperformance control.Pre-programmed prescriptiveprocess control possible by rulesand procedures.April 2013 18www.CongruentCompliance.comDetermine Control Choice based onException / Solution Characteristics of ActivityFEWEXCEPTION CASESMANYEXCEPTION CASESEASYSEARCHFORSOLUTIONSHARDSEARCHFORSOLUTIONSTasks routine, repetitive, well-structured and predictable.Tasks non-routine, but the manyexceptional cases are relativelysimple to analyze.Work routine, but problems aresometimes vague and poorlyconventionalized.Tasks non-routine, poorlystructured and unpredictable.
  • 19. April 2013 19www.CongruentCompliance.comControl Choicesfor Varieties of OrganizationsFEWEXCEPTION CASESMANYEXCEPTION CASESEASYSEARCHFORSOLUTIONSHARDSEARCHFORSOLUTIONSRailwaysPostal ServicesConstructionTraditional BankingRoad HaulageNuclear Power PlantsChemical Process PlantsModern AircraftAdvanced ManufacturingAnesthesiaArchitectureMaintenance and RepairOil ExplorationPolice WorkScientific ResearchModern Military OperationsInvestment BankingMacro-economicsCrisis ManagementProject ManagementRecovering fromDesign Basis Accidents / IssuesProduction LinesR&D OrganizationsPRESCRIPTIVE MIXTUREMIXTUREDISCRETION
  • 20. Integrating Control Choice withAdministrative Controls• Analyze the organization and task activities to make Control Choices– Exception Cases– Search for SolutionsApril 2013 20www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingTesting InformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionaryAdministrative ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomnessTask: Exception CasesSearch for Solutions
  • 21. The OODA ModelApril 2013 21www.CongruentCompliance.com7
  • 22. The OODA ModelApril 2013 22www.CongruentCompliance.comOBSERVATIONSHERITAGE, TRADITION,CULTURE, ANALYSIS,EXPERIENCE,NEW INFORMATIONDECISION ACTIONOBSERVE ORIENT DECIDE ACTImplicit Guidance& ControlUnfolding Interaction With EnvironmentVALUESFeedbackUnfoldingCircumstances• OODA is the engine inside the Controller– “Orient” steers you, based on your actual Values.• Is your Orientation compatible with Collaboration?
  • 23. Expanding OODAApril 2013 23www.CongruentCompliance.com• Observations are– Evolving, Inconsistent, Uncertain, Incomplete, Dependent• Orientation includes– Sense making– Managing alternative views– Sharing implicit knowledge– Managing uncertainty and risk– Developing courses of action– Considering alternative models• Decisions– Process of repeatedly deciding• Observe more, Orient more, or take Action– Managing deliberation, Fusing information, Choosing what to donextO O D AControlInteraction With EnvironmentFeedback
  • 24. Integrating OODA with theController’s Model• OODA Engine• “Orient” Compass– Orient is the most important part - it shapes everything elseApril 2013 24www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingInformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionary ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomnessTask: Exception CasesSearch for Solutions
  • 25. “Values”: Control Orientation ArchetypesApril 2013 25www.CongruentCompliance.com8
  • 26. For Each “Values” Archetype• Who’s contributions valued?• How clear and specific are the expectationsand sanctions?• What organizational / team structure is implied?• What are the levels and types of control beingexercised?• How is control given, and taken back?• Who is making decisions and how are theymade?• How would coordination occur?April 2013 26www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 27. “Values” Archetypes of Control …• The Cloud– The control vision of the inaccessible “Them”• You don’t contribute, I make you conform thru clarity• The Unchanging Book– Control details are spelled out for - FOREVER• We don’t contribute or question, we serve• Justice Potter Stewart– “I know it when I see it” - fulfill my inner vision• I’m in charge, but I won’t give youexplicit direction: figure-it-out for yourselfApril 2013 27www.CongruentCompliance.com121314
  • 28. … “Values” Archetypes• Ballroom Dancing– A flowing, living, dynamic control process• The contribution of everyone is valued as we allshare and inspire within a shaped context• Lewis and Clark– Control focus on everyoneunderstanding “Meaning and Intent"– The group and individuals• take initiative, are innovative, flexible, able to actindependently, and cooperate within a shared contextApril 2013 28www.CongruentCompliance.com1516
  • 29. Integrating Values into the“Orient” of OODA• Values ♥April 2013 29www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingInformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionary ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomnessTask: Exception CasesSearch for Solutions♥
  • 30. Adaptive Team ModelApril 2013 30www.CongruentCompliance.com9
  • 31. Ind. / TeamCharacteristics+Team StructureTEAM PROCESSESTaskworkTeam StructureAdaptive Team ModelApril 2013 31www.CongruentCompliance.comSOperationalConditionsStressTeamwork TaskworkPerformanceDECISION-MAKINGADAPTIONCOORDINATION ADAPTIONSTRUCTURAL ADAPTIONTeamwork• Several Team Structures• Tempo: Routine, High-Tempo, and Emergency• Shared Implicit Knowledge• Be sensitive to other member’s workload and performance when high-tempo17
  • 32. Integrating “Adaptive” into OODA andController’s Model• Adapting– Structure, Coordination, Decision-MakingApril 2013 32www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingInformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionary ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomnessTask: Exception CasesSearch for Solutions♥11, 17
  • 33. What Management Wants• Show you are thoughtful about the topic• Be able to explain what Collaboration and Controlmeans to you– Describe all the parts to yourself• Verbally, written, drawing, pictures, examples– Check your description versus your experiences– Explain it / have a conversation with a trustedcolleague• Revise, refine, adapt– Share more broadly, as appropriate– Make it yoursApril 2013 33www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 34. SummaryApril 2013 34www.CongruentCompliance.com10Adaptive DiscretionaryControl Model
  • 35. A Question, …April 2013 35www.CongruentCompliance.com• Why do controllers seem to over-constrain the actionsand options of people doing the testing tasks – whennot warranted?– Managing controller’s anxiety and self-preservation?Enables blame?– It is simpler to manage, less effort for the controller?– Misaligned values?– Models are frozen, can’t adapt?– Models exclude sharing or collaboration?– Misunderstanding task space control requirements?– Failure to train the people?– It creates abundant evidence of task activity?
  • 36. Two Big Points, …A. Chaos is the manifestation of inconsistency.– It is a sign that the controller is failingB. To get Collaboration, you need to value it and beconsistent– You can’t have collaboration using primarilyprescriptive procedures• even if your values are aligned to collaborate– You can’t have collaboration using discretionaryprocedures• if you values are primarily aligned against collaborationApril 2013 36www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 37. Ten Summary Points …1. Understand feedback controllers (Weinberg)2. Control is exercised through resources andrequirements (Weinberg)3. Prescriptive and discretionary controls (Reasons) arepart of the resources and requirements (Weinberg)4. Control method (Reasons) choice should be based onthe exception and solution characteristics of the task(Reasons and Perrow)5. Controller’s have an internal model to compare toobservations (Weinberg)6. The controller (Weinberg) is driven by the engine ofthe OODA model (Boyd)April 2013 37www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 38. … Ten Summary Points7. The most important part of OODA is “Orient”. That iswhere your values are stored and accessed. (Boyd)8. Different archetypes of values (Jones [and Talgam])influence and color the options available to “Orient”in OODA (Boyd). Some archetypes fostercollaboration, others discourage it.9. The OODA model (Boyd) adapts through the processdescribed by the Adaptive Team Model - structure,coordination, decision-making (Serfaty)10. When OODA (Boyd) and ATM (Serfaty) are healthy[e.g., Values are aligned (Jones)] there are multipleoptional models available to the controller (Weinberg)April 2013 38www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 39. QuestionsApril 2013 40www.CongruentCompliance.comTestingInformationOther OutputsController≠?Prescriptive andDiscretionary ControlsReq.ResourcesRandomnessTask: Exception CasesSearch for Solutions♥Adaptive DiscretionaryControl Model
  • 40. Direct References …April 2013 41www.CongruentCompliance.com• Feedback Controllers and theController’s Internal Model– Gerald (Jerry) Weinberg• “Responding To Significant Software Events”,See Appendix D: Control Models (~ $10)– http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_2.html• Administrative Controls – Prescriptive/Feedforward &Discretionary/Feedback Controls– James Reasons• “Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents”:Chapter 4, “The Human Contribution” page 61 to 64– http://www.amazon.com/Managing-Risks-Organizational-Accidents-Reason/dp/1840141050
  • 41. … Direct References …April 2013 42www.CongruentCompliance.com• Control Choices– Organization and Activity Types;Number of Exception Cases , Search for Solutions– James Reasons• “Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents”:Chapter 4, “The Human Contribution” page 64 to 68– http://www.amazon.com/Managing-Risks-Organizational-Accidents-Reason/dp/1840141050• OODA Model- Observe, Orient, Decide, Act– David Ullman• ““OO-OO-OO!” The Sound of a Broken OODA Loop” (free)– http://www.crosstalkonline.org/storage/issue-archives/2007/200704/200704-Ullman.pdf
  • 42. … Direct ReferencesApril 2013 43www.CongruentCompliance.com• Values Archetypes– Italy Talgam• “Lead like the great conductors”, TED Talk (free)• Adaptive Team Model- Adaptive: Structure, Coordination, Decision-Making– Entin, Serfaty, Deckert• “Adaptive Team Model” from “Team Coordination Training” fromChapter 9 of “Making Decisions Under Stress”by Cannon-Bowers and Salas– http://psycnet.apa.org/books/10278/008• Entin “The Effects of Leader Role and Task Load on TeamPerformance and Process in an AWACS Environment”, (free) page 4– http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA468045
  • 43. Indirect References …April 2013 44www.CongruentCompliance.com• James Bullock, Marie Benesh, Gerald M. Weinberg– Roundtable on Project Management (~$8)• http://www.amazon.com/Roundtable-Project-Management-Dialogues-ebook/dp/B005CX919Q• Tom Coach– “The Bishop’s Boy’s: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright”, chapter 12, 19, and 20• Sidney Dekker– Ten Questions About Human Error – A New View of Human Factors and System Safety (~$15)• http://www.amazon.com/Questions-About-Human-Error-Transportation/dp/0805847456• John Gall– Systemantics: How Systems Work and Especially How They Fail (~$3)• http://www.amazon.com/Systemantics-Systems-Work-Especially-They/dp/0812906748• Elizabeth Gilbert– “On Nurturing Creativity” and “having “ a genius. TED Talk (free)• http://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_gilbert_on_genius.html• Hillel Glazer– High Performance Operations (~$30)• http://www.amazon.com/High-Performance-Operations-Compliance-Competitive/dp/0132779889• Don Gray– “Managing in Mayberry: An examination of three distinct leadership styles” (free)• http://www.donaldegray.com/managing-in-mayberry-an-examination-of-three-distinct-leadership-styles/• Erih Hollnagel– The ETTO Principle: Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-off (~$30)• http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0754676781/ref=olp_product_details?ie=UTF8&me=&seller=
  • 44. … Indirect ReferencesApril 2013 45www.CongruentCompliance.com• Robert Mager and Peter Pipe– Analyzing Performance Problems: or You Really Oughta Wanna (~$10)• http://www.amazon.com/Analyzing-Performance-Problems-Really-Wanna-How/dp/1879618176• Roger Nierenberg– Maestro: A Surprising Story About Leading By Listening (~$5)• http://www.amazon.com/Maestro-Surprising-Story-Leading-Listening/dp/1591842883• Steve Smith– “Coaching Your Personal Board of Directors” Workshop Session• Gerald (Jerry) Weinberg– “Quality Software Management: Volume 1 - Systems Thinking”, chapter 1 to 7• http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html– “How Software Is Built” (~ $10)• http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html– “Why Software Gets in Trouble” (~ $10)• http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html– “How To Observe Software Systems” (~ $10)• http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html– “An Introduction to General System Thinking” (~ $10)• http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/General_Systems.html– “Passive Regulation: General Systems Design Principles (General Systems Thinking)” (~ $10)• http://www.amazon.com/Passive-Regulation-Principles-Thinking-ebook/dp/B0054E3AMM#reader_B0054E3AMM– “Active Regulation: General Systems Design Principles (General Systems Thinking)” (~ $10)• http://www.amazon.com/Active-Regulation-Principles-Thinking-ebook/dp/B0054E7ECY
  • 45. References – Images Credits …1. Cover Image http://www.ams-photography.com/2. Langley Aerodrome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LangleyAerodromeFlown.jpgThis image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.3. Wright Flyer I http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_flight2.jpgThis media file is in the public domain in the United States.4. Fall Road http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2011_10/fall-wilderness-road.jpgThe use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com5. Orange Country Road http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2010_10/country-roads-take-me-home.jpgThe use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com6. Walking Trail http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2010_03/spring-sunshine-walking-trail.jpgThe use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com7. Half Dome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HalfDomeTraffic.jpegI, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.8. Plank Walk http://www.flickr.com/photos/feen/2642583576/sizes/l/in/photostream/Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic. Some rights reserved by Aaron D. Feen9. Ice Climbing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eisklettern_kl_engstligenfall.jpgThis file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license by Schweiz .10. Grand Canyon http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/GrandCanyonWinter2008.JPGI, Pescaiolo, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain.April 2013 46www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 46. … References – Images Credits …11. Airplane takeoff http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qantas_a380_vh-oqa_takeoff_heathrow_arp.jpgThe copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain.12. Cloud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_in_nepal.jpgI, Krish Dulal, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: This file is licensed under the CreativeCommons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.13. Book http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bucheinband.15.Jh.r.Inkunabel.jpgThis image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.14. Potter Stewart http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_Supreme_Court_Justice_Potter_Stewart_-_1976_official_portrait.jpgThis work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms ofTitle 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code. See Copyright.15. Ballroom Dance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ballroom_dance_exhibition.jpgThis file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.16. Lewis and Clark http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis_and_Clark_1954_Issue-3c.jpgThis work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms ofTitle 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code.17. Coins / Change http://www.ams-photography.com/18. Violin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Violinconsruction3.JPGPermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.19. Border Collie http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BC_eye.jpgDitto20. Tic-Tac-Toe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tic_tac_toe.svgThis file is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common propertyand contains no original authorshipApril 2013 47www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 47. … References – Images Credits: Slide 3Squid http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Squid_komodo.jpgThis file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.Starfish http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red-knobbed.starfish.arp.jpgThis work has been released into the public domain by its author, Arpingstone. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not belegally possible; if so: Arpingstone grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions arerequired by law.Ant http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meat_eater_ant_feeding_on_honey02.jpgPermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version1.2 only as published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of thelicense is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License. Under the CC-BY-NC: you are free to copy, distribute, transmit andadapt this work provided that correct attribution is provided. Attribution must be provided in a prominent location to "Fir0002/Flagstaffotos".Portrait http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JuanGris.Portrait_of_Picasso.jpgThis is a faithful photographic reproduction of an original two-dimensional work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for thefollowing reason: Public domain This work is in the public domain in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 80 years orless. You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Note thatMexico has a term of 100 years and does not implement the rule of the shorter term, so this image may not be in the public domain in Mexico.Côte dIvoire has a general copyright term of 99 years, but it does implement the rule of the shorter term.Viking http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Martian_face_viking.jpgThis file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA. NASA copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected bycopyright unless noted".Clock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pareidolia_3.jpgPermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.Flower Painting http://www.jokelibrary.net/words/test_faces5.htmlFive Profiles - drawn by unknown.April 2013 48www.CongruentCompliance.com
  • 48. Griffin JonesThank you for attending this sessionPlease fill out the evaluation formApril 2013 49www.CongruentCompliance.comGriffin.Jones@CongruentCompliance.comCollaborating with people to enable projects to become agile, innovative, and compliant

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