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Methods2
Methods2
Methods2
Methods2
Methods2
Methods2
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Methods2
Methods2
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Methods2
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Methods2
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Methods2

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  • 1. CHAPTER8 Meetings and Teams: Conflicts and Interventions Griffin Harris Erica Howard Rachel Jermansky Thomas JacksonMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 2. Case Study: Gerald Sweeney • Senior Managing Director, likes efficiency and punctuality • Meetings are a waste – skips one of the weekly Wednesday meetings • New procedure introduced • Subordinates left in dark; therefore, punished by Sweeney’s superiorsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 3. “Meetings, Bloody Meetings” (182) • “...cul-de-sac where ideas are lured and quietly strangled” (181) – Sir Barnett Cocks • Most Problems: Waste of time and/or inconvenient interruptionMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 4. Values of Meetings • To announce organizational changes and keep employees up to date • To produce solutions and to increase the number of different solutions to organizational problems • To gain “buy-in” or acceptance of a decision through participation • To “cultivate members as individuals” and create group cohesion.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 5. Teams “Twice the work, half the credit.”Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 6. Primary Tension • “normal jitters and feelings of uneasiness experienced when groups first congregate” • First days of classes • Anxiety over • workload/work topic, • ability to perform, or • communication apprehension: anxiety about communicating, in general, • unpreparedness • team/individual past negative experienceMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 7. Secondary Tension • “the stress and strain that occurs in a group later in its development.” • Working in a group for a project • Procedural: process of interacting with group is unproductive. Still hopeful. • Equity: perception of inequality • Disproportionate share of responsibilities or ignored by power holders • Affective: personal dislike among individuals • Clouds mental vision • Substantive: “positive” legitimate conflict • promote creativity, sharing of ideas, tests group strength • should try to create disagreement to spur creativity and reach best productMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 8. Counterproductive Group Tendencies • Conformity • Ethnocentrism • Inadequate and Hidden Agendas • Competition vs Cooperation • Tolerating High-Level Team AbstractionMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 9. Conformity • Group Think • The Asch Effect • Goal Lining • All three are threats to team success • All Create an illusion of group support • Collaborative interaction is diminishedMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 10. Groupthink • Irving Janis popularized the term • Tendency for groups to make a decision without considering alternatives • Reduces creativity and spontaneity in meetings, resulting in shortsighted solutionsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 11. The Asch Effect • Solomon Asch Experiment • 4 out of 5 yielded to the pressures at least 1 time out of the 12 Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 12. Goal Lining • Reach the goal is the only objective • What is wrong with this?Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 13. Cultural Elitism • Ethnocentrism: “Tendency to think that our own culture is superior to other cultures” • Affective and Equity TensionsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 14. Inadequate Agendas • Problems with Agendas • Created to provide an illusion of structure and order instead of actually facilitating structure and order • Ignored • DisregardedMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 15. Hidden Agendas • Personal/Political meeting objectives that are not shared with the entire group • EXAMPLE: Goalof department is to find out what resources can be cut and employees share things or hide things that may benefit them personallyMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 16. Competition vs Cooperation • Cooperation facilitates effective communication • High ego-involved individuals create competitio • Cooperation differs from conformityMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 17. Tolerating High-Level Team Abstraction • Vague Vocabulary • EXAMPLE: Benefits, success & love • Each member of the group may define “success” differentlyMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 18. Intervention • Tool of technique used to alter behavior that would likely not be altered had there been no interventionMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 19. Types of InterventionsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 20. Buzz Groups • Used to increase participation and decrease potential for problems to equity conflictMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 21. Brainstorming and Brainwriting • Idea generating intervention that involves indentification and recording of ideas relevant to topic being discussed • Adam and Golanes say groups should take a break after brainstorming polling brainstorming – Leader polls group members. • This technique is good because it makes everyone participate • Brainwriting: individual writes down ideas and draw from list during brainstorming sessionMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 22. Normal Group Technique (NGT) • Developed by Delbecq and Van de Van • Participants write down their solutions to a problem • Ideas are expressed, which are then written on a board • Leader reviews ideas • After clarifications, participants rank top five ideas • The votes are then tallied, and the ideas with more votes are discussedMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 23. Problem Census • Members are polled initially regarding their individual perspective and perceptions of problem • Able to derive (before beginning) a better sense of task at hand and clearer method of how group intends to meet project goalsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 24. Risk Technique • Requires participants to play the role of devils advocate • After team decided on solution, each member plays devil’s advocate and identifies a risk with that solution. • The risks are recorded and proposal reevaluated. • Most times reevaluation doesn’t result in elimination of proposal.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 25. General Procedural Model (GPM) • Combines many of the techniques • Steps: • 1) Identify the problem: clarifies the objective for meeting (good idea to use problem census) • 2) Brainstorm • 3) Evaluation • 4) Selection of best idea: tries to come up with best solution (should consider risk technique) • 5) Put solution into effect: decide when and how this happensMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 26. Making Interventions Work • Interventions are only as good as the people who attempt to use them. Intelligence, knowledge and communication skills do not always guarantee effective teamwork • In order for an intervention to work group members need to become participant-observers • Participant-observers are those in the group who concurrently participates and observes the provess of participation. They will comment on items on the agenda and also ensure that the agenda is followedMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 27. Leadership Responsibilities • Plan for the meeting. Is the meeting necessary and what will be discussed, • Get the meeting started. Don’t waste too much time at the beginning with small talk. • Keep the discussion on track. Stay on topic, meetings usually have time limits and you don’t want to have to rush at the end. • Summarize periodically • Solicit comments from taciturn members. Just because a member of the group isn’t talking doesn’t mean that they have nothing to share.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 28. Leadership Responsibilities (Cont.) • Curtail verbose members. Don’t let one member of the group monopolize the discussion. • Employ Interventions. The leader should reduce negative group tensions. • Conclude the meeting. Summarize what you have discussed and make other important announcements regarding the next meeting. • Plan for the next session. Figure out what will be discussed and handle any logistics.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 29. Leadership Styles • Authoritarian leaders are non-democratic and dictorial. They would determine a meeting agenda. • Laissez-faire leaders have a “hands off” approach and believe that the group can guide itself. They assume that if an agenda is needed, the group would decide to create one. • Democractic leaders seek input and advice from the other group members. Decisions that they make are done after considering concerns of the group. They would seek input for the agenda and then create it themselves.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 30. Collective Presentations • Team presentation have to appear as one presentation rather than disjointed parts that donʼt flow • There are 3 categories of collective presentations • Panel Discussions • Symposia • Team PresentationsMonday, October 24, 2011
  • 31. Panel Discussions • A group of individuals discussing a topic and are concurrently observed by an audience. • Members can begin with a prepared statement, but most comments are impromptu and reactions to what others have said • Usually have moderators to keep the conversation moving.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 32. Symposia • A collection of individual presentations • There is no collective work by the participants • Participants will usually have differing perspectives on the same topic, in order to help increase discussion.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 33. Team Presentations • A collective effort to a single presentation • The difference from other forms of presentation is the members will have worked together prior to the presentation in order to present a cohesive message.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 34. Characteristics of a Quality Presentation • The introduction is clear, descriptive, inclusive, and engaging • The presentation content comprehensively addresses the charge and describes the response.In an oral presentation, each person knows what others will be saying. • Transitional statements have been considered and created that link one section to another. • The conclusion will summarize the entirety of the report and not simply the last segment.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 35. Familiarity with All Material • There will be no undesired content repetition. • There will be no unexpected contradictory statements. • There will be no surprising omissions. • Members will be able to make intelligent references to other person’s segments. • There will be no sections that are clearly superficial when juxtaposed with others of significant depth. • Individual members and the group as a whole will adhere to time limits.Monday, October 24, 2011
  • 36. Steps to Achieving Quality Presentation • Use a modification of the general procedural model technique. • Divide responsibilities and prepare individual outlines. • Review Outlines. • Discuss sequence and transitions. • Identify message style. • Plan the introduction and the conclusion. • Practice individually. • Practice the team presentation. • Evaluation. •Monday, October 24, 2011

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