Unit 3 U S


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Unit 3 U S

  1. 1. Unit 3 Growth and Change (1790-1860 )
  2. 2. Unit 3 Growth and Change 1790-1860 Chapter 7 Nationalism and Economic Growth Chapter 8 Regional Societies Chapter 9 Working For Reform
  3. 3. Key Terms for CHAPTERS 7, 8, & 9 <ul><li>1. Adams-Onis Treaty 32. Nativism </li></ul><ul><li>2. William Lloyd Garrison 33. Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>3. Harriet Tubman 34. Sojourner Truth </li></ul><ul><li>4. gosh-darned do-gooder republican women 35. Elias Howe </li></ul><ul><li>5. Samuel Slater 36. Horace Mann </li></ul><ul><li>6. Dorothea Dix 37. Richard Allen </li></ul><ul><li>7. Kitty Greene 38. Eli Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>8. Susanna Haswell Rowson 39. Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>9. Harriet Beecher Stowe 40. Cyrus McCormick </li></ul><ul><li>10. &quot;Parson&quot; Mason Weems 41. Robert Fulton/the Clermont </li></ul><ul><li>11. Denmark Vesey/Nat Turner 42. Samuel F. B. Morse </li></ul><ul><li>12. Second Great Awakening-1800 43. Black codes or slave codes </li></ul><ul><li>13 Market Revolution 44. Seneca Falls Convention </li></ul><ul><li>14. Henry David Thoreau/Ralph W. Emerson 45. entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>15. McGuffey Reader 46. Samuel Colt </li></ul><ul><li>16. the spoils system 47. Noah Webster </li></ul><ul><li>17. Temperance Leagues 48. Persister </li></ul><ul><li>18. Underground Railroad 49. Maysville Road Veto </li></ul><ul><li>19. Tariff of Abominations 50. Nullification </li></ul><ul><li>20. Rachel Robards Donelson 51. Indian Removal Act/Trail of Tears </li></ul><ul><li>21. Sequoyah 52. Whigs/National Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>22. Bank of the United States 53. Jacksonian Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>23. Lydia Maria Child 54. Moses Brown </li></ul><ul><li>24. Susan B. Anthony 55. Liberia </li></ul><ul><li>25. Abolitionist/Anti-Slavery Movement 56. Seneca Falls, NY-1848 </li></ul><ul><li>26. &quot;gag&quot; rule 57. suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>27. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 58. Lucretia Mott </li></ul><ul><li>28. John C. Calhoun 59. Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><li>29. Old Hickory 60. King Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>mill girls 61. Francis Cabot Lowell </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Slater 62. Erie Canal </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 7: Nationalism and Economic Growth (1790-1840) <ul><li>“ The War of 1812 did not produce a clear-cut victory for the United States. It did, however, prove that the new nation could stand up to a major European power. Americans began to believe that the US could become a power in its own right, free from Europe’s influence and control.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nationalism <ul><li>National pride and loyalty with a healthy dose of ethnocentricity and, of course, xenophobia. Nationalism experienced huge growth as a result of the victory in the War of 1812. Now we could turn our attention to improving and expanding American culture. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section One: The Rise of Nationalism Continued... <ul><li>Relations with Britain -Monroe ordered Secretary of State, Richard Rush, to negotiate a disarmament plan with British foreign minister, Charles Bagot. - Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 : Reduced naval presence on Great Lakes -Monroe wanted settle disputes over fishing rights. - Convention of 1818 : Britain and the US agreed to allow both parties to fish in disputed waters </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section One: The Rise of Nationalism <ul><li>Nationalism Takes Root - Nationalism : National Pride and Loyalty - Much of the new nation pride came from the US victory in 1812 </li></ul>- Served as confirmation that the US was free from European Powers.
  8. 8. Section One: The Rise of Nationalism Continued... <ul><li>Relations with Spain </li></ul><ul><li>-Jefferson wanted to purchase West Florida from the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>-In 1810, a group of settlers tore down the Spanish Flag and replaced it with one representing the “Republic of West Florida.” </li></ul><ul><li>-President Madison felt that area should have been a part of the Louisiana Purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sent in troops to support his claim and the revolt against Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>-Spain was too busy with its problems at home to resist the US takeover of west Florida </li></ul><-----Flag of the Republic of West Florida
  9. 9. Section One: The Rise of Nationalism Continued... <ul><li>The First Seminole War </li></ul><ul><li>-Madison saw that Spain began to move its Troops out of Florida completely </li></ul><ul><li>-Decided to take over the rest of Florida </li></ul><ul><li>-John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, began negotiations to purchase Florida from Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>-Seminoles began to raid East Florida and threaten talks </li></ul><ul><li>-Order General Andrew Jackson to stop raids—he had no authority to enter FL!!! </li></ul><ul><li>-Jackson went so far as to execute two British Officials who aided Seminoles </li></ul><ul><li>-Monroe feared that Jackson’s attack hurt talks and </li></ul><ul><li>-Claimed Jackson acted on his own, but actually Spain was scared and so made an excellent treaty with US </li></ul><ul><li>- Adams-Onis Treaty : Spain transferred Florida to the US. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Section One: The Rise of Nationalism Continued... <ul><li>Monroe Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>-The United States will not interfere with any European Powers already in the Latin and South American regions. However, anyone not already in those regions attempting to establish colonies became “dangerous to our [United States] peace and safety”. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Market Revolution <ul><li>Instead of making everything by hand and the pioneer spirit of making it/growing it yourself as “rugged individualism”, we shift into a capitalist culture of buying and selling more and more ready-made things. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy will be built on providing goods and services to others who pay for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs —people who take the risk and start their own business make tons of money. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Dream- - </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section Two: Challenges of Growth <ul><li>The Economy </li></ul><ul><li>-During the war of 1812, the US was forced to produce its own goods because of embargoes </li></ul><ul><li>-This actually boosted the US economy greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>-Due to economic growth, people were calling for a national financial system </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section Two: Challenges of Growth Continued... <ul><li>The American System </li></ul><ul><li>-Henry Clay proposed to increase federal involvement in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>-Three Features </li></ul><ul><li>-Provide sound currency </li></ul><ul><li>-Protective Tariff to encourage industrial development </li></ul><ul><li>-National transportation system to united North, South, and West. </li></ul><ul><li>- Tariff of 1816 : Placed a 25% duty on most imported factory goods </li></ul><ul><li>To make ours a better price </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section Two: Challenges of Growth Continued... <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>- National Road : Road stretching from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, West Virginia and then later stretch as far as Vandalia, Illinois. Paid for by Federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>- Erie Canal : 363 mile route that was intended to be faster and cheaper than roads—paid for as a federal improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>- Steamboats: Because Midwest farmers had trouble moving boats upriver, they need to create something with MORE POWER! Robert Fulton’s Clermont . </li></ul><ul><li>- Locomotives : Even MORE POWER! Advantage over steamboats is that it can go anywhere they built tracks, rather than being bound by rivers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section Two: Challenges of Growth Continued... <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>-Period of dynamic changes in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>-Steam engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamboats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They figured out how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to make better seals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With welding, which is very </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good because they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to blow up regularly. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Transportation Revolution <ul><li>National Road </li></ul><ul><li>Erie Canal—song </li></ul><ul><li>Canals, roads, steamboats, RxR’s </li></ul><ul><li>Locks on the Erie Canal </li></ul><ul><li>The Erie Canal rises 566 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie through 57 (originally 83) locks. From tide-water level at Troy, the Erie Canal rises through a series of locks in the Mohawk Valley to an elevation of 420 feet above sea-level at the summit level at Rome. Continuing westward, it descends to an elevation of 363 feet above sea-level at the junction with the Oswego Canal, and finally rises to an elevation of 565.6 feet above sea-level at the Niagara River. </li></ul><ul><li>How a Lock Works </li></ul><ul><li>In the early days of the canal, when horses and mules walked the towpath, this is how a canal boat passed through a lock: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Erie Canal <ul><li>Words and Music By: William S. Allen </li></ul><ul><li>I've got a mule, Her name is Sal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. She's a good old worker And a good old pal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. We've hauled some barges in our day Filled with lumber, coal and hay And I know ev'ry inch of the way From Albany to Buffalo. ohhhhh </li></ul><ul><li>Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>We better get along On our way, old gal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. ‘Cause you bet your life I'd never part with Sal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. Git up there, mule, here comes a lock, We'll make Rome 'bout six o'clock. One more trip and back we'll go Right back home to Buffalo. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. </li></ul>     Listen to Judy Caplan Ginsburg h and David Marler p erform this song .
  18. 18. Inventions & Improvements <ul><li>Cyrus McCormick—the grain harvester or reaper </li></ul><ul><li>Elias Howe—sewing machine </li></ul><ul><li>Horace Mann—public education using the McGuffey </li></ul><ul><li>Readers and Webster’s Blue-Backed Speller </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton gin—Eli Whitney (and interchangeable parts) </li></ul><ul><li>Susannah Haswell Rowson—fictional novel Charlotte Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Parson Mason Weems— The Life of George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>John Deere—steel shod plow </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Fulton —The Clermont, Fulton’s Folly, the steamboat </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel B.F. Morse—telegraph “What God Hath Wrought” </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Slater & Moses Brown—the textile mill </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothea Dix—more humane treatment in mental asylums and prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Colt--revolver </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cyrus Hall McCormick: Inventor <ul><li>Cyrus Hall McCormick (February 15, 1809 - May 13, 1884) was an American inventor (of Irish descent) who developed the mechanical reaper. His new machine combined many of the steps involved in harvesting crops, greatly increased crop yields, decreased the number of field hands needed for the harvest, lowered costs, and revolutionized farming. </li></ul><ul><li>McCormick had little education. His father, Robert McCormick, was a farmer and blacksmith who invented many useful devices to use on his farm. Robert had tried to invent a reaper (a machine that harvests grain), but failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus McCormick invented a horse-drawn reaper that used back-and-forth-moving cutting blades and a revolving device that pushed the cut grain onto the back of the machine. He patented his &quot;Improvement in Machines for Reaping Small Grain&quot; on June 21, 1834. This very noisy machine is said to have scared the horses, but it made farming much more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>He began to produce and sell the McCormick reaper, which was in demand by local Virginia farmers. He later opened a factory in Chicago, Illinois, and began the McCormick Harvesting Company. After a successful life, McCormick died a very wealthy man. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872) <ul><li>Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872) was an American inventor and painter. After a successful career painting in oils, first painting historical scenes and then portraits, Morse built the first American telegraph around 1835. </li></ul><ul><li>A telegraph sends electrical signals over a long distance, through wires. In 1830, Joseph Henry (1797-1878) made the first long-distance telegraphic device - he sent an electronic current for over a mile on wire that activated an electromagnet, causing a bell to ring. </li></ul><ul><li>Morse patented a working telegraph machine in 1837, with help from his business partners Leonard Gale and Alfred Vail. Morse used a dots-and-spaces code for the letters of the alphabet and the numbers, the Morse Code. The Morse Code was later improved to use dots, dashes and spaces: for example E is dot, T is dash, A is dot-dash, N is dash-dot, O is dash-dash-dash, I is dot-dot, S is dot-dot-dot, etc.). By 1838, Morse could send 10 words per minute. Congress provided funds for building a telegraph line between Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, in 1843. Morse sent the first telegraphic message from Washington D.C. to Baltimore on May 24, 1844; the message was: &quot;What hath God wrought?&quot; The telegraph revolutionized long-distance communications. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>ROBERT FULTON (1765-1815), was an American inventor, mechanical and civil engineer, and artist. He is best known for designing and building the Clermont, the first commercially successful steamboat. The Clermont ushered in a new era in the history of transportation. In addition to his work with steamboats, Fulton made important contributions to the development of the submarine and to canal transportation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ROBERT FULTON <ul><li>Builds the Clermont. Fulton directed the construction of a steamboat in New York in 1807. Registered as The North River Steamboat of Clermont, the ship was generally called the Clermont, which was also the name of Robert Livingston's home. On Aug. 17, 1807, the steamboat started on its first successful trip up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany. After some alterations, the boat began to provide regular passenger service on the Hudson. </li></ul><ul><li>The Clermont was not the first steamboat to be built, but it was the first to become a practical and financial success. Part of Fulton's success was due to his concern for passenger comfort. His handbills announced: &quot;Dinner will be served at exactly 2 o'clock ... Tea with meats ... Supper at 8 in the evening&quot; and &quot;A shelf has been added to each berth, on which gentlemen will please put their boots, shoes, and clothes, that the cabin will not be encumbered.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>After the success of the Clermont, Fulton became occupied with building and operating other boats. He also defended the monopolies that state legislatures had granted to him and Robert Livingston. </li></ul><ul><li>Fulton designed and built a steam-powered warship, Fulton the First, for the defense of New York harbor in the War of 1812, but he died on Feb. 24, 1815, before the completion of this remarkable craft. The statue of Fulton in Statuary Hall, in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., honors his achievements. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Susannah Haswell Rowson <ul><li>(c.1762-1824) </li></ul><ul><li>The sentimental novels of the early national period were considered a danger to society and were criticized for the corrupting influence they had on the minds of their mostly young and female audience. </li></ul><ul><li>They told tales of vice and intrigue that purported to be &quot;based on fact&quot; and also advocated the need for better female education that would prepare young women against sweet-talking seducers. Extremely popular in America after the Revolution and throughout the nineteenth century, Charlotte Temple and The Coquette were two of the most successful novels of the period. They offer the modern student a glimpse at the earliest American popular fiction. Charlotte Temple, the most popular novel in America until Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin , went through over 200 editions. It tells of a beautiful English girl who at the age of 15 is courted by and runs away with a British lieutenant named Montraville. </li></ul><ul><li>Susanna Rowson, the daughter of a British naval officer, was one of the most accomplished women of the early national period. Actress, song-writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, and essayist, she was also the founder of one of the most progressive academies for young women of her day. She remained best-known, however, for Charlotte Temple, a novel that promised to be &quot;of service to [the]...young and unprotected woman in her first entrance into life.&quot; </li></ul>
  24. 24. SEQUOYAH <ul><li>As an adult, Sequoyah became interested in the written language of whites. At that time, there was no written form of the Cherokee language. In 1809, Sequoyah began to develop a system for writing Cherokee words. He created a set of 86 symbols to represent each of the speech sounds used in spoken Cherokee. He perfected the system in 1821. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all of the Cherokee could learn Sequoyah's writing system in a short time. The Cherokee used it to publish books and newspapers in their own language. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoyah became active for a time in Cherokee political affairs. In 1828, he moved to the part of the Indian Territory that is now Oklahoma to join the western Cherokee. When the eastern Cherokee were forced to migrate west in 1838, Sequoyah worked to reestablish unity among the two groups. Later, he traveled to Mexico seeking a lost group of Cherokee. He died there in August 1843. In 1917, Oklahoma placed a statue of Sequoyah in Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. </li></ul>SEQUOYAH (1775?-1843),aka George Gist, a Cherokee Indian, is best known for inventing a system for writing the Cherokee language. His name is often spelled Sequoya. The giant sequoia tree and Sequoia National Park in California were named after him, using the Latin spelling of his name. Many details about Sequoyah's life are unknown or uncertain. He was born in Loudon County, Tennessee. Most historians believe his father was white and his mother was Cherokee or part-Cherokee. Sequoyah spoke little or no English. He was married and had several children.
  25. 25. The Cherokee Syllabary <ul><li>The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix rolled off the presses on February 28, 1828 and had an international circulation. Editor Boudinot was immediately beset with financial problems, one of which was his yearly salary of $300.00. He requested, and got, a substantial raise and an assistant in late 1829 thanks to the efforts of Principal Chief John Ross. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Jacksonian Democracy <ul><li>Elections of 1824 & 1826 </li></ul><ul><li>The Corrupt Bargain—JQAdams named Henry Clay as Secretary of State in return for his votes. Clay sold out. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacksonian Democrats gear up for the next election. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spoils system </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff of Abominations </li></ul><ul><li>Nullification Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Maysville Road Veto </li></ul><ul><li>War of the Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Van Buren—Ruin Panic of 1837— </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Whig Party </li></ul>
  27. 27. Section 3&4: Jackson <ul><li>The Missouri Compromise of 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>-The agreement admitted Missouri in to the Union as a slave state, but admitted Maine as a free state to balance it out. </li></ul><ul><li>-Banned slavery north of the latitude 36-30, Missouri’s southern border. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay negotiated this deal. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Missouri Compromise 1820 <ul><li>Through the efforts of Henry Clay, &quot;the great pacificator,&quot; a compromise was finally reached on March 3, 1820. The debate was over the expansion of slavery in the newly acquired LA Purchase. South, pro slavery; North, anti-slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue was resolved with a two-part compromise. The northern part of Massachusetts became Maine and was admitted to the Union as a free state at the same time that Missouri was admitted as a slave state, thereby maintaining a balance of 12 slave and 12 free states. In addition, an imaginary line was drawn at 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, and any portions of the Louisiana Territory lying north of the compromise line would be free; however, the act provided that fugitive slaves &quot;escaping into any... state or territory of the United States...may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service&quot; -- and even in the free territories, &quot;slavery and involuntary servitude ... in the punishment of crimes&quot; was not prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinating Fact:   The Missouri Compromise was repealed by the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott decision. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Map of the MO Compromise
  30. 30. Section 3&4: Jackson Continued <ul><li>The Election of 1828 </li></ul><ul><li>-Andrew ”Old Hickory” Jackson became the “common man’s president” despite the fact that he was a rich slave-owner in TN </li></ul><ul><li>-Election focused on personalities rather than issues. </li></ul><ul><li>-smear tactics, especially against Jackson’s beloved wife Rachel </li></ul><ul><li>-Jackson wins—but Rachel dies before he is sworn in. </li></ul><ul><li>-HUGE bash at the White House, involving </li></ul><ul><li>drinking, broken crockery and dancing </li></ul><ul><li>on tables! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Section 3&4: Jackson Continued <ul><li>New Government </li></ul><ul><li>- Spoils System : “To the victor goes the spoils!” Jackson rewarded his supports by giving them government appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>- Rotation in Office : Periodic replacement of office officials </li></ul><ul><li>-Took out of office those whom he felt were idiots, or who were not “his”. REVENGE is sweet! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Jackson v. the Bank Jackson believed that the Bank of the United States represented the wealthy, urban Northerners, not the common man, so he wished to abolish it. When he failed to block the re-chartering of it, he simply pulled out all gov’t $ in it. It effectively killed the bank, and will cause the Panic of 1837, during Van Buren’s administration .
  33. 33. King Andrew I <ul><li>After his unprecedented veto of the Bank bill, President Andrew Jackson's opponents accused him of abusing his Presidential powers. This cartoon depicted him as a tyrannical king, trampling on the Constitution and using his veto like a sword. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Section 3&4: Jackson Continued <ul><li>Jackson’s Indian Policy </li></ul><ul><li>- Indian Removal Act : The relocation of Indian Tribes East of the Mississippi to present day Oklahoma. </li></ul><ul><li>-Trail of Tears </li></ul><ul><li>-Resistance led to the Second Seminole war—and Osceola was tricked into surrender. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Trail of Tears <ul><li>In 1830 the Congress of the United States passed the &quot;Indian Removal Act.&quot; Although many Americans were against the act, most notably Tennessee Congressman Davy Crockett, it passed anyway. President Jackson quickly signed the bill into law. The Cherokees attempted to fight removal legally by challenging the removal laws in the Supreme Court and by establishing an independent Cherokee Nation. At first the court seemed to rule against the Indians. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the Court refused to hear a case extending Georgia's laws on the Cherokee because they did not represent a sovereign nation. In 1832, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee on the same issue in Worcester v. Georgia. In this case Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was sovereign, making the removal laws invalid. The Cherokee would have to agree to removal in a treaty. The treaty then would have to be ratified by the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1835 the Cherokee were divided and despondent. Most supported Principal Chief John Ross, who fought the encroachment of whites starting with the 1832 land lottery. However, a minority (less than 500 out of 17,000 Cherokee in North Georgia) followed Major Ridge, his son John, and Elias Boudinot, who advocated removal. The Treaty of New Echota, signed by Ridge and members of the Treaty Party in 1835, gave Jackson the legal document he needed to remove the First Americans. Ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate sealed the fate of the Cherokee. Among the few who spoke out against the ratification were Daniel Webster and Henry Clay , but it passed by a single vote. In 1838 the United States began the removal to Oklahoma, fulfilling a promise the government made to Georgia in 1802. Ordered to move on the Cherokee, General John Wool resigned his command in protest, delaying the action. His replacement, General Winfield Scott, arrived at New Echota on May 17, 1838 with 7000 men. Early that summer General Scott and the United States Army began the invasion of the Cherokee Nation. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>In one of the saddest episodes of our brief history, men, women, and children were taken from their land, herded into makeshift forts with minimal facilities and food, then forced to march a thousand miles. (Some made part of the trip by boat in equally horrible conditions). Under the generally indifferent army commanders, human losses for the first groups of Cherokee removed were extremely high. John Ross made an urgent appeal to Scott, requesting that the general let his people lead the tribe west. General Scott agreed. Ross organized the Cherokee into smaller groups and let them move separately through the wilderness so they could forage for food. Although the parties under Ross left in early fall and arrived in Oklahoma during the brutal winter of 1838-39, he significantly reduced the loss of life among his people. About 4000 Cherokee of 15,000 died as a result of the removal. The route they traversed and the journey itself became known as &quot;The Trail of Tears&quot; or, as a direct translation from Cherokee, &quot;The Trail Where They Cried&quot; (&quot; Nunna daul Tsuny &quot;). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Maysville Road Veto <ul><li>The Maysville Road veto was a famous veto by U.S. President Andrew Jackson that is one of the most important events in the history of federalism in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The incident took place in 1830. The Maysville Road bill provided for the federal government to buy $150,000 in stock in a private company to fund a 65-mile road connecting the towns of Maysville and Lexington, an extension of the Cumberland and National Roads. The U.S. Congress passed the bill, with a 102 to 86 vote in the House of Representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson vetoed the bill, arguing that federal subsidies for internal improvements that were located wholly within a single U.S. state were unconstitutional. Following this veto were six additional vetoes of internal improvement projects, including roads and canals. This dealt a blow to the American System of Henry Clay. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Although Jackson vetoed a bill in 1830 providing for a federal government subscription of stock, in the amount of $150,000, in a company that proposed to build a sixty-mile road near Maysville, Kentucky. Jackson’s veto message offered some thoughtful commentary on the question of the relationship between the federal government and the states and on the role of government in society more generally.  Jackson defends his veto of the Maysville Road Bill.  Jackson’s veto reflected the ideology of the Democratic Party at the time.   </li></ul>
  38. 38. Nullification crisis <ul><li>Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the &quot;nullification crisis” (or &quot;secession crisis&quot;), of 1828–1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over trade tariffs. High tariffs (the &quot;Tariff of Abominations” on imports of common manufactured goods made European goods more expensive than ones from the northern US, and raised the prices paid by consumers, especially farmers in the southern US. It also caused Europe to buy fewer agricultural products from the South. The South reacted in outrage against these laws, on the grounds that they benefited Northern merchants and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of Southern farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue came to a head when Vice President John C. Calhoun, in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, supported the claim of his home state, South Carolina, that it had the right to &quot;nullify&quot;—declare illegal—the tariff legislation of 1828, and more generally the right of a state to nullify laws which went against its interests. Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he was also a strong supporter of federalism, in the sense of supporting a strong union, with considerable powers for the central government. Jackson attempted to face Calhoun down over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men. Particularly famous was an incident at the April 13, 1829 Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts. Jackson rose first and voice booming, and glaring at Calhoun, yelled out &quot;Our federal Union: IT MUST BE PRESERVED!&quot;, a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun glared at Jackson and yelled out, his voice trembling, but booming as well, &quot;The Union: NEXT TO OUR LIBERTY, MOST DEAR!&quot;, an astonishingly quick-witted riposte. </li></ul><ul><li>In response to South Carolina's threat, Congress passed a &quot;Force Bill”, and Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina in order to enforce the laws. On December 10, he issued a resounding proclamation against the &quot;nullifiers&quot;, stating: &quot;I consider...the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed.&quot; South Carolina, the president declared, stood on &quot;the brink of insurrection and treason,&quot; and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Jackson also denied the right of secession: &quot;The Constitution...forms a government not a league...To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The crisis was resolved in 1833 with a compromise settlement orchestrated by Whig politician Henry Clay and adopted by a South Carolina convention. The settlement substantially lowered the tariffs and hinted that the central government considered itself &quot;weak&quot; in dealing with determined opposition by an individual state. To enforce this view, the convention proudly but pointlessly declared the federal Force Bill nullified, even though the bill was only meaningful with respect to the tariff nullification. Thus, the South Carolina legislature both averted major conflict with the federal government, and reaffirmed Calhoun's beloved doctrine of nullification. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Henry Clay <ul><li>Henry Clay was born April 12, 1777 in Hanover County, Virginia – died June 29, 1852 in Washington, D.C. He was an American statesman and orator who served in both the House of Representatives and Senate. He also made five failed bids for the presidency, but was nevertheless extremely influential in U.S. politics. </li></ul><ul><li>From the beginning of his career, he was in favor of internal improvements as a means of opening up the fertile but inaccessible West, and he opposed the spoils system as an abuse of official patronage. But Clay applied himself most to the struggles of slavery, politics, and protecting domestic industries. Throughout his public life, he proved his passionate devotion to the Union and his willingness to compromise in order to save it. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay's American System was a plan to strengthen the nation's economy by tying the North, South, and West together. It called for: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal funding of infrastructure improvements such as the Erie Canal and a series of highways funded by a raised tariff on imported goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Using protective tariffs to encourage development of domestic industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on domestic financial resources and for a stiff protective tariff. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay believed that slavery was the &quot;deepest stain upon the character of the country,&quot; opposition to which could not be repressed except by &quot;blowing out the moral lights around us&quot; and &quot;eradicating from the human soul the light of reason and the law of liberty.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>As Speaker of the House, Clay was regarded as the leader of the War Hawks. </li></ul><ul><li>Clay is remembered as &quot;The Great Compromiser&quot; for his ability to bring others to agreement. </li></ul>
  40. 40. John C. Calhoun <ul><li>March 18, 1782 in South Carolina, Calhoun was born, and educated at Yale College. From 1808 to 1810 an economic recession hit the United States and Calhoun realized that British policies were ruining the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>He served in South Carolina's legislature and was elected to the United States House of Representatives serving three terms. In 1812, Calhoun and Henry Clay, two famous &quot;war hawks&quot;, who preferred war to the &quot;putrescent pool of ignominious peace&quot;, convinced the House to declare war on Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun was Secretary of War under President James Monroe from 1817 to 1825 and ran for president in the 1824 election along with four others, John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, Crawford, and Andrew Jackson. However, Calhoun withdrew from the race, due to Jackson's support, and ran for vice president unopposed. Calhoun was vice president of the United States in 1824 under John Quincy Adams and was re-elected in 1828 under Andrew Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson was for the Tariff of 1828 and caused Calhoun to be opposed to Jackson, which led to Calhoun's resignation in 1832. Because he could not do anything about Jackson's views toward tariffs, which benefited only industrial North and hurt slaveholding South, John C. Calhoun became the only vice president to resign. </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun wrote an essay about this conflict, &quot;The South Carolina Exposition and Protest&quot;, in which he asserted nullification of federal laws, and in 1832 the South Carolina legislature did just that. The next year in the Senate Calhoun and Daniel Webster opposed each other over slavery and states' rights in a famous debate. In 1844 President John Tyler appointed Calhoun Secretary of State. In later years he was reelected to the Senate, where he supported the Texas Annexation and defeated the Wilmot Proviso. He was rabidly pro-slavery and pro-states’ rights. </li></ul><ul><li>John Caldwell Calhoun died in Washington, D.C. on March 31, 1850 and was buried in St. Phillips Churchyard in Charleston. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter 8: Regional Societies (1793-1860) <ul><li>“ By the mid-1700s the economies of the North and south had begun to grow apart. Although farming remained important to both regions, the North diversified its economy to include the importation and sale of manufactured goods.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions begin to grow toward Civil War. Although the North abolishes slavery, they abuse the poor and new immigrants as if they were slaves—also Northern factories need slave-picked cotton to manufacture in their mills—no one’s hands are clean in this. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Northern Society <ul><li>-Big City Living -Two groups: Wealthy... And Not Wealthy Wealthy -Prosperous bankers, manufacturers, merchants, and their families -Lived in big lavish homes, complete with EVERYTHING People who sold other people things became wealthy, like the Astors. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor -Small crowded apartments in the city with crime, disease, and filth Tenements—many storied building with hot and cold running rats and cockroaches. Privies out back. Slums develop, but workers need places to live. Crime, alcohol abuse, domestic violence thrive in such areas—then here come more immigrants—especially the Irish fleeing the Potato Famine. Since the Irish were Roman Catholic, prejudice arose. Protestant middle and upper classes looked down on the “Papists”, although they hired them for the tough, dirty jobs. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Northern Society <ul><li>New Group Arose  The Middle Class : </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans, farmers, lawyers, ministers, shopkeepers, and their families. -Working class: you worked to provide for your family. Hard labor, not many machines—coalminers, lumberjacks, farmers—all worked sunup to sundown. -Children were sent to school rather than work, but some families teens went to work young to supplement family income or not be another mouth to feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls were offered more education. Rich families begin sending their daughters to higher education and sister schools opened offering a range of studies suitable for young ladies—Radcliffe, Amherst, etc. Young women start getting ides about their rights as citizens and want the vote! </li></ul>
  44. 44. Horace Mann <ul><li>(1796-1859), played a leading role in establishing state-supervised, state-funded, mandatory-attendance school systems in the United States. He worked to reduce the number of schools that were funded and controlled by local communities. Mann believed that, especially in rural areas and in the South and West, too much local control would result in some children receiving too little or improper schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann gave up a law practice and a seat in the Massachusetts legislature in 1837 to become secretary of the newly established Massachusetts State Board of Education. As secretary, his speeches and 12 annual reports on education were influential in changing the definition of common school. The term had long applied to one-room, community-based schools. After Mann's work, only tax-supported schools graded by age and organized within township units were called common or public schools. In 1839, Mann helped found the country's first state-supported normal school (teacher-training school), in Lexington, Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann resigned from the State Board of Education in 1848 to take a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives as an antislavery Whig. Mann was defeated as a Free Soil Party candidate for governor of Massachusetts. He was president of Antioch College (now Antioch University) in Yellow Springs, Ohio, from 1853 until his death. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann was born on May 4, 1796, in Franklin, Massachusetts, and graduated from Brown University. He began his public career as a member of the Massachusetts state legislature in 1827. He was elected to New York University's Hall of Fame when it was established in 1900 to honor prominent Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory education through state-supported public schools increased literacy in the US. And more books, magazines, and newspapers were bought and read. More informed voters were created. Women demanded and got more education, and then demanded their rights—but abolition first. </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Readers were destined to educate five generations of Americans, spanning the 1830s to the 1920s, generations that would know their author as &quot;the schoolmaster of the nation.&quot; Interestingly, with nearly 130 million copies published since the first edition appeared in 1836, McGuffey's Readers are still in print (150 thousand copies printed in 1985), and are still being used in some of the schools of Ohio and America today. <ul><li>Early in the 19th century Horace Mann, often called the father of public schools, argued that 'common' or public schools would strengthen democracy by uniting children of all social classes. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Northern Society <ul><li>Factory system -To cut costs and increase revenue, machines did all the work under one roof. -Run by Lowell girls (young women workers to operate the machines cheaply). </li></ul><ul><li>New England was especially good for factory setting since they used water power to turn turbines. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Lowell, Massachusetts By 1836, 20 textile mills in Lowell were producing 50 million yards of cloth a year. They employed 8000 people. The mills were driven by huge batteries of water wheels. In the 1840's they began replacing these water wheels with the new Francis water turbines, and the factories kept on expanding. The site was soon generating 9000 horsepower-modest by today's standards, but a huge enterprise in those days. The workers were largely young immigrant women. They lived in tightly controlled boarding houses-no drinking or debauchery. The company regulated their lives. It ran churches and sponsored cultural events. It boasted that these were Utopian communities and not true sweatshops
  48. 48. Northern Society <ul><li>Immigration -Labor force grew 13% from the 1830s to 1860 (500,000 to 4.1 million) -Irish and Germans were the predominant groups - Nativism : Favoring native born Americans over immigrants -Irish were seen as politically corrupt and socially inferior -Anti-Catholic as well because of high numbers of Irish Catholics - Know-Nothing Party : Nativist political party </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice is not new and was not just found in the South!!! </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish faced horrible prejudice. Signs in shop windows read “No Irish Need Apply!” Samuel Morse was a fervent anti-Catholic, as were most of the top families in Boston. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Southern Society <ul><li>- The Rise of the Cotton Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Economy based purely on cotton crop </li></ul><ul><li>-Driven on agriculture and the institution of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>- Cotton gin : by Eli Whitney with advice from Kitty Greene provided a better, faster, more cost-effective way to separate cotton, and became a money-saver and made slavery pay—Cotton becomes King </li></ul>
  50. 50. Kitty Greene and Eli Whitney <ul><li>Inspired by Kitty Greene, Eli invented in 1793 the cotton gin, a machine to mechanize the production of cotton fiber. The machine quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds. It uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. The invention was granted a patent on March 14, 1794. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional account of Whitney's inspiration for the cotton gin involves seeing a cat clawing a chicken through the slatted walls of its coop and retrieving a paw full of feathers. </li></ul><ul><li>There is some controversy over whether the idea of the cotton gin and its constituent elements are correctly attributed to Whitney. Some consider that Catherine Littlefield Greene should be credited with the invention of the cotton gin, or at least with the original concept. What is known is that Greene was associated with Whitney (along with other historical figures such as George and Martha Washington), and that women were not eligible to receive patents in the early U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Small cotton gins were hand-powered; larger ones were harnessed to horses or water wheels. </li></ul><ul><li>The cotton gin revolutionized the cotton-growing industry because it increased fiftyfold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day. This made the widespread cultivation of cotton lucrative in the American South, and is therefore often considered to have greatly facilitated increased demand for slave labor. This increase in slave labor can ultimately be attributed to the start of the Civil War and the end of slavery itself (in the United States). </li></ul><ul><li>The term &quot;gin&quot; is an abbreviation for engine, and means &quot;device&quot;, and is not related to the alcoholic beverage gin. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Slave Society <ul><li>-More than 75% of enslaved African-Americans lived and worked on plantations and farms. Only 2.2% had more than 50 slaves. Most farms only had one or two. </li></ul><ul><li>-On larger farms slaves where watched by overseers who would pick drivers , slave assistants, to help the running of the farm </li></ul><ul><li>- Gang Labor : groups of slaves assigned to specialized jobs, mostly agricultural or outside work. </li></ul><ul><li>House slaves: were servants to the Master and his family as well as cooks, butlers, laundresses. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Slave Life <ul><li>-Lived in shacks (slave quarters) on the plantation, w/o </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate heat, ventilation, privies, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>-All food was rationed—made do with spices, </li></ul><ul><li>wild greens, and leftover bits—chittlin’s, fatback, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Some supplemented their diets with illegal hunting, fishing,& theft. </li></ul><ul><li>-Treatment of slaves varied from plantation to plantation </li></ul><ul><li>-Some slaves were treated like family members, while others like dogs </li></ul><ul><li>-Keeping the family together was never up to the slaves, it was based on if a family was lucky enough to be bought by the same owner. </li></ul><ul><li>Slave marriages were never recognized legally—jumpin’ the broom and vows until death or sold down the river… </li></ul><ul><li>-Fellow slaves became family in a kinship network </li></ul><ul><li>-Not allowed to read or write </li></ul><ul><li>-Oral tradition became a huge part of the life </li></ul><ul><li>-Music: Africans have always been known for percussion-based music, drums, banjo, bass </li></ul><ul><li>-Used music as a way to escape misery, spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel music —Turn to the Lord for Salvation, if not in this world, in the next </li></ul><ul><li>Many Songs contain hidden meanings—”Follow the Drinking Gourd” and “Wade in the Water” for escape clues. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Follow the Drinking Gourd <ul><li>Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is waiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for to carry you to freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you follow the drinking gourd </li></ul><ul><li>When the sun comes back and the first quail calls, </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is waiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for to carry you to freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you follow the drinking gourd </li></ul><ul><li>The riverbank will make a very good road, The dead trees show you the way, Left foot, peg foot traveling on, Following the drinking gourd. </li></ul><ul><li>The river ends between two hills, Follow the drinking gourd, There's another tree on the other side, Follow the drinking gourd. </li></ul><ul><li>Where the great big river meets the little river, Follow the drinking gourd, The old man is waiting, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for to carry you to freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you follow the drinking gourd </li></ul>Peg Leg Joe  a.  one-legged sailor  b.  hired himself out to plantation owners as a handyman  c.  made friends with the slaves and taught them a folk song, &quot;Follow the Gourd&quot; Follow the Drinking Gourd  a.  hidden in the lyrics were directions for following the Underground Railroad  b.  drinking gourd is the Big Dipper that points to the North Star  c.  followed stars to the north and found marks left by Peg Leg Joe Secrets of the Underground Railroad  a.  Passengers = escaped slaves  b.  Stations = homes were slaves hid  c.  Conductors = people who help guide the slaves  d.  Agents = people who offered the slaves clothes, food, and shelter; sympathetic abolitionists.
  54. 55. Wade in the Water <ul><li>Because that doesn’t leave footprints or scent for the dogs to track you…. </li></ul><ul><li>Wade in the Water Wade in the Water, children wade in the Water God's gonna trouble the Water Who's that yonder dressed in red Wade in the Water Must be the Children that Moses led And God's gonna trouble the Water Refrain Who's that yonder dressed in white Wade in the Water Must be the Children of the Israelites God's gonna trouble the Water Refrain </li></ul>Who's that yonder dressed in white Wade in the Water Must be the Children of the Israelites God's gonna trouble the Water Refrain Who's that yonder dressed in blue Wade in the Water Must be Children coming through And God's gonna trouble the Water Refrain If you don't believe I've been redeemed Wade in the Water Just see the Holy Ghost looking for me God's gonna trouble the Water
  55. 56. Harriet Tubman <ul><li>“ Moses” is coming! You’ve heard the stories about her. She is Harriet Tubman, a former slave who ran away from a nearby plantation in 1849 but returns to rescue others. Guided by her “visions,” she has never lost a passenger. Even if Moses can’t fit you into her next group, she’ll tell you how to follow the North Star to freedom in Canada. </li></ul>Now considered derogatory by many African Americans, hitching posts sometimes served to tell passengers where the stations were on The Underground Railroad.
  56. 57. <ul><li>Carrying a gun with her, and not only for protection, Harriet would tell her passengers that she would shoot them if they tried to turn back. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I ain’t never lost a passenger, and I ain’t gonna start now!” she’d say. She had a huge price on her head, but that never held her back. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Harriet Tubman, A Moses to her People <ul><li>Araminta Ross [Harriet Tubman] was born in Dorchester County, Maryland in 1820. Her parents were from the Ashanti tribe of West Africa, and they worked as slaves on the Brodas plantation. In addition to producing lumber, Edward Brodas raised slaves to rent and sell. Life was difficult on the plantation, and Harriet was hired out as a laborer by the age of 5. Harriet did not like to work indoors, and she was routinely beaten by her masters. By her early teens, Harriet was no longer allowed to work indoors and was hired out as a field hand. She was a hard worker but considered defiant and rebellious. When she was 15 years old, Harriet tried to help a runaway slave. The overseer hit her in the head with a lead weight, which put Harriet in a coma. It took months for her to recover, and for the rest of her life, Harriet suffered from blackouts. In 1844, Harriet married a free black man named John Tubman. Harriet remained a slave, but she was able to stay in Tubman's cabin at night. Although she was married, Harriet lived in fear of being shipped to the deep South, a virtual death sentence for any slave. Born a slave on the eastern shore of Maryland, she fled north to freedom. There she joined the secret network of free Blacks and white sympathizers who helped runaways - the &quot;underground railroad.&quot; She became a 'conductor&quot; who risked her life to lead her people to freedom. Tubman returned time after time to her native Maryland, bringing out her relatives and as many as 300 other slaves. The shadowy figure of the conductor &quot;Moses&quot; became so feared that a huge reward was put on &quot;his&quot; head, for slaveowners did not at first believe a woman capable of such daring. Cool, resourceful, skilled in the use of disguise and diversions, she is said to have carried a pistol, telling the faint-hearted they must go on or die. Apparently only illness prevented Harriet Tubman from joining John Brown in the raid on Harper's Ferry. When the Civil War began, she worked among the slaves who fled their masters and flocked to Union lines. She organized many of them into spy and scout networks that operated behind Confederate lines from bases on islands off the coast of the Carolinas. After the war she devoted herself to caring for orphaned and invalid Blacks, and worked to promote the establishment of freedmen's schools in the South. </li></ul>
  58. 59. William Still <ul><li>You’ve never met a man like this—not a black man, anyway. Born free and a resident of Philadelphia, William Still is a successful, confident merchant and a leader in the fight against slavery. He can read and write—skills denied you—and takes careful notes about your journey. Watching your deep, joyous breaths of the free air of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he cautions you not to get giddy. You’ve reached a free state, it’s true, but United States law still sees you as your master’s property, and bounty hunters are everywhere. He helps you get ready for another long stretch of travel. </li></ul>
  59. 60. To Rochester, NY <ul><li>Weeks of trudging, including a grueling passage of almost 250 miles (402 kilometers) through the Appalachian Mountains, have brought you to Rochester. Perhaps you’ll catch a glimpse of fugitive Frederick Douglass, the fiery orator who publishes the North Star, an abolitionist paper. You meet with another noted citizen, activist Susan B. Anthony. She and her antislavery friends give you warm clothing for the hard Canadian climate and make sure you’re taken safely to Lake Erie. Across Lake Erie lies Canada—and freedom. A few weeks earlier you might have coaxed an easy ride from a sympathetic ferry captain. But as winter takes hold, chunks of ice have begun to form. You might find someone to row you across, or you could try leaping from one ice floe to another. Either way, you’ll be freezing cold. Yet staying exposes you—and your helpers—to slave hunters. Do you try going across? </li></ul>
  60. 61. Routes to Freedom <ul><li>A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to freedom in two months. For others, especially in bad weather, the trek might have lasted a year </li></ul>
  61. 62. Henry “Box” Brown <ul><li>Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a wooden Box. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Brown then determined to escape to freedom. He obtained the help of a sympathetic white shoemaker named Samuel Smith, who agreed to ship him to a free state in a box, disguised as dry goods. Brown paid $84, had himself nailed into a small box and was shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a distance of about 275 miles. The box was only 2' 8&quot; deep, 2' wide, and 3' long; Brown was five feet eight inches, and 200 pounds During the trip, which began on March 23, 1849, several cargo workers placed the box upside-down or had handled it haphazardly with no indication that Brown was inside the box. Amazingly, Brown survived the 26-hour-long journey by overland express stage wagons. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon arrival in the &quot;City of Brotherly Love&quot;, the box containing Brown was received by James Miller McKim, a member of the Underground Railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>When Brown was released, history records his first words as &quot;How do you do, gentlemen?&quot; He then sang a chosen Psalm from the Bible he had previously selected for his moment of freedom </li></ul>
  62. 63. Frederick Douglass <ul><li>Frederick Douglass was born in a slave cabin, in February, 1818, near the town of Easton, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Separated from his mother when only a few weeks old he was raised by his grandparents. At about the age of six, his grandmother took him to the plantation of his master and left him there. Not being told by her that she was going to leave him, Douglass never recovered from the betrayal of the abandonment. When he was about eight he was sent to Baltimore to live as a houseboy with Hugh and Sophia Auld, relatives of his master. It was shortly after his arrival that his new mistress taught him the alphabet. When her husband forbade her to continue her instruction, because it was unlawful to teach slaves how to read, Frederick took it upon himself to learn. He made the neighborhood boys his teachers, by giving away his food in exchange for lessons in reading and writing. At about the age of twelve or thirteen Douglass purchased a copy of The Columbian Orator , a popular schoolbook of the time, which helped him to gain an understanding and appreciation of the power of the spoken and the written word, as two of the most effective means by which to bring about permanent, positive change.         Returning to the Eastern Shore, at approximately the age of fifteen, Douglass became a field hand, and experienced most of the horrifying conditions that plagued slaves during the 270 years of legalized slavery in America. But it was during this time that he had an encounter with the slavebreaker Edward Covey. Their fight ended in a draw, but the victory was Douglass', as his challenge to the slavebreaker restored his sense of self-worth. After an aborted escape attempt when he was about eighteen, he was sent back to Baltimore to live with the Auld family, and in early September, 1838, at the age of twenty, Douglass succeeded in escaping from slavery by impersonating a sailor.         He went first to New Bedford, Massachusetts, where he and his new wife Anna Murray began to raise a family. Whenever he could he attended abolitionist meetings, and, in October, 1841, after attending an anti-slavery convention on Nantucket Island, Douglass became a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and a colleague of William Lloyd Garrison. This work led him into public speaking and writing. He published his own newspaper, The North Star, participated in the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, in 1848, and wrote three autobiographies. He was internationally recognized as an uncompromising abolitionist, indefatigable worker for justice and equal opportunity, and an unyielding defender of women's rights. He became a trusted advisor to Abraham Lincoln, United States Marshal for the District of Columbia, Recorder of Deeds for Washington, D.C., and Minister-General to the Republic of Haiti. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Frederick Douglass <ul><li>Frederick Douglass sought to embody three keys for success in life: </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of every opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the power of spoken and written language to effect positive change for yourself and society. </li></ul><ul><li>        Douglass said, &quot;What is possible for me is possible for you.&quot; By taking these keys and making them his own, Frederick Douglass created a life of honor, respect and success that he could never have dreamed of when still a boy on Colonel Lloyd's plantation on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Slave Religion <ul><li>- Spirituals : Rich in Biblical lore, these songs of sorrow were sung during work, relaxation, and worship. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Richard Allen <ul><li>Richard Allen was born in Philadelphia on February 14, 1760, the slave of Benjamin Chew , a prominent lawyer and Chief Justice of the Commonwealth from 1774-1777. When he was a child, Richard, his parents and his three siblings were sold to Stokeley Sturgis, a Delaware planter whom Richard described as &quot;unconverted...but... what the world called a good master.&quot; Despite his master's &quot;tenderhearted[ness],&quot; Richard longed to be free, &quot;for slavery is a bitter pill, notwithstanding we had a good master.&quot; When Stokeley got into financial trouble, Richard's mother and three of his five siblings were sold. After his own religious conversion, Richard joined the Methodist Society, began attending classes, and evangelized his friends and neighbors. Richard and his brothers attended classes every week and meetings every other Thursday. When white neighbors complained that such indulgence of &quot;Stokeley's Negroes would soon ruin him,&quot; the brothers decided that they &quot;would attend more faithfully to our master's business, so that it should not be said that religion made us worse servants.&quot; Their strategy proved effective; Stokeley boasted &quot;that religion made slaves better and not worse,&quot; and granted Richard permission to &quot;ask the preachers to come and preach at his house. When the charismatic white preacher Freeborn Garretson preached that slaveowners were &quot;weighed in the balance, and... found wanting,&quot; Stokeley &quot;believed himself to be one of that number, and after that he could not be satisfied to hold slaves, believing it wrong.&quot; Richard took up his master's suggestion that he purchase his freedom. He set out to earn the money by working for the Revolutionary forces, eventually taking the surname &quot;Allen&quot; to signify his free status. For the next six years, Allen traveled the Methodist circuit, throughout South Carolina, New York, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, preaching to black and white congregants alike. He worked as a sawyer and wagon driver when he needed to earn money. Allen walked so many miles that at times his &quot;feet became so sore and painful that I could scarcely be able to put them to the floor.&quot; While preaching in a town near Philadelphia, Allen was asked by the Methodist elder to preach to the black congregants at St. George's Methodist Church. Allen agreed, though he was required to preach at a 5:00 a.m. so that his services would not interfere with the whites '. He also preached on the commons in areas of the city where black families lived, often preaching as many as four or five times a day. In this way he raised a society of 42 members, while he supported himself as a shoemaker. </li></ul>                        
  66. 67. <ul><li>As the group grew in number, Allen &quot;saw the necessity of erecting a place of worship for the colored people,&quot; an idea rejected by &quot;the most respectable people of color in the city,&quot; but embraced by &quot;three colored brethren ... the Rev. Absalom Jones, William White and Dorus Ginnings [who] united with me as soon as it became public and known.&quot; The white elder of the church, when this plan was explained to him, &quot;used very degrading and insulting language to us, to try and prevent us from going on. We all belonged to St. George's church.... We felt ourselves much cramped; but my dear Lord was with us, and we believed, if it was his will, the work would go on, and that we would be able to succeed in building the house of the Lord.&quot; Allen and Jones continued their discussions, and in 1787 decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia. Allen continued his Methodist ministry, and seven years later, in 1794, founded Bethel, which became the &quot;Mother&quot; church of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination. In 1793, Allen and Jones responded to Benjamin Rush's call to mobilize the black community to serve during Philadelphia's yellow fever epidemic. When reports circulated of blacks plundering and profiteering from the disease, the two ministers published A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People, During the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia in the Year 1793 and A Refutation of Some Censures Thrown upon them in some late Publications , a defense of the black community and a documentation of their heroic efforts. Despite denominational differences, Allen and Jones remained lifelong friends and collaborators. Together with James Forten , they became the acknowledged leaders of the black community. The three men figured prominently on both sides of the ongoing colonization debate. With the support of his second wife, Sara, whom he married in 1800, Richard Allen remained an ardent activist on behalf of the local and national black community. Allen died in 1831, widely revered as, in the words of abolitionist David Walker, one of &quot;the greatest divines who has lived since the apostolic age.&quot; </li></ul>
  67. 68. JAMES FORTEN <ul><li>JAMES FORTEN (1766-1842), was an African American businessman who won fame as an abolitionist during the early 1800's. He believed that most American blacks wanted to live as free people in the United States. He opposed efforts being made at the time to help blacks move to Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Forten was born on Sept. 2, 1766, in Philadelphia, the son of free parents. He was a powder boy on an American ship during the Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783). Forten was captured in the war at the age of 15 and spent seven months on a British prison ship. In 1786, he worked in a Philadelphia sailmaking shop. Forten rose to the position of foreman two years later and became owner of the business in 1798. About that time, he invented a device that helped crew members handle heavy sails. The invention greatly aided his business, and Forten became wealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>During the War of 1812, Forten helped recruit about 2,500 blacks as part of a force to defend Philadelphia against a British invasion. In 1817, he presided over a meeting of Philadelphia blacks who protested the American Colonization Society's attempts to resettle free blacks in Africa. During the 1830's, he contributed much money to the noted abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and to Garrison's antislavery newspaper, The Liberator. Forten also helped runaway slaves seeking freedom in the North. He died on March 4, 1842. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Slave Revolts <ul><li>Stono Rebellion--one of the first uprisings Cato's Conspiracy, originated in Stono, South Carolina, in 1739. England at this time was at war with Spain, and a group of about eighty slaves took up arms and attempted to march to Spanish Florida, where they expected to find refuge. A battle ensued when they were overtaken by armed whites. Some forty-four blacks and twenty-one whites were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Prosser--The first was Gabriel's Rebellion, organized in 1800 by a Richmond blacksmith, Gabriel Prosser, and his brother Martin, a slave preacher. Gabriel Prosser was, in a sense, a typical Virginian of Jefferson's day—he couched his opposition to slavery in the language of the rights of man and the Declaration of Independence. Martin Prosser organized slaves at funerals and secret religious meetings, employing the Biblical story of the Israelites escaping Egyptian bondage to justify rebellion. The rebels planned to march on Richmond from surrounding plantations, seize the city arsenal, and kill all the white residents except Quakers and Methodists (many of whom were opposed to slavery) and the French (the United States was engaged in an undeclared war with France). No one knows how many slaves the plot involved, for on the night the rebels were to gather, a storm washed out the roads to Richmond and caused those who had gathered at the meeting place to scatter. He was betrayed by other slaves for the $300 reward on his head and was hanged in October. </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark Vesey—His conspiracy drew inspiration from both democratic and Christian beliefs. Vesey was a resident of Charleston, a slave carpenter who had acquired the money to purchase his freedom in 1800 by winning a lottery. A leading figure in the city's black church life, he &quot;studied the Bible a great deal,&quot; a follower later remarked, &quot;and tried to prove from it that slavery and bondage is against the Bible.&quot; But he also knew of the rebellion in Haiti and followed closely debates in Congress over the expansion of slavery into Missouri. In 1821 and 1822, along with a group of Charleston house </li></ul><ul><li>servants and artisans, he recruited rural slaves for an armed attack on the city. But the plot was betrayed, and Vesey and other leaders were tried and executed. </li></ul>
  69. 70. Nat Turner--1831 <ul><li>The most celebrated slave rebellion in American history, organized by Nat Turner, took place in Southampton County, Virginia, an area of small farms rather than large plantations. Born in 1800, Turner was a slave preacher and something of a mystic. In the 1820s, he began to see visions in the sky: black and white angels fighting, the heavens running red with blood. He became convinced that he had been chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>In August 1831 Turner and five followers met and, without a plan or a clear objective, launched their rebellion. For twelve hours, they moved from farm to farm, killing every white person they encountered (nearly all women and children, for most of the area's adult males had gone off to a nearby religious revival). By the time the militia suppressed the uprising, nearly eighty slaves had joined the rebellion, and sixty whites lay dead. A wave of terror swept over the area. Scores of innocent blacks were murdered by bands of vigilantes. Turner himself escaped, remained at large for several weeks, and was finally captured and executed. In the aftermath of the rebellion, Virginia's legislature debated proposals for the gradual abolition of slavery as a threat to public order. But in the end, it chose to tighten the slave codes , further limiting blacks' freedom of movement and making it illegal for black preachers to conduct services without a white being present. </li></ul>
  70. 71. The Abolitionist Movement <ul><li>At the end of the 18th century, Philadelphia was a city of hope for African Americans. Pennsylvania had passed the first gradual abolition act, and Philadelphia was home by 1790 to some 2,000 free blacks. Some had bought their freedom after working during the Revolutionary War, some had been freed because by slaveholders moved by revolutionary ideals. All had hopes for the future in the new country built on the ideals of independence, but doubts as to whether the declarations of liberty and equality would apply to them. Black migration into the city was heavy from the end of the Revolution until about 1815. People came from rural areas in a hundred-mile radius around Philadelphia, as well as from the South, attracted by job prospects and the promise of living among other free black people. Refugees from the revolution in Haiti and fugitive slaves added to the influx of blacks in the city. Philadelphia was over 90 percent white, but its black community helped buffer the hostility of whites and provided an alternative to rural isolation. Many blacks were able to find work as mariners, day laborers and domestic servants. Many also worked as entrepreneurs, often serving a predominantly black clientele. Both men and women often worked to support their families. While some destitute blacks lived near the river, a few prospered and were able to invest in income-producing property. By 1796, black communities were growing along the northern and southern borders of the city. By 1830, all of the city's 14,500 black people were free, while the white population had grown to 150,000. </li></ul>
  71. 72. Philadelphia Abolition Society <ul><li>As early as 1688, four German Quakers in Germantown near Philadelphia protested slavery in a resolution that condemned the &quot;traffic of Men-body.&quot; By the 1770s, abolitionism was a full-scale movement in Pennsylvania. Led by such Quaker activists as Anthony Benezet and John Woolman, many Philadelphia slaveholders of all denominations had begun bowing to pressure to emancipate their slaves on religious, moral, and economic grounds. In April 1775, Benezet called the first meeting of the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage at the Rising Sun Tavern. Thomas Paine was among the ten white Philadelphians who attended; seven of the group were Quakers. Often referred to as the Abolition Society, the group focused on intervention in the cases of blacks and Indians who claimed to have been illegally enslaved. Of the twenty-four men who attended the four meetings held before the Society disbanded, seventeen were Quakers. Six of these original members were among the largely Quaker group of eighteen Philadelphians that reorganized in February 1784 as the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in the Pennsylvania Abolition Society (PAS). Although still occupied with litigation on behalf of blacks who were illegally enslaved under existing laws, the new name reflected the Society's growing emphasis on abolition as a goal. Within two years, the group had grown to 82 members and inspired the establishment of anti-slavery organizations in other cities. PAS reorganized once again in 1787. While previously, artisans and shopkeepers had been the core of the organization, PAS broadened its membership to include such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush, who helped write the Society's new constitution. PAS became much more aggressive in its strategy of litigation on behalf of free blacks, and attempted to work more closely with the Free African Society in a wide range of social, political and educational activity In 1787, PAS organized local efforts to support the crusade to ban the international slave trade and petitioned the Constitutional Convention to institute a ban. The following year, in collaboration with the Society of Friends, PAS successfully petitioned the Pennsylvania legislature to amend the gradual abolition act of 1780. As a result of the 2000-signature petition and other lobbying efforts, the legislature prohibited the transportation of slave children or pregnant women out of Pennsylvania, as well as the building, outfitting or sending of slave ships from Philadelphia. The amended act imposed heavier fines for slave kidnapping, and made it illegal to separate slave families by more than ten miles. </li></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><li>Despite its unwavering support of the black community, PAS revealed its uncertain feelings toward freed slaves in a 1789 broadside entitled Address to the Public, in which they wrote of the devastating effects of slavery, effects which they said often left blacks unable to function as full citizens. Although intended to be sympathetic, the PAS statement gave support to existing prejudices, and no doubt would have been refuted by PAS founder Anthony Benezet, who, before his death in 1784, wrote numerous pamphlets in which he challenged the notion of black inferiority. In 1789, under its new president, Benjamin Franklin, PAS announced a plan to help free black people better their situation. In conjunction with the Free African Society, PAS attempted to create black schools, help free blacks obtain employment, and conduct house visits to foster morality and a strong work ethic in Philadelphia's black residents. PAS's Committee of Guardians, established in 1790, facilitated the placement of black children in indentures (a common practice of the time among Philadelphia's free blacks), monitored the conditions under which the children lived, and intervened with legal and material support when necessary. In 1815, PAS supported Richard Allen of the Bethel Church in their successful legal battle against takeover by the white Methodist leadership. PAS was listed along with Allen in the certificate that formally transferred ownership of the property on which Bethel stood. In the decade after the War of 1812, such factors as the post-war economic slump, the death of Rush and other leaders, and a decline in support for abolition by Philadelphia's elite led to increasing anti-black sentiment and the legal, physical, and emotional harassment and exclusion of black citizens. By December 1833, when the American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Philadelphia, PAS had become a small, embattled group with little public support. </li></ul>
  73. 74. Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition <ul><li>Anti-Slavery Society </li></ul><ul><li>-The First National Anti-slavery organization to be devoted to the immediate abolition of slavery and the advancement in racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>-Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>-Fugitive Slave from Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>-Most predominate escapee to speak </li></ul><ul><li>eloquently against the institution of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman </li></ul><ul><li>Sojourner Truth </li></ul>
  74. 75. Sojourner Truth <ul><li>Forced to submit to the will of her third master, John Dumont, Isabella married an older slave named Thomas. Thomas and Isabella had five children. She stayed on the Dumont farm until a few months before the state of New York ended slavery in 1828. Dumont had promised Isabella freedom a year before the state emancipation. When Dumont reneged on his promise, Isabella ran away with her infant son. </li></ul><ul><li>She never learned to read or write, but knew whole passages from the Bible by heart. A biography of her brought in some money for her to live on. </li></ul><ul><li>She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery. She traveled widely through New England and the Midwest on speaking tours. Her deep voice, quick wit, and inspiring faith helped spread her fame. </li></ul><ul><li>Baumfree was born a slave in Ulster County, New York. She became free in 1828 under a New York law that banned slavery. In 1843, she experienced what she regarded as a command from God to preach. She took the name Sojourner Truth and began lecturing in New York. Her early speeches were based on the belief that people best show love for God by love and concern for others. She soon began directing her speeches toward the abolition of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1864, Sojourner Truth visited President Abraham Lincoln in the White House. She stayed in Washington, D.C., and worked to improve living conditions for blacks there. She also helped find jobs and homes for slaves who had escaped from the South to Washington. In the 1870's, she tried to persuade the federal government to set aside undeveloped lands in the West as farms for blacks. But her plan won no government support. </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Beecher Stowe once wrote a lovely eulogy for her, but it was published way before she died. Sojourner thanked Harriet for such a nice encomium. </li></ul><ul><li>SOJOURNER TRUTH, (1797?-1883), was the name used by Isabella Baumfree, one of the best-known American abolitionists of her day. Her first language was Dutch and she was over 6 feet tall. Because of the cruel treatment she suffered at the hands of her new master she learned to speak English quickly, but would continue to speak with a Dutch accent for the rest of her life. She was sold several times and suffered many hardships under slavery, but her mother endowed her with a deep, unwavering Christian faith that carried her through these trials for her entire life.  </li></ul>
  75. 76. Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition, Continued <ul><li>Further Dividing the Country </li></ul><ul><li>-By 1840, 200,000 Northerners joined the anti-slavery campaign </li></ul><ul><li>-Violence erupted against abolitionists </li></ul><ul><li>-Anti-Slavery cause had little or no southern support </li></ul><ul><li>Women put suffrage on the back burner and totally supported abolitionist movement. </li></ul>
  76. 77. Section One: Religious Zeal and New Communities <ul><li>Second Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><li>-Many Americans turned to religion </li></ul><ul><li>-Began in upstate New York but began to spread to New England, Kentucky, and Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>- Revivals : Large religious gatherings that had sermons, sang hymns, witnessed, and sought God’s help in reforming their lives </li></ul><ul><li>-Strong in Protestant denominations </li></ul>
  77. 78. Section One: Religious Zeal and New Communities Continued... <ul><li>Utopian communities </li></ul><ul><li>- The Shakers : The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing </li></ul><ul><li>-Name derives from their tendency to shake while worshiping </li></ul><ul><li>- The Mormons : Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. </li></ul><ul><li>-Founded by Joseph Smith </li></ul>
  78. 79. Mormonism <ul><li>The term Mormon is a colloquial name referring to Latter Day Saints, derived in the 1830s from the Book of Mormon , one of their books of scripture, whose compiler was called the prophet Mormon. It is also an adjective referring to various aspects of Mormonism. Most often, the term refers to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the largest and most well-known denomination within the Latter Day Saint movement, who are also commonly called Latter-day Saints or LDS. In September 1823, Joseph Smith was visited by a heavenly messenger named Moroni, in the same way that angels often appeared to Church leaders in the New Testament (see especially the book of Acts). He informed Joseph that God had a work for him to do. Moroni told Joseph that a record of the ancient inhabitants of the American continent was buried in a nearby hill and that the record contained the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ. In September 1827, Joseph received the record, which was written on thin plates of gold. We now know it was not uncommon for people from the era of ancient America to keep records on metal plates. These artifacts, Smith claimed, were buried centuries earlier by the messenger himself around 400 CE </li></ul>Joseph Smith
  79. 80. <ul><li>Joseph translated the book into English by the inspiration of God. The book is called the Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ . It is named after Mormon, an ancient prophet who compiled the sacred record. The book verifies, as another testament of Christ, the reality and divinity of Jesus Christ. It is, then, a second witness that affirms the truth of the Bible . </li></ul><ul><li>The Book of Mormon was published in 1830. Since that time it has blessed the lives of millions of people through its powerful message about Jesus Christ and His gospel. </li></ul>
  80. 81. <ul><li>Joseph Smith acquired many opponents and enemies because the doctrines he declared were very controversial for the religious societies of his day—during his ministry he was a mayor, an opponent of slavery, and the commander of at least two militias (Zion's Camp and the Nauvoo Legion). Many of his detractors also opposed his unique religion and his practice of polygamy . </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions with his enemies continuously escalated until on June 27, 1844, Smith and his brother Hyrum were shot and killed by a large mob. </li></ul>
  81. 82. Section One: Religious Zeal and New Communities Continued... <ul><li>Transcendentalism </li></ul><ul><li>-Belief that people can transcend, or rise above, material things in life to reach a higher level of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>-Influenced by German philosopher, Immanuel Kant. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>-Began as Unitarians (Members of a religious reform movement that arose in the late 1700s in New England). </li></ul><ul><li>-rejected most Puritan beliefs such as Predestination </li></ul>
  82. 83. The Second Great Awakening <ul><li>Another series of Revivals that spread the values of Christianity and fostered the democratic ideals of a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and Good Works will bring each one of us to Eternal Salvation. </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit Riders—preachers who traveled from church to church within rural or frontier areas. They rode from church to church to deliver the good news. </li></ul><ul><li>Those Gosh-darn Do-Gooder Women—referred to as Republican Motherhood . Women were the guardians of morality within the home and the community. The Church became a focus for the civic-minded, volunteer ladies. Also they supported families who were poor or abused—they would waggle their fingers and nag until their husbands also supported them—clean up town drunks, prostitution, and hungry, shoeless kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s circles, covered dish suppers, choir practice all offered chances for service and social interaction. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Chapter 9 Working for Reform (1820-1860) <ul><li>“ Industrialization and the Market Revolution transformed American Society. Not all of these changes were positive, however. An increase in crime and poverty accompanied the rapid growth of cities. Other developments, including the mass migration to the West and the flood of new immigrants, altered the familiar social order.” </li></ul>
  84. 85. Section Two: Movements for Social Reform <ul><li>Crusade Against Alcohol—Temperance/Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>-Saw alcohol abuse as one of the most serious problems facing America in the 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>-1830s: Americans drank an average of 6-7 gallons per person a year </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol abuse was most likely to harm women/children and breakup the family—violence, poverty, and abuse </li></ul><ul><li>- Temperance Movement : Movement to persuade Americans to limit their alcohol intake </li></ul><ul><li>- Prohibition : The complete ban of the manufacturing, sale, transportation, and consumption of alcohol </li></ul>
  85. 86. Section Two: Movements for Social Reform Continued... <ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>-Education—public—supported by tax money </li></ul><ul><li>-Secretary of Education in Massachusetts--Horace Mann </li></ul><ul><li>McGuffey Readers </li></ul><ul><li>-Raised Teachers’ Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>-Increased Spending </li></ul><ul><li>-Prisons—Dorothea Dix </li></ul><ul><li>- Penitentiary : The facility where criminals were incarcerated </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern State—rehabilitation, not just punishment </li></ul>
  86. 87. Reform Movements <ul><li>When Dorothea Dix began her lifelong campaign to improve conditions for the mentally ill, she traveled throughout Massachusetts, personally visiting every jail and poorhouse in the state. 1843, she published the results in a Memorial to the Legislature of Massachusetts. With the help of influential men who shared her views, Dix used this graphic and powerful document to shame lawmakers into appropriating more money for the care of the insane. After her success in Massachusetts, she followed the same strategy in many other states. </li></ul>
  87. 88. Section 4: Women’s Rights <ul><li>Abolition and Women’s Rights </li></ul><ul><li>-The two go hand and hand </li></ul><ul><li>-Both Blacks and Women </li></ul><ul><li>were searching for </li></ul><ul><li>equality and justice </li></ul><ul><li>under the law. </li></ul>Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton devoted their lives to the cause of Women’s Rights 
  88. 89. The Declaration of Sentiments <ul><li>&quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created equal.........&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>With these words a dream was given life in historic Seneca Falls, New York , the Birthplace of Women's Rights. Here, in 1848 , Elizabeth Cady Stanton (a Seneca Falls resident), Lucretia Mott and 300 other women and men held the first Women's Rights Convention. The Declaration of Sentiments , modeled after the Declaration of Independence, was presented and passed by the convention. These resolutions included among other demands, that women have the right to vote. The struggle for women's rights had begun. </li></ul><ul><li>Seventy-two years later in 1920, the 19th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was ratified, which gave women many rights, including the right to vote. It had been a long, hard fight by women and men who believed in the equality and rights of women. </li></ul>
  89. 90. Lucretia Mott <ul><li>In 1811 she married James Mott and they made their home in Philadelphia. Soon she began to speak in Quaker meetings, developing confidence and eloquence that were rare at a time when women seldom spoke in public. In the 1830s Mott advocated the radical idea that slavery was sinful and must be abolished. She was one of several American delegates to the 1840 World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, but the women were denied seats. The lesson was clear for Mott and young Elizabeth Cady Stanton. How could women fight for the rights of others unless they enjoyed rights of their own? In 1848, while Mott was visiting her sister in Auburn, New York, she met with Stanton and helped to plan the first woman's rights convention. Mott delivered the opening and closing addresses at the Seneca Falls Convention, and her husband James chaired the proceedings at the Wesleyan Chapel. Motivated by her religious convictions, Mott dedicated herself to the twin causes of antislavery and women's rights. She harbored runaways slaves in her Philadelphia home and agitated for Negro suffrage and education when emancipation was finally won. As she wrote, spoke, and attended women's conventions, younger feminists recognized that Mott's early leadership had been crucial in the infancy of the women's rights movement. </li></ul>
  90. 91. Section 4: Women’s Rights Continued... <ul><li>Women declare their rights </li></ul><ul><li>- Seneca Falls Convention : Convention held in Seneca falls, New York headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott declaring women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>- Declaration of Sentiments : A document modeled after the Declaration for Independence that all convention members signed </li></ul>
  91. 92. John L. O'Sullivan on Manifest Destiny , 1839 <ul><li>Manifest Destiny is a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States had a divinely inspired mission to expand, to progress, and to spread its form of democracy and freedom. Originally a political catch phrase of the nineteenth century, Manifest Destiny eventually became a standard historical term, often used as a synonym for the territorial expansion of the United States across North America towards the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1845, a democratic leader and influential editor by the name of John L. O'Sullivan gave the movement its name. In an attempt to explain America's thirst for expansion, and to present a defense for America's claim to new territories he wrote: &quot;.... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth.&quot; (Brinkley 352)Manifest Destiny became the rallying cry throughout America. The notion of Manifest Destiny was publicized in the papers and was advertise and argued by politicians throughout the nation. The idea of Manifest Destiny Doctrine became the torch, that lit the way for American expansion. </li></ul>
  92. 93. Chapter 10 Expansion and Conflict Section 1: The Lure of the West Section 2: American Expansionism Section 3: The Far West Section 4: The Rush to California