By 1949, the Soviets had expanded their control to cover most of Eastern Europe, and it appeared that China would soon fall to the communists as well.
"The fear-filled forties and fifties were a dark period when the spread of communism abroad increased anxieties and frustration at home," wrote Herb Block. In their zeal to stamp out all signs of subversion in the United States, professional and amateur anti-communists threatened to suppress American liberties as well," Fire !" June 17, 1949 Reproduction from original drawing Published in the Washington Post (25)
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин ), original surname Ulyanov ( Улья́нов ) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism.
"Lenin" was one of his revolutionary pseudonyms. He is believed to have created it to show his opposition to Georgi Plekhanov who used the pseudonym Volgin, after the Volga River; Ulyanov picked the Lena which is longer and flows in the opposite direction. However, there are many theories on where his name came from and he himself is not known to have ever stated exactly why he chose it. He is sometimes erroneously referred to in the West as "Nikolai Lenin", though he has never been known as such in Russia.
Lenin was chilling in a German jail until his sudden release. He was put on a train back to Russia and he fomented a revolution that took Russia out of The Great War.
A. Mitchell Palmer (1872-1936), served as United States attorney general from 1919 to 1921 under President Woodrow Wilson. Palmer is best known for the Palmer Raids of January 1920, in which thousands of suspected anarchists and Communists were jailed with little regard for their constitutional rights. Many historians believe Palmer hoped to win the 1920 Democratic presidential nomination by capitalizing on the antiradical feelings that many Americans held at that time.
Alexander Mitchell Palmer was born in Moosehead, Pennsylvania. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915. As a member of the Democratic national committee in 1912, he helped Wilson win the presidential nomination.
Marcus Garvey—1914 universal Negro improvement association—
back to Africa movement-- black pride
Philip Randolph—1930s labor organizer sleeping car porters union
Flappers and gangsters—Al “Scarface” Capone and the Saint Valentine day massacre—Bugsy Moran
1922 Five-power treaty—first attempt at disarmament.
1928 Kellogg-Briand pact—14 nations signed outlawing war
Literature-- expatriates Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway left the country to write.
Sports: golf—Bobby Jones
Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in 1927.
Red Grange—scored four touchdowns in 12 minutes.
Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel
Notre Dame—the four horsemen—Knute Rochne Red Grange
Radio—Amos and Andy, Fibber McGee and Molly, the Lone Ranger KDKA
Coolidge said that he would not run for president in 1927; Herbert Hoover who was marvelous in rebuilding Europe after World War I runs against Al Smith. Al Smith was a Roman Catholic, had a New York accent, and was pro-wet. Hoover wins.
When the stock market crashes on October 24,1929, it signals the beginning of the Great Depression.
Gertrude Ederle Swims the English Channel Gertrude Ederle (1906 - ), who was born on October 23, 1906, was a superb swimmer. Not only did she win three Olympic medallions and break several records, but to top it all off, she went on to become the first woman to swim across the English Channel. When she swam the 21 miles on August 6, 1926, Ederle was only nineteen. Her time: 14 hours and 31 minutes - good enough to beat the previously set men's record.
George Herman Ruth (1895 - 1948), often known to his fans as Babe Ruth, hit a total of 60 home runs in 1927. This record-breaker would remain a record itself until 1961, when Roger Eugene Maris (1934 - 85) hit 61 home runs. The record has since then been broken by Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs with 66 homers in 1998 and Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals with 70 in the same year.
Ruth was born on February 6, 1895, in Baltimore, Maryland. He first committed to professional baseball at age 20 by playing with the minor-league Baltimore Orioles. He would later sign with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees. In 1919, as a player for the Red Sox, he hit 29 homers. He joined the Yankees in 1920 and hit 54 home runs that year. The next year, he increased to 59. He finally broke the old record in 1927 with 60.
Babe Ruth, who earned more than $2 million in his career, was known by several other names as well. These included: the Bambino, the Behemoth of Bust, the Blunderbuss, the Colossus of Clout, the Mammoth of Maul, the Mauling Mastodon, the Mauling Monarch, the Prince of Powders, the Rajah of Rap, the Sultan of Swat, and the Wazir of Wham. Among all of his other accomplishments, this southpaw pitcher was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936.
Jack Dempsey (1895-1983), became one of the most popular heavyweight boxing champions of all time. He was also one of the most fearsome with over 25 first-round knockouts, more than any fighter in history. He knocked out Jess Willard in 1919 to win the title. Dempsey lost the title in 1926 to Gene Tunney. Their second fight, in Chicago in 1927, featured the famous "long count." Dempsey knocked Tunney down in the seventh round. But he did not go to a neutral corner immediately, so referee Dave Barry delayed starting the count over Tunney. Tunney rose at the count of 9, but observers estimated this was equal to a count of 14. Tunney went on to win the fight by a 10-round decision.
William Harrison Dempsey was born in Manassa, Colo. He started fighting professionally in 1914. Dempsey was nicknamed the Manassa Mauler by sports journalist Damon Runyon. Dempsey discussed his boxing career in his autobiography, Dempsey (1977).
Grange, Red (1903-1991), was one of the greatest running backs in football history. He won all-American honors in 1923, 1924, and 1925 while playing for the University of Illinois. His speed and elusive running style earned him the nickname "the Galloping Ghost." Grange's most spectacular performance came against the University of Michigan in 1924, when he scored five touchdowns, four on long runs during the first 12 minutes of the game.
In 1925, Grange joined the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL). He traveled coast to coast with the team as it played a series of specially arranged games. These games drew huge crowds, who came mainly to see Grange, and played an important part in the growth of professional football. Grange played with the New York Yankees football team in 1926 and 1927 and again with the Bears from 1929 to 1934. From 1947 to 1963, he was a sports commentator on radio and television. He became one of the first members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. Harold Edward Grange was born on June 13, 1903, in Forksville, Pennsylvania, and raised in Wheaton, Illinois. He died on Jan. 28, 1991.
Albert Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) was born on March 14, 1879, in Germany. In 1905, Einstein published his theory of relativity in "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." Among his other publications included The Meaning of Relativity . His research eventually earned him worldwide fame and a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
Despite the fact that he was born in Germany, he would not stay in his mother country forever. Einstein, who was a patent clerk and Jewish, immigrated to the U.S. in 1933 after Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany. In the U.S. he taught at Princeton University in New Jersey. In 1939, Einstein helped to inform Franklin Roosevelt, then President of the U.S., that Germany was possibly creating atomic weapons. The Advisory Committee on Uranium was created and the Manhattan Project, as the plan to develop atomic bombs was code-named, went into effect.
F. Scott Fitzgerald Publishes The Great Gatsby (1925)
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 - 1940), an American writer and screenwriter, was born on September 24, 1896, and published his book The Great Gatsby in 1925. His first novel, This Side of Paradise had been made available to the public in 1920. His writings often portrayed people who became successful in the social and financial worlds, but did not share the same prosperity in their morals. As a perfect reference to the times, Fitzgerald married a flapper named Zelda Sayre. Before his death in Hollywood on December 21, 1940, his many writings included over 150 stories and 5 novels.
The Roaring Twenties was alternatively known as The Jazz Age. This "movement" in which jazz music grew in popularity by immense standards in the U.S., also influenced other parts of the world. Following World War I, around 500,000 African Americans in search of better employment opportunities moved to the northern part of the United States. With them, they brought their culture and in New York, the start of the Harlem Renaissance. During this period of time, the works of African Americans in fields such as writing and music escalated. Styles of music including Dixieland and blues became popular as well. The Charleston, a lively dance with origins in South Carolina and African American styles, became immensely popular. The dance, which can be done solo, with two, or in a group, received attention after being shown in Runnin' Wild , a 1923 musical. One man, John Giola, from New York managed to do the Charleston for 22 hours and 30 minutes! This particular dance was introduced to Europeans in 1925. Other dances of the era included the Cake-Walk, the Turkey Trot, the Black Bottom, and the Bunny Hug. With the increased popularity of dances, events such as dance marathons were also created. Throughout the 1920's many people took an interest in music. They owned pianos, played sheet music, and listened to records. One name, arguably one of the most famous jazz musicians of all time, is worth mentioning. Louis Daniel Armstrong (1901 - 1971), from New Orleans, Louisiana, displayed his amazing talents as a trumpeter, cornet player, and singer during the Jazz Age. He studied and played with a famed cornet player named Joseph "King Oliver" Oliver (1885 - 1938). Afterwards, he became a member of Fletcher Henderson's group. In 1925, "Satchmo," who had learned to play cornet at the age of twelve, started The Hot Fives. The band would later gain two more musicians and was appropriately renamed The Hot Sevens. His wife, Lil, was also a member of the group and played the piano. The following year, Armstrong recorded "Heebie Jeebies". "Pops" did not restrict his talents to just music, however. He also starred in films such as Pennies from Heaven . He continued working in the last three years of his life, most of which was spent in hospitals. He died at home on July 6, 1971. Some of the many great artists of that time also included Duke Ellington (1899 - 1974), Joseph "King Oliver" Oliver (1885 - 1938), Bessie Smith (1894? - 1937), Benny Goodman (1909 - 1986), and Ma Rainey.
Adolf Hitler's Book, Mein Kampf , is Published (1925)
In July of 1925, Adolf Hitler (1889 - 1945) issued his autobiography. The book, entitled Mein Kampf or My Struggle , would have a second volume in 1926; the People's Edition appeared in 1930. The book, written while Hitler was imprisoned early in his career, reflected his hatred of Jews, and his belief that Germans were a superior race. Outside of Germany the book was not given much notice, a fact the Allies would soon regret.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Austria. He served time in Germany's armed forces during World War I as a political spy and became a decorated corporal. He served as leader of the German Workers' Party, which would later be renamed the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party. In 1933, he came to power as chancellor of the Third Reich. Despite Hitler's doing away with democracy, the people of Germany applauded his efforts, for they were weary of the depressed state of affairs that followed Germany's defeat in World War I. After involving his country in a costly second world war, geared to make it the predominant world power, Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945.
Warren G. Harding Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923), was elected president in 1920 by a people weary of wartime restraints and world problems. His supporters expected him to turn back the clock and restore the more carefree atmosphere of the days before World War I (1914-1918). Harding, an easygoing newspaper publisher and senator, encouraged this belief by campaigning on the slogan of "Back to Normalcy." Actually, Americans would probably have elected any Republican candidate to the White House in 1920 in protest against the policies of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. They opposed particularly Wilson's definition of American ideals and his unwillingness to accept any changes in his plan for a League of Nations. They wished to reduce their responsibilities in world affairs and to resume their normal activities with as little bother as possible. It was easier to praise "normalcy" than to produce it during the Roaring Twenties. The word meant so many different things to different people. Some were rebels. They danced in cabarets, drank bootleg gin, and poked fun in novels and plays at “normal” American life. Others, reacting against the rebels, wanted to standardize thought and behavior. They persecuted radicals, tried to enforce prohibition, and fought to ban the teaching of evolution in the public schools. With so many crosscurrents at work in American society, Harding was unable to assert himself and provide a vision for the nation. The popularity of Harding's administration was damaged by the short but severe depression of 1921. Within two years, the Teapot Dome oil scandal and other graft in governmental agencies destroyed faith in his administration. Harding became aware of this widespread corruption early in 1923. Historians almost unanimously rank Harding as one of the weakest presidents. But these historians have recognized that the very qualities that made him weak also made him appealing in 1920. He failed because he was weak-willed and a poor judge of character. Nan Britton, a pretty blond thirty years younger than the President, was given a job in Washington, D.C., so that she could be near Harding. The two often met in the Oval Office, and their affair continued until Harding's death. Harding was the sixth president to die in office. He was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.
Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923), was elected president in 1920 by a people weary of wartime restraints and world problems. His supporters expected him to turn back the clock and restore the more carefree atmosphere of the days before World War I (1914-1918). Harding, an easygoing newspaper publisher and senator, encouraged this belief by campaigning on the slogan of "Back to Normalcy." Actually, Americans would probably have elected any Republican candidate to the White House in 1920 in protest against the policies of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. They opposed particularly Wilson's definition of American ideals and his unwillingness to accept any changes in his plan for a League of Nations. They wished to reduce their responsibilities in world affairs and to resume their normal activities with as little bother as possible.
It was easier to praise "normalcy" than to produce it during the Roaring Twenties. The word meant so many different things to different people. Some were rebels. They danced in cabarets, drank bootleg gin, and poked fun in novels and plays at “normal” American life. Others, reacting against the rebels, wanted to standardize thought and behavior. They persecuted radicals, tried to enforce prohibition, and fought to ban the teaching of evolution in the public schools. With so many crosscurrents at work in American society, Harding was unable to assert himself and provide a vision for the nation.
The popularity of Harding's administration was damaged by the short but severe depression of 1921. Within two years, the Teapot Dome oil scandal and other graft in governmental agencies destroyed faith in his administration. Harding became aware of this widespread corruption early in 1923.
Historians almost unanimously rank Harding as one of the weakest presidents. But these historians have recognized that the very qualities that made him weak also made him appealing in 1920. He failed because he was weak-willed and a poor judge of character. Nan Britton, a pretty blond thirty years younger than the President, was given a job in Washington, D.C., so that she could be near Harding. The two often met in the Oval Office, and their affair continued until Harding's death.
Harding was the sixth president to die in office. He was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.
Teapot Dome, in U.S. history, scandal that began during the administration of Pres. Harding. In 1921, Sec. of the Interior Albert B. Fall secretly leased the naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyo., and Elk Hills, Calif., without competitive bidding. A Senate investigation (1922-23) revealed that Edward L. Doheny, who had leased the Elk Hills oil field, had loaned Fall large sums of money without interest, as had Harry F. Sinclair, recipient of the Teapot Dome lease. Fall was subsequently fined and sentenced to prison. Both Doheny and Sinclair were acquitted of bribery on legal technicalities, but Sinclair was later imprisoned for contempt of the Senate and attempted jury tampering. The oil fields were restored (1927) to the U.S. government by a Supreme Court decision.
Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, "You lose."
Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, "You lose."
Coolidge, Calvin (1872-1933), was a shy, silent New England Republican who led the United States during the boisterous Jazz Age of the 1920's. He was the sixth vice president to become president upon the death of a chief executive. Coolidge was vacationing on his father's farm in Vermont when President Warren G. Harding died in 1923. The elder Coolidge, a notary public, administered the oath of office in the dining room. Never before had this ceremony been performed by such a minor official or by a president's father.
In 1924, Coolidge was elected to a full four-year term. He enjoyed great popularity and probably could have been reelected. But he decided to retire. His terse announcement became his most famous statement: "I do not choose to run for president in 1928." Herbert Hoover succeeded him.
Americans respected the views of the closemouthed Coolidge. His reputation for wisdom was based on his common sense and dry wit. He issued few unnecessary public statements and rarely wasted a word.
Coolidge, who had risen to fame as governor of Massachusetts, served as president during the Roaring Twenties. Prosperity stimulated carefree behavior and a craving for entertainment. The nation's "flaming youth," featured in the novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald, set the pace. Sports figures became national heroes as Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in one season and Gene Tunney defeated Jack Dempsey in the famous "long-count" bout. Charles A. Lindbergh made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Motion pictures began to talk, with Al Jolson starring in The Jazz Singer. George Gershwin brought jazz into the concert hall with his Rhapsody in Blue. Americans defied prohibition, and Al Capone and other gangsters grew rich by bootlegging liquor. A popular song summed up the spirit of the whole era: "Ain't We Got Fun?"
The solemn, frugal Coolidge seemed to be a misfit from another era. But people voted for him even if they did not imitate his conduct. They cherished him for having the virtues of their pioneer ancestors.
"Do the day's work. If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it." —Speech to the Massachusetts Senate, 1913"And be brief; above all things, Be Brief." —Speech to the Massachusetts Senate, January 1915"There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime." —Telegram to the American labor leader Samuel Gompers during a strike by police in Boston, Sept. 14, 1919"... the chief business of the American people is business." —Speech to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington, D.C., Jan. 17, 1925"This Nation believes thoroughly in an honorable peace. ... It has never found that such a peace could be maintained only by a great and threatening array of arms." —Inaugural Address, March 4, 1925"... no Nation ever had an army large enough to guarantee it against attack in time of peace or insure its victory in time of war." —Speech, Oct. 6, 1925"I do not choose to run for President in 1928." —Statement to reporters, Aug. 2, 1927"Prosperity is only an instrument to be used, not a deity to be worshiped." —Speech in Boston, June 11, 1928
The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants admitted to the United States. It also established a quota system to prevent major changes in the racial or ethnic makeup of the nation's population.
The Golden Age of radio broadcasting began about 1925. Nationwide audiences listened to such programs as "The A & P Gypsies" and "The Voice of Firestone.“
The Scopes Trial, in 1925, upheld the right of a state to ban the teaching of evolution in public schools.
The first successful liquid-fuel rocket was launched in 1926 by Robert H. Goddard, the American rocket pioneer.
Jazz was the leading form of popular music. Jazz musicians who became stars during the mid-1920's included Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Fletcher Henderson.
Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees hit 60 home runs during the 1927 baseball season, a record that stood until 1961.
The Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact was signed by 15 nations in 1928 and eventually by nearly all the nations of the world. The signers of the treaty, also called the Pact of Paris, agreed not to use war to solve international problems.
Penicillium mold, which produces the antibiotic drug penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming, a British bacteriologist.
Charles A. Lindbergh, an American aviator, became a world hero in 1927 when he made the first solo airplane flight across the Atlantic ocean.
The Jazz Singer Becomes the First Talkie (1927)
The first film featuring spoken words was The Jazz Singer . Warner Brothers produced the talkie in 1927. Al Jolson (1886 - 1950), who was later in The Singing Fool , spoke the first words. In the previous year, the company had created a film with music. In 1928, Warner Brothers moved film making a step further. The Lights of New York became the first film to feature speech throughout the entire movie. The arrival of talkies hurt many silent film stars, but others like Charlie Chaplin were able to continue their work.
Al Jolson 1888–1950, American entertainer, whose original name was Asa Yoelson, b. Russia. He emigrated to the United States c.1895. The son of a rabbi, Jolson first planned to become a cantor but soon turned to the stage. After his New York City debut in 1899, he worked in circuses, in minstrel shows, and in vaudeville; in 1909 in San Francisco he first sang “Mammy” in black face, and his style brought him fame and many imitators. The first of his many Broadway appearances was in La Belle Paree (1911); his film work began with The Jazz Singer (1927), the first major film with sound and a landmark in the history of motion pictures. After 1932 he had his own radio show. Among the songs he made famous were “April Showers,” “Swanee,” “Sonny-Boy,” and “Mammy.”
Harding died in 1923 Calvin Coolidge became President. Coolidge would do nothing to control how the money was being spent by business. “The business of America is business.”
On January 16, 1029 the Eighteenth Amendment became law. It made it unlawful to make or sell any alcoholic drink except for medical, industrial, or religious reasons. The sale of alcohol went to gangsters such as Al Capone of Chicago. This caused some major problems.
Many companies dealing in alcohol went out of business.
People openly broke the law
Judges and police became corrupt because they took bribes from bootleggers.
In 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed.
Some other changes were:
1. The Ku Klux Klan came back to life. This was an organization that had begun after the Civil War to frighten and even kill black freemen.
2. Companies began to advertise. Many chain stores grew.
3. Women called Flappers began wearing short dresses, bobbing their hair, and smoking cigarettes in public.
America has rarely given its heroes the stature it accorded Charles Lindbergh following the completion of his flight across the Atlantic. The image of a fearless pilot, master of one of the world's newest and most promising technologies, acting alone to risk all in his attempt to set a world record was simply irresistible. The "Lone Eagle" was exalted above all other modern-day heroes as a living example of the nation's greatest values. No greater symbol of all that was uniquely great about America could have been created by or for a public so sorely in need of a hero. Whether he enjoyed it or not, the adulation he inspired would achieve an intensity well beyond anything previously experienced by his contemporaries. Not until recent times would a trial be more widely followed, incite more passion, or do more to unite a people in their desire for retribution, than did the trial of Bruno Hauptmann, the nondescript man who stood accused of kidnapping and killing the hero's son.
On 1 March 1932 the country was stunned by the news that the twenty-month-old child of Charles and Anne Lindbergh had been abducted from his home in New Jersey. A search for the child was begun immediately and soon encompassed a five-state area. Kings and presidents sent their condolences, and people prayed for the safe return of the child as hundreds of press representatives from all over the world descended upon the Lindbergh home. Governor Roosevelt of New York offered to place the New York State police at the disposal of New Jersey's state police superintendent Norman Schwartzkopf. The police discovered few clues, and, as time passed, the absence of any news concerning the progress of the investigation left people feeling increasingly angry, frustrated, and vengeful. The outrage and disgust that had characterized the public's reaction to the news of the abduction was too real to be dissipated by the passage of time and would remain oddly disturbing to many.
What few not actually connected with the investigation knew was that the kidnapper or kidnappers had established contact with the Lindbergh family through an intermediary, the eccentric Dr. John Condon. Arrangement was made for a partial payment, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be made in a cemetery in the Bronx. This exchange, which took place in the dead of night, brought the doctor into contact with the kidnapper and gave Lindbergh, who was also present, but at some distance, an opportunity to hear an accented voice, if only for a few seconds, call out to Condon.
In May, approximately one month after the first of the ransom notes was delivered and a portion of the ransom paid, the body of the Lindbergh child was discovered a short distance from his parents' home. No further demands for the payment of ransom were ever received. Despite the false leads reported to the police, Chief Schwartzkopf's grudging acceptance of the federal investigative assistance, and continuing public interest, there were no further developments in the case until almost two years later. In September 1934 several gold certificates bearing serial numbers that identified them as part of the ransom paid in the case began to surface in New York. One of the bills was traced to a gas station attendant, who provided a description of the man who had used it to purchase gasoline for his car. The trail the police followed finally led them to Bruno Hauptmann.
Hauptmann, a carpenter by trade, had illegally entered the United States from Germany in 1924. Soon after, he married Anna Schoeffer and settled in New York City where he found work as a carpenter. Over the next few years the couple developed a small circle of friends, purchased a car, and managed, through their combined labor, to save approximately ten thousand dollars. In 1932 the couple moved into an apartment in the Bronx where Hauptmann, in his spare time, constructed a garage on the adjoining lot. That same year, while Anna was in Germany visiting family, Hauptmann and an acquaintance, Isidor Fisch, pooled their resources to set themselves up in a business. Hauptmann's first venture into a business of his own would eventually fail, taking with it a goodly portion of the couple's savings. Unbeknownst to Hauptmann, Fisch was also involved in a fencing operation, purchasing "hot," or stolen, currency at a discount, and would remain so involved until 1933 when he returned to Germany. Fisch died there the following year. Hauptmann testified that in August 1934 he had discovered among the possessions Fisch had stored in Hauptmann's home a small box containing more than eleven thousand dollars in cash. Sometime thereafter, having heard nothing more from Fisch, he had decided to use some of the money to cover his own expenses.
Hauptmann's trial began on 2 January 1935. Never before in the nation's history had the press been so vigorous or single-minded in its pursuit of a story--every event, however remotely connected and irregardless of its significance, if any, was given a full measure of attention by a press corps supremely confident of the insatiability of the public's interest. Often distorted, rarely accurate, fully self-serving, the news reporting did little more than reinforce a nearly universally held opinion that the discovery of the ransom money in Hauptmann's possession was conclusive and overwhelming proof of his guilt.
The evidence against Hauptmann raised as many questions as it did inferences of guilt: Dr. Condon described his meeting with the kidnapper in convincing detail despite the fact that he was terribly nearsighted and, though unbeknownst to the jury, had been inconsistent in the statements he had offered the investigators over the length of the investigation; Lindbergh saw no one but did hear a voice say "Hey, Doc," a voice he connected with that of the defendant some three years after the fact; the ladder used by the kidnapper to gain access to the Lindbergh's house was a ramshackle affair, suggesting it had been assembled by someone unfamiliar with the carpenter's trade. Hauptmann's defense team suffered its moments of failure: no effort was made to exploit the disagreements that arose among handwriting experts respecting the authorship of the ransom notes. Documentary evidence showing that Hauptmann was at his place of employment around the time of the kidnapping was ignored and eventually misplaced. Hearsay evidence was permitted; other evidence was intentionally suppressed. It all made little difference. At the conclusion of the trial the jury acted quickly to condemn the defendant. Those errors that were identified after the trial were eventually found to be insignificant. In an atmosphere in which Hauptmann's guilt was so completely evident in the eyes of so many as to be beyond question, his request for a new trial was barely given consideration. Hauptmann maintained his innocence until he was executed on 3 April 1936.
BERLIN (Nov. 28) - Genetic tests have proven claims by three Germans that the American aviator Charles Lindbergh was their father and led a secret double life for almost two decades, a family adviser said Friday.
Anton Schwenk, media consultant to the Germans, said DNA tests conducted by the University of Munich in October proved with 99.9 percent certainty that Dyrk and David Hesshaimer and their sister Astrid Bouteuil were Lindbergh's children.
"It's a delightful moment for them because they now have a feeling of belonging," Schwenk told Reuters. "They knew all along he was their father because they spent time with him growing up. But it's good to have an iron-clad confirmation."
Lindbergh, who also had six children with his U.S. wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh, became famous for his daring 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic from New York to Paris in 33 hours.
Lindbergh started a romance with Munich hat-maker Brigitte Hesshaimer in 1957 when he was 55 and she was 32. They had three children: Dyrk, now 45, Astrid, 43, and David, 36.
A restless world traveler, Lindbergh spent five to 14 days with his family in Munich up to three times a year until he died in 1974. Lindbergh and Hesshaimer kept the relationship a secret and the children knew the tall visitor only as "Mr Careu Kent."
The Germans said they did not discover the true identity of the mystery visitor until later. They described him as a loving man who devoted much time and energy to them, setting up trust funds and helping to buy a family house.
The Germans first revealed the secret in August, two years after their mother died and despite promising her to keep quiet. They said they only wanted to set the record straight and had no interest in Lindbergh's estate or tarnishing his legacy.
Their claim was initially met by frosty silence from the Lindbergh family. But Morgan Lindbergh, the aviator's grandson, came forward to say he believed the Germans were his relatives because they looked "hauntingly familiar" in photos.
He said he was willing to take a DNA test and had a warm meeting with the three Germans in Europe. But other family members were hesitant, wary of past hoaxes.
Schwenk said there had been "amiable meetings as well as regular contacts with letters and calls" between his clients and the Lindberghs.
"There are also meetings planned for next year in the United States," he added.
"They never had any doubt they were Lindbergh's children," he said. "I'd say it's not a happy end to the story but a happy beginning."
Bouteuil said she only discovered the true identity of her father in the early 1980s after she found dozens of letters from Lindbergh and an article about him and confronted her mother.
Despite his huge popularity in 1927, Lindbergh's reputation later suffered because of his pre-war sympathy for Nazi Germany and getting an award from Luftwaffe leader Hermann Goering. He was later rehabilitated and remained a celebrity until he died.
According to his biographer, A. Scott Berg, Lindbergh's marriage was in trouble in the late 1950s when the affair began.
Schwenk said a book and a television documentary were being planned about Lindbergh's double life and his Munich love story.
11/28/03 10:53 ET
Copyright 2003 Reuters Limited.
Pvt. Henry Tandey, VC at Marcoing September 28, 1918
The annals of history are full of fateful moments which scholars refer to as the great "what if's" of history, where if events had taken only a slight deviation the course of human affairs would have been dramatically different. Such a moment occurred in the last moments of the Great War in the French village of Marcoing involving 27 year old Private Henry Tandey of Warwickshire, UK, and 29 year old Lance Corporal Adolph Hitler of Braunau, Austria. Henry Tandey was born in Leamington, Warwickshire, on the 30th August 1891, son of former soldier James Tandey. After a difficult childhood, part of which was spent in an orphanage, he became a boiler attendant at a hotel in Leamington before enlisting in the British Army, joining the Green Howards Regiment in August 1910 and embarking on a 'Boys Own' adventurous life.
Tandey was mentioned five times in dispatches and certainly earned his VC during the capture of the French village and crossing at Marcoing, his regiment held down by heavy machine gun fire Tandey crawled forward, located the machine gun nest and took it out. Arriving at the crossing he braved heavy fire to place wooden planks over a gaping hole enabling troops to roll across and take the battle to the Germans, the day still not over he successfully led a bayonet charge against outnumbering enemy troops which helped bring hostilities to an end. As the ferocious battle wound down and enemy troops surrendered or retreated a wounded German soldier limped out of the maelstrom and into Private Tandey's line of fire, the battle weary man never raised his rifle and just stared at Tandey resigned to the inevitable. "I took aim but couldn't shoot a wounded man," said Tandey, "so I let him go."  The young German soldier nodded in thanks and the two men took diverging paths, that day and in history. Hitler retreated with the remnants of German troops and ended up in Germany, where he languished in the humiliation of defeat at wars end. Tandey put that encounter out of his mind and rejoined his regiment, discovering soon after he had won the Victoria Cross. It was announced in the London Gazette on 14th December 1918 and he was personally decorated by King George V at Buckingham Palace on 17th December 1919, in newspaper reports a picture of him carrying a wounded soldier after the Battle of Ypres was published, a dramatic image which symbolized a war which was supposed to have put an end to all wars and immortalized on canvas by Italian artist Fortunino Matania. Leaving the army in 1926 at the rank of sergeant the 35 year old settled in Leamington where he married, settling back into civilian life he spent the next 38 years as Commissionaire, or plant security chief, at Triumph, then called the Standard Motor Company. He lived a quiet life and although regarded as a hero by all and sundry wasn't one to brag or boast, wouldn't mention the war unless asked about it.
In 1938 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), Conservative PM from 1937-40, made his gloomy trip to Munich to meet Chancellor Hitler in a last ditched effort to avoid war which resulted in the ill-fated 'Munich Agreement'. During that fateful trip Hitler invited him to his newly completed retreat in Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, a birthday present from Martin Bormann and the NAZI Party. Perched 6017 feet up on Kehlstein Mountain it commanded spectacular views for 200 kilometers in all directions. While there the Prime Minister explored the hill top lair of the Führer and found a reproduction of Matania's famous Marcoing painting depicting allied troops, puzzled by the choice of art Hitler explained, "that man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again, providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us". 
Chamberlain's thoughts aren't recorded, World War II erupted soon after and he lost power to Winston Churchill, dying of stomach cancer within months of that event. Although I feel safe in assuming he wished Tandey had pulled the trigger, ridding the world of a venomous creature. Hitler seized the moment to have his best wishes and gratitude conveyed to Tandey by the Prime Minister, who promised to phone him on his return to London. It wasn't until that time Tandey knew the man he had in his gun sight 20 years earlier was Adolph Hitler and it came as a great shock, given tensions at the time it wasn't something he felt proud about. The story first broke in 1940 but no one gave it much thought at the time, however in recent years it has generated greater interest. Some historians are doubtful as it sounds too good to be true, however it has an unmistakable ring of truth to it. No one in their right mind would make up a story about having spared the life of a tyrant who at that time had just fire bombed Coventry, was Blitzing London and mass murdering people on the continent. Hitler's regiment was in the Marcoing region at the time although his presence cannot be verified, a great deal of German records for the Great War were lost in WWII due to allied bombing of Berlin which resulted in the destruction of a significant amount of the State Archives. So documents showing Adolph Hitler's exact whereabouts on 28 September 1918 are not available, Hitler biographers have differing opinions. However there is irrefutable evidence that Hitler possessed a copy of the famous Matania painting featuring Tandey as early as 1937, acquiring it from Tandey's old regiment. "Colonel Earle said that he had heard from one Dr. Schwend that Hitler had expressed a wish to have a large photograph of the Matania painting.
At the outbreak of the Great War, Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment and became a Dispatch Runner. He proved himself a capable and brave soldier, was twice wounded, once almost fatally gassed and awarded the Iron Cross in recognition of his bravery. He had a deep sense of destiny entwined with delusions of grandeur and a warped view of the world, influenced by melodramatic Wagnerian operas he cast himself as the savior of the Germanic race. He believed Private Tandey's benevolent action was part of the grand scheme of things, the gods were watching over their emissary, which was also his sentiment upon surviving assassination attempts later on. Hitler never forgot the moment he stared down the barrel of death, nor the face of the man who spared him, he stumbled across a newspaper featuring the famous image of Private Tandey which noted his being awarded the VC for bravery. Hitler kept it and on becoming Chancellor of Germany ordered government officials to obtain a copy of his service record and reproduction of the Matania painting, which he hung and pointed out to loyal disciples with pride.
Tandey was haunted the remainder of his life by his good deed, the simple squeeze of a trigger would have spared the world a catastrophe which cost tens of millions of lives. He was living in Coventry when the Luftwaffe destroyed the city in 1940, sheltered in a doorway as the building he was in crumbled and city burned like a scene from Dante's Inferno. He was also in London during the Blitz and experienced that atrocity first hand, he told a journalist in 1940, "if only I had known what he would turn out to be. When I saw all the people, woman and children he had killed and wounded I was sorry to God I let him go".  When war irrupted the 49 year old tried to rejoin his regiment to see to it that, "he didn't escape a second time",  but failed the physical due to wounds received at the Battle of the Somme. Nonetheless he did his bit on the homefront, volunteering wherever he could be of service but was always haunted by an act of decency to an indecent man. Henry Tandey VC DCM MM died without issue in Coventry in 1977 aged 86, in accordance with his wishes he was cremated and interred at the British Cemetery in Marcoing alongside fallen comrades and close to where he won his Victoria Cross 60 years earlier. His widow sold his medals three years later for a record £27.000 and on Armistice Day 1997 they were presented to his old regiment, the Green Howards, by Sir Ernest Harrison OBE at a special ceremony at the Tower of London and are displayed with great pride at the Green Howards regimental museum.
On April 15, 1920, a guard named Alessandro Berardelli and paymaster Frederick A. Parmenter were robbed and killed by gunmen. The two, who were employees of Slater and Morrill, a South Braintree, Massachusetts, shoe factory, were holding two containers of payroll (around $15,773.59).
An investigation took place and Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a fish peddler, were taken into custody. Although not much evidence was found, police discovered that both were carrying guns. Sacco also had in his possession a paper advertising an anarchist gathering. His gun, which matched the one that had been used in the killings, was proven to be the murder weapon in 1961. There was no evidence, however, that Sacco had used it during the crime.
Regardless of whether they had really committed the crime or not, many people around the world felt that the two Italian immigrants had not received a fair trial. What the two did receive, in their opinions, was prejudice. Sacco and Vanzetti had been mistreated for their heritage, World War I draft dodging, and anarchist beliefs. Despite Celestine Madeiros, a criminal on death row, admitting to being a part of the crime, the trial ended on July 14, 1921, and Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death. They were electrocuted on August 23, 1927.
Fifty years after the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti, Michael Dukakis, the governor of Massachusetts, acknowledged that the two immigrants had not received a fair trial. On August 23, 1977, their names were cleared.
For Chicago, the Leopold and Loeb trial was the crime of the century. A fourteen year old boy, Bobby Franks, was murdered by two young men, Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb, both from wealthy and socially established Jewish families, simply to commit the perfect crime. At their trial, the famous Clarence Darrow conducted a
defense based upon psychological testimony, and captured the attention of the nation.
Truman Capote uses this as the backdrop of his award-winning In Cold Blood.
Illinois v. Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb 1924
The crime that captured national attention in 1924 began as a fantasy in the mind of eighteen-year old Richard Loeb, the handsome and privileged son of a retired Sears Roebuck vice president. Loeb was obsessed with crime. Despite his high intelligence and standing as the youngest graduate ever of the University of Michigan, Loeb read mostly detective stories. He read about crime, he planned crimes, and he committed crimes, although none until 1924 were crimes involving physical harm to a person. ( Darrow and Leopold later saw Loeb's fascination with crime as form of rebellion against the well-meaning, but strict and controlling, governess who raised him.) For Loeb, crime became a sort of game; he wanted to commit the perfect crime just to prove that it could be done.
Loeb's nineteen-year old partner in crime, Nathan Leopold, was interested in ornithology, philosophy, and especially, Richard Loeb. Like Loeb, Leopold was a child of wealth and opportunity, the son of a millionaire box manufacturer. At the time of their crime, the brilliant Leopold was a law student at the University of Chicago and was planning to begin studies at Harvard Law School after a family trip to Europe in the summer. Leopold already had achieved recognition as the nation's leading authority on the Kirtland warbler, an endangered songbird, and frequently lectured on the subjects of his ornithological passion. As a student of philosophy, Leopold was attracted to Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on early twentieth century academics was powerful, and the merits of ideas contained in books like his Beyond Good and Evil were fiercely debated in centers of learning like the University of Chicago. Leopold agreed with Nietzsche's criticism of moral codes, and believed that legal obligations did not apply to those who approached "the superman." Leopold's idea of the superman was his friend and lover, Richard Loeb.
Loeb and Leopold had an intense and stormy relationship. At one time Leopold contemplated killing Loeb over a perceived breach of confidentiality. This relationship, described by Darrow as "weird and almost impossible," led the two boys to do together what they almost certainly would never have done apart: commit murder. Motives are often unclear, and they are in this trial. Neither the defense's theory that the murder was an effort by both to deepen their relationship nor the prosecution's theory that money to pay off gambling debts and a desire by Loeb to "have something" on Leopold in order to counter Leopold's unwanted demands for sex, are likely accurate. What is clearest about the motives is that Leopold's attraction to Loeb was his primary reason for participating in the crime. Leopold later wrote that "Loeb's friendship was necessary to me-- terribly necessary" and that his motive, "to the extent that I had one, was to please Dick." For Loeb, the crime was more an escape from the ordinary; an interesting intellectual exercise.
Murder was a necessary element in their plan to commit the perfect crime. The two teenagers spent hours discussing and refining a plan that included kidnapping the child of a wealthy parents, demanding a ransom, and collecting the ransom after it was thrown off a moving train as it passed a designated point. Neither Loeb nor Leopold relished the idea of murdering their kidnap victim, but they thought it critical to minimizing their likelihood of being identified as the kidnappers. Their victim turned out to be an acquaintance of the two boys, Bobby Franks.
On May 21, 1924, Leopold and Loeb lured a young neighbor boy, 14-year-old Bobby Frank, into their car. They killed him with a chisel, and stuffed his body in a culvert, and poured acid on the body to make it harder to identify. The next morning the Frank family received a special delivery letter -- a ransom note demanding $10,000 in unmarked bills for the return of the boy.
Before Mr. Frank could pay the ransom, police discovered the child's body. There was nothing linking the criminals to the crime except for a single pair of glasses. Police traced the glasses to a Chicago optometrist who had prescribed them for Nathan Leopold. If he hadn't lost his glasses, Leopold and his friend Loeb might have indeed gotten away with murder.
Leopold's and Loeb's parents hired the best, and most expensive, criminal attorney they could find -- Clarence Darrow. Darrow knew his clients would be convicted. His goal, as always, was to save them from the death penalty.
Americans read every detail of the Leopold and Loeb trial with fascination and repulsion. By 1924, automobiles like Ford's popular Model T were increasing criminal mobility; rising fears about crime would ultimately cause citizens to support a national police force. Chicago's WGN radio considered broadcasting the trial live, but decided it wasn't appropriate "entertainment" to send to families in their living rooms.
The trial reached its climax with Clarence Darrow's closing argument, delivered over twelve hours in a sweltering courtroom. Darrow admitted the guilt of his clients, but argued that forces beyond their control influenced their actions. Law professor Phillip Johnson describes Darrow's argument this way: "Nature made them do it, evolution made them do it, Nietzsche made them do it. So they should not be sentenced to death for it." Darrow convinced the judge to spare his clients, mainly due to their youth. Leopold and Loeb received life in prison.
In 1936 Richard Loeb was killed in a prison fight with another inmate. In 1958, after thirty-four years behind bars, Nathan Leopold was released from prison. He died in 1971.
During the 1920's, a courtroom case in the United States changed the public's view of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution forever. This particular trial would also be the first-ever to be broadcast live on radio.
In 1925, a Tennessee biology teacher named John Thomas Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution. In the previous two years, Tennessee had been among several states in the U.S. to have fundamentalists propose laws to make teaching evolution illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union, with Clarence Seward Darrow (1857 - 1938) as its lawyer decided to defend Scopes. On the opposing side, William Jennings Bryan fought for Tennessee and against evolution in the classroom. Despite the fact that Scopes eventually lost a trial that he never testified at and was charged $100.00, Darrow was seen as the superior lawyer. Bryan, a three-time presidential candidate was humiliated and outsmarted. Only five days after the trial had ended, Bryan passed away. The outcome of the "Monkey Trial" was later changed; a technicality was found.
The Flapper The flapper, whose antics were immortalized in the cartoons of John Held Jr., was the heroine of the Jazz Age. With short hair and a short skirt, with turned-down hose and powdered knees - the flapper must have seemed to her mother (the gentle Gibson girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel. No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen. Mostly, the flapper offended the older generation because she defied conventions of acceptable feminine behavior. The flapper was "modern." Traditionally, women's hair had always been worn long. The flapper wore it short, or bobbed. She used make-up (which she might well apply in public). And the flapper wore baggy dresses which often exposed her arms as well as her legs from the knees down. However, flappers did more than symbolize a revolution in fashion and mores - they embodied the modern spirit of the Jazz Age.
In 1919, the Cincinnati Reds defeated the Chicago White Sox in the World Series. The next year, eight White Sox players were accused of throwing (trying to lose) the World Series in return for money from gamblers. Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the eight players from baseball. This scandal, called the Black Sox Scandal, shocked fans and hurt the game's reputation. Landis had been appointed commissioner in 1920 especially to investigate the scandal. A federal judge with a reputation for honesty, he helped restore public confidence in baseball.
Troubled by blisters from a new pair of shoes, Jackson played in his stocking feet. A fan gave him the nickname Shoeless Joe. Jackson played his first full major league season in 1911 and became an outfielder for the White Sox in 1915. Jackson's .356 career batting average ranks him behind only Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby in major league history.
In the 1919 World Series, Jackson batted .375 and made no fielding errors. Many historians believe Jackson was unfairly judged. In 1989, the South Carolina state senate asked to have Jackson freed from blame. However, Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti denied the request.
A short history lesson, and a good one about life. Read both of these. They're very good...
World War II produced many heroes. One such man was Lieutenant Commander Butch O'Hare. He was a fighter pilot assigned to an aircraft carrier Lexington in the South Pacific. One day his entire squadron was sent on a mission. After he was airborne, he looked at his fuel gauge and realized that someone had forgotten to top off his fuel tank. He would not have enough fuel to complete his mission and get back to his ship. His flight leader told him to return to the carrier. Reluctantly he dropped out of formation and headed back to the fleet.
As he was returning to his mother ship, he saw something that turned his blood cold. A squadron of Japanese bombers was speeding their way toward the American fleet. The American fighters were gone on a sortie and the fleet was all but defenseless. He couldn't reach his squadron and bring them back in time to save the fleet. Nor, could he warn the fleet of the approaching danger. There was only one thing to do. He must somehow divert them from the fleet. He dove into the formation of Japanese planes. Wing-mounted 50 caliber's blazed as he charged in, attacking one surprised enemy plane and then another. Butch weaved in and out of the now broken formation and fired at as many planes as possible until finally all his ammunition was spent.
Undaunted, he continued the assault. He dove at the planes, trying to at least clip off a wing or tail, in hopes of damaging as many enemy planes as possible and rendering them unfit to fly. He was desperate to do anything he could to keep them from reaching the American ships.
Finally, the exasperated Japanese squadron took off in another direction. Deeply relieved, Butch O'Hare and his tattered fighter limped back to the carrier. Upon arrival he reported in and related the event surrounding his return. The film from the camera mounted on his plane told the tale. It showed the extent of Butch's daring attempt to protect his fleet. He had destroyed five enemy bombers. That was on February 20, 1942, and for that action he became the Navy's first Ace of WWII and the first Naval Aviator to win the congressional Medal of Honor.
A year later he was killed in aerial combat at the age of 29. His hometown would not allow the memory of that heroic action die.
And today, O'Hare Airport in Chicago is named in tribute to the courage of this great man. So the next time you're in O'Hare visit his memorial with his statue and Medal of Honor. It is located between terminal 1 and 2.
Ever since Eliot Ness first published The Untouchables in 1957, the public has fallen in love with the adventures of this authentic American hero. His book was a runaway best seller because it was the exciting true story of a brave and honest lawman pitted against the country's most successful gangster, Al Capone. The television series that followed in the 1950's and the Kevin Costner movie in 1987 built fancifully on the same theme. Then again in 1993, the television series has been remade for yet another generation to watch Eliot Ness battle it out again with the Capone Mob. Every school child knows what Eliot Ness did for two years in Chicago, but what happened to him afterwards when Al Capone went to jail? Almost nobody knows. Does that mean the young hero retired to a quiet life? Not by a long shot! With a new group of "Untouchables," Eliot Ness went right on fighting the mob for another decade: staging daring raids on bootleggers and illegal gambling joints, catching criminals with his bare hands, and generally putting organized crime on the run. After Capone, he broadened his crusade to include labor racketeers, crooked cops and the country's most vicious serial killer, the Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run.
So why didn't Eliot Ness write about his adventures after Chicago? Actually, he had planned to do just that, but he died of a heart attack just before the publishing of The Untouchables. This story is the result of hundreds of interviews and thousands of hours of research to capture events never before published. All the events contained in this story are substantively correct, although the exact dialogue, remembered from interviews taken decades after the event, may only be approximate. Ness's career in law enforcement continued for a decade beyond the Capone years, a decade in which his very considerable talents flowered. At the age of 33 in Cleveland, he faced the challenge of his career when he took over the corrupt and incompetent police force in a city that had become a haven for gangsters. Never one to sit behind a desk and administrate, Eliot took to the street with a new group of trusted confidants, mostly undercover investigators and reporters, until he cleaned up the police force and put the mob chieftains behind bars. Drawing on his master's degree in criminology, he turned the miserable Cleveland police force into one of the most modern, efficient and respected departments in the world. Crime in the city dropped 38 percent after he was on the job just a couple of years! Eliot Ness was so much more than just the courageous guy who battered down the door of Capone's biggest brewery. It's time the American public knew about the rest of his accomplishments, which are at once exciting, inspiring and long lasting.
Some years earlier there was a man in Chicago called Easy Eddie. At that time, Al Capone virtually owned the city. Capone wasn't famous for anything heroic. His exploits were anything but praiseworthy. He was, however, notorious for enmeshing the city of Chicago in everything from bootlegged booze and prostitution to murder. Easy Eddie was Capone's lawyer and for a good reason. He was very good! In fact, his skill at legal maneuvering kept Big Al out of jail for a long time. To show his appreciation, Capone paid him very well. Not only was the money big; Eddie got special dividends. For instance, he and his family occupied a fenced-in mansion with live-in help and all of the conveniences of the day. The estate was so large that it filled an entire Chicago city block. Yes, Eddie lived the high life of the Chicago mob and gave little consideration to the atrocities that went on around him.
Eddy did have one soft spot, however. He had a son that he loved dearly. Eddy saw to it that his young son had the best of everything--clothes, cars, and a good education. Nothing was withheld. Price was no object. And, despite his involvement with organized crime, Eddie even tried to teach him right from wrong. Yes, Eddie tried to teach his son to rise above his own sordid life. He wanted him to be a better man than he was.
Yet, with all his wealth and power, Eddie couldn't give his son everything. Two things that Eddie sacrificed to the Capone mob that he could not pass on to his beloved son: a good name and a good example.
One day, Easy Eddie reached a difficult decision. Offering his son a good name was far more important than all the riches he could lavish on him. He had to rectify all the wrong that he had done. He would go to the authorities and tell the truth about Scar-face Al Capone. He would try to clean up his tarnished name and offer his son some semblance of integrity. To do this he must testify against The Mob, and he knew that the cost would be great. But more than anything, he wanted to be an example to his son. He wanted to do his best to make restitution and hopefully have a good name to leave his son. So, he testified.
Within the year, Easy Eddie's life ended in a blaze of gunfire on a lonely Chicago street. He had given his son the greatest gift he had to offer at the greatest price he would ever pay.
What do these two stories have to do with one another?
Well, you see, Butch O'Hare was Easy Eddie's son.
Al Capone Al Capone was one of the most famous and powerful gangsters in United States history. During the 1920's, he built a criminal empire in Chicago that became the model for present-day organized-crime operations. Capone was known as Scarface because his left cheek once had been slashed in a fight. In spite of his reputation, Capone was treated as a celebrity. He was often seen riding in an armored limousine to theaters and sports arenas, where he entertained guests in private boxes. Alphonse Capone was born on Jan. 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York, to poor Italian immigrants. The original family name was sometimes spelled Caponi. About 1920, Capone came to Chicago to work for a racketeer. A series of gangland shootings soon left the violent and clever Capone in control of much of the city's large-scale criminal activities. His gang dominated liquor, gambling, and prostitution rackets. It fought off rival gangs with submachine guns, and corrupted police and politicians with bribes. Capone gunmen were blamed for the murder of seven members of the Bugs Moran gang in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929, but this charge was never proved. In 1931, a federal jury convicted Capone of income tax evasion. The IRS had been gathering tax evasion information on Capone for some time through a hired agent, Eddie O'Hare. O'Hare ran Capone's dog and race tracks and told the IRS where they could find Capone's financial records. On November 24, Al Capone was sentenced to 11 years in Federal prison, fined $50,000, charged $7692 for court costs, and $215,000 in back taxes for tax evasion. The agent in charge of the case was Melvin Purvis. After eight years in prison, Capone retired to his mansion near Miami, Florida. Capone died in Florida on Jan. 25, 1947, from complications due to syphilis.
The Roaring Twenties began on a dry note on January 29, 1920, at 12:01 a.m. when the 18th Amendment was put into effect. The Anti-Saloon League of New York and others who wanted to make the sale and manufacture of alcohol illegal — thereby combating the related moral and social ills associated with drinking — had successfully lobbied Congress to pass the amendment. The Volstead Act enforced the amendment. Prohibition had begun. As law enforcement officials shut down saloons across the country, speakeasies — illegal bars — sprouted up quickly. They were given their unique name for the need to whisper, or "speak easy," as patrons attempted to cross their illegal thresholds. A secret knock, password or handshake could get a prospective drinker through a door that appeared to lead to an ordinary apartment, deli, tailor, or soda shop. Once inside, however, there was plenty of drinking and entertainment, including torch singers, cabaret singers, and vaudeville acts.
Then in 1920, the best thing that could have happened for jazz, they passed the most idiotic law in the history of the United States, prohibition... Well, from a handful of saloons around the country, you now have thousands and thousands of speakeasies, especially in all the major cities. I mean, at one point in New York City alone, Manhattan had 5,000 speakeasies. And in the competition, you want to bring in people, you have music. So suddenly, there's work. There's tons of work for jazz musicians. Also, Prohibition is loosening up morals. It's doing exactly the opposite of what it was supposed to do. Women, for example, did not drink in saloons. They sure drank in speakeasies ... So the Jazz Age became a kind of umbrella term to this whole loosening up, this whole lubrication thanks to Prohibition when everybody was drinking more than they should just to defy an absolutely unenforceable law. By the late 1920s, it was obvious that Prohibition was failing. Bootleggers made gin and bribed public officials in order to keep their businesses thriving. More people were drinking than ever before. Many Americans challenged the law by carrying hidden flasks, though some drinkers paid a high price for this illegal habit, dying of wood alcohol poisoning. The social ills caused by the consumption of alcohol worsened as gang murders, turf wars, and booze smuggling became commonplace. Controlling the presence of speakeasies was futile. They opened as quickly as they were shut down. Finally, on February 20, 1933, the 21st Amendment was passed, repealing the 18th Amendment and ending Prohibition. Herbert Hoover and other republicans referred to the Prohibition Era as a "noble experiment," and as legal bars, saloons and clubs opened once again, speakeasies became a memory of the past.
With the age of telephone and radio communication dawning as it was during the Jazz Age, it spawned not only convenience for everyday life, but for the organizing of crime syndicates as well. Chicago's bloody history during the Jazz Age, is a testimony to the failure of prohibition laws introduced in 1919. The St. Valentine's Day massacre is not noteworthy for its uniqueness of gangland murder, for these syndicate 'hits' were common throughout the 1920s, especially in Chicago. What makes the murders so special on this occasion was the effect it had on the entire Unites States public, and the outrage that followed emphatically pronounced that something had to be done.
In the modern era, Chicago is one of the world's great cities, and does have better historical moments outside of the times of 1920s. Sitting on the toe of Lake Michigan, it is the Illinois corner which Indiana and Wisconsin meet. Chicago contains some of the world's most famous architecture, arts, airport, sports teams, and all manner of metropolitan delight. The passing of time has healed the wounds of the gang wars, and Chicago's history in the 20s and 30s is treated with fascination, and while not arrogantly celebrated, is certainly regarded as important Americana. It has a retrospect to the gangster era, growing much in the same way Tombstone, Arizona celebrates the gunfighters of the O.K. Corral. Al Capone has become legend, albeit eras apart, as similar to those gunfighters of the old west.
The Al Capone story is really a study of power, where power corrupt is turned to power absolute. It isn't entirely necessary to understand Al Capone's history to appreciate the gangland politics of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. However, the events leading up to it are intertwined with Capone's history.
Capone was born in New York in 1899 and lived his youth there. He apprenticed in the ways of racketeering under the guidance of Johnny Torrio. Contrary to popular notion, Italian Americans involved with the bootlegging of alcohol, for example, were not intent on provoking violence in their community. In fact, they were a surprisingly peaceable people, simply providing a service in a time where an awkward law tried to prevent the consumption of alcohol. They did favors and received favors in return. Torrio and others became victims of these circumstances, and things simply fell out of control.
The Torrio-Capone empire began in Cicero, a township south of Chicago which at the time was less integrated with Chicago as it is today. The South-Side of Chicago eventually became under their control. To convey all the events describing this evolution is a book in itself. There were many other gangs involved in the rackets, chief among them was the Dion O'Banion gang, which chiefly controlled the North-Side of Chicago. O'Banion was not interested in arranging deals with Torrio-Capone organisation, and friction between the two groups grew from there. O'Banion ended up assassinated by trying to destroy the Torrio-Capone group using informants to watch their movements and reporting the activity to the authorities. Since the murder of O'Banion in November, 1924, the gang wars snowballed into a circle of revenge. Just as Torrio was leaving the organization as a main player, he fell victim to an assassination attempt in January 1925 leaving him severely debilitated at the hands of "Hymie" Weiss and "Bugs" Moran. Weeks before this, Al Capone too was targeted by the same gang, and their use of the Thompson machine gun on Capone's car left many holes, but none in the body of Capone who, by a lucky chance was not there. Capone was relieved by the good fortune, but seemed more impressed by the Tommy Gun's destructive power evidenced by the damage sustained to his car. This signature weapon for 1920s gangster movies and television programs was born, although it was not quite as common the weapon portrayed in the media.
"Bugs" Moran came to the top of the North-Side gang by virtue of the deaths of bosses before him. Drucci and Weiss preceded Moran, and before them, O'Banion. Moran's gang was not armed with same clout as Capone when it came to corruption of the authorities. Moran in comparison to Capone was a nuisance competitor, a powerful thug, without the intricate organization of the Capone machine.
Jack McGurn featured prominently within the Capone syndicate. Of all of Capone's people, he was responsible for many of Chicago's gangland murders, often without Capone's consent. McGurn upset Capone on a number of occasions for going over the top in violence, because everything McGurn did reflected on Capone in the media. Capone liked things kept quiet, but McGurn's reckless behavior of killing and maiming, prompted Capone to implore him not to take actions unless he had permission.
"Bugs" Moran had Capone on his list for assassination for years now, but realised the more reasonable goal of knocking off his main henchman Jack McGurn. He dispatched the brothers Frank and Peter Gusenberg for the job.
After days of watching and following McGurn, they opened fire while McGurn was using a public payphone inside a hotel lobby. Certain they had accomplished the mission, the brothers fled. But McGurn was lucky. After the initial salvo, he collapsed below the glass and was afforded some shielding from the bullets by the wood in the booth. Nevertheless, he was severely shot and was close to death. Because of the location of the shooting, McGurn was afforded quick access to medical attention. The worst scenario for the Moran gang had occurred, the survival of the most violent man in Capone's service.
Capone did not like the situation. The heat on his organization was bad enough as it was, but knew that such an action was likely to set the gang wars on a new and deadly course. It is a common misconception that Capone masterminded the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. While it is true it was to his interest that these people were eliminated, he would have preferred it not occur. After all, this was McGurn's vendetta against Moran. So Capone left Chicago for Miami, to be as far away from complicity as possible.
McGurn planned carefully for this hit. He utilized two seasoned gunmen from Capone's group, Albert Anselmi and John Scalise. Also employed was a Chicago outsider, Fred Burke, and it is assumed that the fourth was another outsider, possibly a recruit from a gang in alliance with Capone's.
The plan was simple. Pose as police and pretend a raid. The question was, to raid what? The idea was to lure the gang together by creating a liquor transaction of Canadian Whisky from a 'supposed' dealer. This dealer would inform McGurn of the pickup location and the plan would execute. To ensure the snare would come off properly, it was tested to ensure the Moran boys were comfortable with the arrangement. After the first shipment, the trust factor ensured that Moran gang's guard would be down.
On the next occasion, Moran set the place of transaction to be at the S.M.C. Company garage. Moran would be handling the cash himself. McGurn was informed that Moran would be there himself at 10:30 am on February 14, a Thursday. There was one problem. The men McGurn hired for lookouts, didn't exactly know what Moran looked like.
Quick Facts • The U.S. gross national product (GNP) rose to $71.6 billion. In 1910, it had been $30.4 billion. (1920) • American writer Sinclair Lewis, or Harry Sinclair Lewis (1885 - 1951), publishes Main Street . (1920) • In New York, George Gershwin's (1898 - 1937) Rhapsody in Blue is performed. (1924) • Harold Ross founds the New Yorker . (1925) • Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899 - 1961) publishes his book, The Sun Also Rises . (1925) • Walt Disney (1901 - 1966) presents Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie , a cartoon complete with sound. Disney provided the voice of the soon-to-be famous mouse. (1928) • Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899 - 1961) publishes A Farewell to Arms . (1929) • Charlie Chaplin (1889 - 1977) stars in The Kid , his first full-length film. Other notable actors at the time included Douglas Fairbanks (1883 - 1939) and Mary Pickford (1893 - 1979).
Babe Zaharias is generally considered the greatest woman athlete in sports history. She gained her most enduring fame in golf and track and field, but she also competed in basketball, baseball, pocket billiards, tennis, diving, and swimming. In a 1932 track and field meet, she set four world records in three hours. At the 1932 Olympic Games, she set world records in the 80-meter hurdles, the javelin throw, and the high jump.
Didrikson began concentrating on golf in the early 1930's. Her style of play dramatically changed women's golf. Her powerful swing, low scores, and showmanship attracted many new fans to the sport. She won the U.S. Women's Amateur tournament in 1946. In 1946 and 1947, she won 17 tournaments in a row, including the 1947 British Women's Amateur. She became the first American to win this event. Didrikson turned professional in 1947. She was one of the founders of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). She won the U.S. Women's Open in 1948, 1950, and 1954. The 1954 victory came a year after she had cancer surgery.
Mildred Ella Didrikson was born on June 26, probably in 1911, 1912, or 1914, in Port Arthur, Texas. She was nicknamed Babe after baseball slugger Babe Ruth because of the many home runs she hit playing baseball as a child. She married George Zaharias, a wrestler, in 1938.
The Great Migration was a mass movement of African American northwards for factory jobs away from the dangerous KKK-infested, Jim Crow-enforcing South. There were plenty of jobs available as the nation’s productivity soared.
One place where Black pride, music and culture flourished was a section of New York City known as Harlem. Poets, musicians, and writers abounded, capturing the African American experience in art, word, and jazz.
A rebirth of black pride took hold within the United States with a flowering of artistic ability. Bessie Smith, the Duke, Satchmo, Zora Neal Hurston, and Langston Hughes were just a few of the brilliant artistes that blossomed in this period.
Josephine Baker, (1906-1975), was an internationally famous African American entertainer. She began her career in the early 1920's as a chorus dancer in black musical comedies and in black nightclubs in New York City. She did not become a star until she moved to Paris in 1925, where she performed in black revues at the Follies Bergere and other Parisian music halls. She also owned a nightclub. Her rhythmic dancing and flamboyant stage presence made her a sensation by the late 1920's.
Baker returned to the United States to perform in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1936. For a time, she operated a nightclub in New York City. She retired in 1956 to devote more time to her family of adopted children. She raised her family on her estate in France until financial difficulties forced the sale of the property. Baker often returned to the stage in the 1960's and early 1970's. She was born on June 3, 1906, in St. Louis, Missouri. She died on April 12, 1975.
Surviving the 1917 riots in East St. Louis, Illinois, where the family was living, Josephine Baker ran away a few years later at age thirteen and began dancing in vaudeville and on Broadway. In 1925, Josephine Baker went to Paris where, after the jazz revue La Revue Nègre failed, her comic ability and jazz dancing drew attention of the director of the Folies Bergère.
Virtually an instant hit, Josephine Baker became one of the best-known entertainers in both France and much of Europe. Her exotic, sensual act reinforced the creative images coming out of the Harlem Renaissance in America.
During World War II Josephine Baker worked with the Red Cross, gathered intelligence for the French Resistance and entertained troops in Africa and the Middle East. She smuggled in information written in invisible ink on her sheets of music and occasionally had secrets "pinned inside her underwear". She was awarded the Legion de France by Charles DeGaulle himself after the war.
After the war, Josephine Baker adopted, with her second husband, twelve children from around the world, making her home a World Village, a "showplace for brotherhood." She returned to the stage in the 1950s to finance this project. In 1951 in the United States, Josephine Baker was refused service at the famous Stork Club in New York City. Yelling at columnist Walter Winchell, another patron of the club, for not coming to her assistance, she was accused by Winchell of communist and fascist sympathies. Never as popular in the US as in Europe, she found herself fighting the rumors begun by Winchell as well.
Josephine Baker responded by crusading for racial equality, refusing to entertain in any club or theater that was not integrated, and thereby breaking the color bar at many establishments. In 1963, she spoke at the March on Washington at the side of Martin Luther King, jr.
Josephine Baker's World Village fell apart in the 1950s and in 1969 she was evicted from her chateau, which was then auctioned off to pay debts. Princess Grace of Monaco gave her a villa. In 1973 Baker married an American, Robert Brady, and began her stage comeback.
In 1975, Josephine Baker's Carnegie Hall comeback performance was a success, as was her subsequent Paris performance. But two days after her last Paris performance, she died of a stroke.
Satchmo Louis Armstrong The dynamic and mesmerizing music of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington is forever etched in jazz history. He was a songwriter, composer and acclaimed performer that helped shape modern music as we know it. Louis Armstrong was born in a poor section of New Orleans known as “the Battlefield” on August 4, 1901. By the time of his death in 1971, the man known around the world as Satchmo was widely recognized as a founding father of jazz – a uniquely American art form. His influence, as an artist and cultural icon, is universal, unmatched, and very much alive today. Through the years, Louis entertained millions, from heads of state and royalty to the kids on his stoop in Corona. Despite his fame, he lived a simple life in a working-class neighborhood. To this day, everyone loves Satchmo – just the mention of his name makes people smile. The Duke
Bessie Smith was a rough, crude, violent woman. She was also the greatest of the classic Blues singers of the 1920s. Bessie started out as a street musician in Chattanooga. In 1912 Bessie joined a traveling show as a dancer and singer. The show featured Pa and Ma Rainey, and Smith developed a friendship with Ma. Ma Rainey was Bessie's mentor and she stayed with her show until 1915. Bessie then joined the T.O.B.A. vaudeville circuit and gradually built up her own following in the south and along the eastern seaboard. By the early 1920s she was one of the most popular Blues singers in vaudeville. In 1923 she made her recording debut on Columbia, accompanied by pianist Clarence Williams. They recorded "Gulf Coast Blues" and "Down Hearted Blues." The record sold more than 750,000 copies that same year, rivaling the success of Blues singer Mamie Smith (no relation). Throughout the 1920s Smith recorded with many of the great Jazz musicians of that era, including Fletcher Henderson, James P. Johnson, Coleman Hawkins, Don Redman and Louis Armstrong. Her rendition of "St. Louis Blues" with Armstrong is considered by most critics to be one of finest recordings of the 1920s. Bessie Smith was one of the biggest stars of the 1920s and was popular with both Whites and African-Americans, but by 1931 the Classic Blues style of Bessie Smith was out of style and the Depression, radio, and sound movies had all damaged the record companies' ability to sell records so Columbia dropped Smith from its roster. In 1933 she recorded for the last time under the direction of John Hammond for Okeh. The session was released under the name of Bessie Smith accompanied by Buck and his Band. Despite having no record company Smith was still very popular in the South and continued to draw large crowds, although the money was not nearly as good as it had been in the 1920s. Bessie had started to style herself as a Swing musician and was on the verge of a comeback when her life was tragically cut short by an automobile accident in 1937. While driving with her lover Richard Morgan (Lionel Hampton's uncle) in Mississippi their car rear-ended a slow moving truck and rolled over crushing Smith's left arm and ribs. Smith bled to death by the time she reached the hospital. John Hammond caused quite a stir by writing an article in Downbeat magazine suggesting that Smith had bled to death because she had been taken to a White hospital and had been turned away. This proved not to be true, but the rumor persists to this day.
James Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln, Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, eventually settling in Cleveland, Ohio. It was in Lincoln, Illinois, that Hughes began writing poetry. Following graduation, he spent a year in Mexico and a year at Columbia University. During these years, he held odd jobs as an assistant cook, launderer, and a busboy, and traveled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman. In November 1924, he moved to Washington, D.C. Hughes first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926. He finished his college education at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania three years later. In 1930 his first novel, Not Without Laughter, won the Harmon gold medal for literature.
Hughes, who claimed Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg, and Walt Whitman as his primary influences, is particularly known for his insightful, colorful portrayals of black life in America from the twenties through the sixties. He wrote novels, short stories and plays, as well as poetry, and is also known for his engagement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing, as in Montage of a Dream Deferred. His life and work were enormously important in shaping the artistic contributions of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. Unlike other notable black poets of the period--Claude McKay, Jean Toomer, and Countee Cullen--Hughes refused to differentiate between his personal experience and the common experience of black America. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself.
Langston Hughes died of complications from prostate cancer in May 22, 1967, in New York. In his memory, his residence at 20 East 127th Street in Harlem, New York City, has been given landmark status by the New York City Preservation Commission, and East 127th Street was renamed "Langston Hughes Place."
What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?
Well, son, I'll tell you: Life for me ain't been no crystal stair. It's had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor -- Bare. But all the time I'se been a-climbin' on,
And reachin' landin's, And turnin' corners, And sometimes goin' in the dark
Where there ain't been no light. So boy, don't you turn back. Don't you set down on the steps 'Cause you finds it's kinder hard. Don't you fall now -- For I'se still goin', honey, I'se still climbin', And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.
It was a spring afternoon in West Florida. Janie had spent most of the day under a blossoming pear tree in the back-yard. She had been spending every minute that she could steal from her chores under that tree for the last three days. That was to say, ever since the first tiny bloom had opened. It had called her to come and gaze on a mystery. From barren brown stems to glistening leaf-buds; from the leaf-buds to snowy virginity of bloom. It stirred her tremendously. How? Why? It was like a flute song forgotten in another existence and remembered again. What? How? Why? this singing she heard that had nothing to do with her ears. The rose of the world was breathing out smell. It followed her through all her waking moments and caressed her in her sleep. It connected itself with other vaguely felt matters that had struck her outside observation and buried themselves in her flesh. Now they emerged and quested about her consciousness.
Zora Neale Hurston has been the subject of intense critical attention since her "re-discovery" in the late 'sixties. The most prolific African-American woman writer of her time or earlier, the power of her imagery and the richness of the culture which she brings to life through her writings have found her enthusiastic new audiences in recent years. Hurston herself was unable to make a living from her writings and worked as a teacher, a librarian and a domestic in order to earn her livelihood. She spent her later years in Florida, continuing to write articles which were published in various local and national venues and three additional novels which were rejected for publication. Her death in 1960 in a welfare home went largely unnoticed by the world and she was buried in an unmarked grave. In 1973, during a time when Hurston's eminence was finally being recognized, Alice Walker placed a marker in the field where Hurston lay. The gravestone reads:
Zora Neale Hurston "A Genius of the South" 1901[sic] -- 1960 Novelist, Folklorist Anthropologist
During the 1920's, Herbert Hoover had a great impact on the government's policies. Many Americans found him resourceful, and an extremely good manager. During World War One, Hoover organized the war effort and efficiently gave troops supplies and good transportation home. After the war, he created a commission for relief of the war torn nations. By 1920, Hoover was considered to be a presidential candidate, although he did not pursue the presidency with great force. When Harding was elected in 1920, Hoover was appointed as the Secretary of Commerce. He served in this position under both Harding and Coolidge. This is where Hoover was known for his laissez-faire polices that characterizes the twenties so much. He did support government regulation of the commercial aviation and radio-broadcasting. In spite of this, he thought that regulations should be voluntary for most other fields of business. However, as important as was in American life during the first eight years of the twenties, his presidency marked his most important achievements and failures.
Hoover the President
In 1928, Hoover was nominated for President, as he was the logical choice. He was extremely similar to both Coolidge and Harding in his business policies (in reality it was Hoover that had a great deal to do with both these administrations business actions). He won over Al Smith, who lost largely due the fact that he was Catholic. Soon after his elation, the stock market crashed, causing great domestic turmoil. Hoover's response was only moderate, as he encouraged businesses not to cut wages, but failed to force them to do so. As unemployment rose, Hoover began some small relief programs that included public works projects, but no program grew to the size that was needed to combat the depression. Having failed to turn the economy around, he lost the 1932 election to F.D. Roosevelt.
When the stock market crashes on October 24,1929, it signals the beginning of the Great Depression.
There are several causes of the depression:
No. 1 -- -- over-production of goods
No. 2-- -- over-speculation & the overuse of credit, like buying on margin and installment buying
During the 1920's, many American people saw "the good times." These times of prosperity would not last forever, however. The stock market crash of 1929 would end "The Roaring Twenties" and the Jazz Age. Not everyone had invested in the stock market, but the majority of all people were soon hurt by the loss of $30 billion. The rise of the Great Depression would create hardships for many families. In early 1929, the Dow Jones industrial average continued to rise and set new records. After climbing all the way to 381, the average began to decline. With the drop came panic, and investors started to rid of their stocks, trying to make any money that they could from selling them. On earlier dates, some economists had warned that the market would not prosper forever, but now it was too late. On October 29, 1929, (otherwise known as "Black Tuesday") a total of 16.4 million shares were sold in all. The market would not be able to revive itself. Soon, unemployment and several other problems in the economy would arise. In later years, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's (1882 - 1945) New Deal programs and World War II would help to make the U.S. an economic power once more.
On October 19 1987, the Dow-Jones industrial average suffered a major devaluation. The Dow lost over 500 points. Stock trading markets worldwide were all suffering similar declines. At the time, there was a lot of concern over what this meant to the overall economy of the world. The reason for this concern comes from the fact that the last time there was a large devaluation in the stock market, there followed a depression. Economists used a yardstick from the Jazz Age to evaluate this 'correction'; the yardstick was the crash of October 1929.
The crash of 1929 continues to be a fascinating example of panic in high finance and is still a staple of Economics 101. This event involved all people, big and small, rich and poor, young and old. Everyone.
Depressions, we are told, are cyclical in the nature of economics. In this era, we have successfully evaded depressions with the aid of computers, government regulation, and because we actually learned from history. The subject of this crash in 1929 has been studied and discussed many times over the years, by many economic authors. Most notable, in my opinion, would be John Galbraith. His book, "The Great Crash 1929", I heartily recommend if you are interested in the details of the crash and events leading up to it. It is a warning to us that our economic world will not always necessarily be safe.
In 1929, even in 1928, the warnings of an economic disaster were heeded by some of the Wall Street denizens. It seems clear that everyone involved in the speculative boom of the late twenties knew that eventually stocks would drop. Who cares though? At the moment, we are in the business of making money. When the bulls are stampeding, it raises a cloud of dust that makes it hard to see danger. This boom of the 20s is almost as famous as the bust.
The post-war world was rebuilding in early 20s. The application of electricity in our lives really began to grow during this exciting decade. Imagine the open frontier there was for electric appliances as more homes were becoming 'electric'. Consumerism is always a major contributor to boom, and in the Jazz Age it stayed true to form. At the same time, many people were caught up in the stock market. In the years from 1925 to 1929 it was almost a craze to play the market. The little guy could speculate with the seasoned pros in the pit. It was fun; it was the heyday of the Jazz Age.
It was also shaky. What made the market popular was the fact that you could go to a broker and purchase stock on margin. What this means is that instead of buying your stocks with the money you have, you could purchase them with cash down and the rest on credit. Not a bad deal, especially when the collateral is your ownership of the stock. For example, let's say you want 100 shares of Red Wagon stock. The cost for 100 shares is say $15000. You put down 10% and make monthly payments. Jones down the street is doing the same thing, as is Johnson, Wilson, and Douglas. Well, all this purchase of stock is pushing up the price. Now 100 shares of Red Wagon co. is worth $20000. In essence, you are paying off what you owe on the stock by its increase in value. So how can you lose on this? In the Jazz Age, economists knew how and were very worried about it.
You might be wondering at this point, why didn't they do anything about it if they knew a collapse was imminent? The answer is not so simple. There was a policy which many world governments followed, including the Coolidge administration, known as laissez-faire. Laissez-faire roughly translated means 'let things be'. It is an old economic term to describe a government policy of non-intervention. As pretty as the word sounds, it was this policy that allowed the speculation bubble to grow unchecked. There was a Federal Reserve in those days, but its powers on economic matters were not utilized as they are today. In 1928, there was a lot of talk on how to curb the tide of marginal stock purchases without causing a panic on the market. The bottom line was, no one wanted to take the blame if the market crashed because of measures taken to prevent it. So, laissez-faire continued and they hoped for the best.
It is not fair to say that the people of the Jazz Age did absolutely nothing, however. In late March 1929, just after the inauguration of Herbert Hoover, the Federal Reserve Board was meeting every day behind closed doors. There was no doubt heavy discussion about the market and the national economy. The first of many 'mini' crashes and recoveries began on Monday, March 25, 1929. As a result, for the next six months, it was probably the most nervous market in the history of world. I wonder how investors today would react if they took the roller coaster of those times? October was approaching.
The summer of 1929 was not too bad. It hearkened somewhat of the good old days of optimism. And even though there still was an air of nervousness, the market appeared to be stable. It was on September 3, right after the holiday, that a bear market became firmly established. The roller coaster was on its final descent.
Panic. It is a word that describes a highly intense, contagious fear amongst a large number of people. It is a phenomenon which social psychologists are fond of studying, yet at the same time they themselves are just as prone to it as the rest of us are. Panic is far more serious than a frenzy, and it is hard to describe without reference. In the crash of 1987, it may be safe to say it was a day of frenzied selling, and arguably far short of true panic. One week in October 1929, there was a true panic, and many rich people became poor people in one single day.
100,000 companies went out of business; the number of unemployed people rose sharply; with so many Americans out of work, the demand for goods and services dropped even farther. There were runs on the banks. Without FDIC and reserve requirements, the banks had no money. Thousands of depositors lost their savings. Private charities such as the Red Cross and the Salvation Army opened bread lines and soup kitchens.
The Great Depression devastated the United States in the 1930s, leaving as much as 25 percent of the workforce unemployed. People who lost their jobs began selling five-cent apples on the streets of American cities, providing a symbol of the economic hardships of the era.
The philanthropist , December 5, 1930 Ink and blue pencil over blue pencil underdrawing with mechanical tone shading on layered paper Published in the Chicago Daily News (2) LC-USZ62-127206
Hoover did too little, too late. He called for business to take voluntary actions to cut production and limit unemployment. There was little in the way of relief. Farmers and the poor were hit the hardest. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was supposed to loan out money, but did not for fear of too high risks.
As a result, the RFC did nothing.
Hawley-Smoot tariff of 1930—highest so far
Hoover got all of the blame for the depression. Thousands became unemployed and homeless. Many people became homeless hoboes. Many farmers lost their land and those who didn’t got to see it blow away in the horrific and deadly dust storms of the dust bowl in the 1930s. Many Okies and Arkies packed their goods onto trucks and headed for California as migrant workers. The grapes of wrath—the Joad family.
20,000 veterans of World War I marched on Washington and demanded their bonus. Hoover sent the Army headed by Douglas MacArthur, his aide-de-camp Dwight “Ike” David Eisenhower, and tanks led by George Patton to remove these people.
In 1924, Congress issued bonus certificates to veterans who had fought in World War I. The certificates were worth one thousand dollars and would be redeemable in 1945. As the Depression deepened many veterans did not want to wait for their money. In May 1932, a group of veterans headed to Washington, D.C. to ask Congress to pay the bonus early. Many of the veterans with their families set up camp in Anacostia Park in the eastern part of the capital; holding huge marches down Pennsylvania Avenue. On July 28, President Hoover ordered the Bonus Army dispersed under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Across the nation, the press condemned the president for the attack.
Walt Disney (1901-1966), was one of the most famous motion-picture producers in history. Disney first became known in the 1920's and 1930's for creating such cartoon film characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. He later produced feature-length cartoon films, movies about wild animals in their natural surroundings, and films starring human actors. Disney won 32 Academy Awards for his movies and for scientific and technical contributions to filmmaking. He also gained fame for his development of theme parks.
In 1934 alone, Temple made nine features, most notably Little Miss Marker and Bright Eyes, the latter launching her hit song "On the Good Ship Lollipop"; as a result of her success that year -- just her first as a feature actress -- she was even given a special miniature Academy Award. Through it all, Temple remained so poised that rumors swirled that she was not even really a child at all, but a dwarf. As the Depression raged on, her films emerged as compulsory escapist fare for audiences of all ages, and soon she was making upwards of $300,000 annually, with a vast array of dolls, coloring books, clothes and other products bearing her likeness. As the 1930s wore on, Temple's star continued to ascend; each of her films was more profitable than the one which preceded it, and included such hits as 1935's The Littlest Rebel, 1936's Poor Little Rich Girl, and 1937's Heidi. Her pictures also generated a number of hit songs, among them "Animal Crackers in My Soup," "When I Grow Up," "Curly Top" and "Swing Me an Old-Fashioned Love Song."
Garvey, born in 1887, called a "black Moses" during his lifetime, created the largest African American organization, with hundreds of chapters across the world at its height. While Garvey is predominantly remembered as a back-to-Africa proponent, it is clear that the scope of his ideas and the UNIA’s actions go beyond that characterization . . . .
Garvey's ideas particularly resonated with African Americans during the postwar period. At the core of Garvey's program was an emphasis on black economic self-reliance, black people’s rights to political self-determination, and the founding of a black nation on the continent of Africa. . . .
Perhaps the largest endeavor of the UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION (UNIA,) was the Black Star Steamship Line, an enterprise intended to provide a means for African Americans to return to Africa while also enabling black people around the Atlantic to exchange goods and services. The company’s three ships (one called the SS Frederick Douglass) were owned and operated by black people and made travel and trade possible between their United States, Caribbean, Central American, and African stops. The economically independent Black Star Line was a symbol of pride for blacks and seemed to attract more members to the UNIA . . . .
As a result of large financial obligations and managerial errors, the Black Star Line failed in 1921 and ended operations. . . . Early in 1922 Garvey was indicted on mail fraud charges regarding the Black Star Line's stock sale. . . . [Garvey was convicted but released after serving three years in federal prison. He was then deported to Jamaica.] In the United States Garveyism was central to the development of the black consciousness and pride at the core of the twentieth-century freedom-movement.
Mr. Little was a follower of Marcus Garvey. He was attacked and beaten to death by racists. Malcolm Little, his son, grows up fatherless and gets into trouble with the law, goes to prison, converts to Islam, and rejects his slave name…later becomes Malcolm X.
Woody was the second-born son to Charles and Nora Belle Guthrie. His father was a cowboy, land speculator, and local politician. His Kansas-born mother profoundly influenced Woody in ways which would become apparent as he grew older. Slightly built, with an extremely full and curly head of hair, Woody was both a precocious and unconventional boy from the start. A keen observer of the world around him, during his early years in Oklahoma, Woody experienced the first in a series of tragic personal losses - the death of his older sister, Clara - would haunt him throughout his life. This followed by the financial and physical ruin, and the institutionalization of his mother would devastate Woody's family and home, forming a uniquely wry and rambling outlook on life.
In 1931, when Okemah's boomtown period went bust, Woody left for Texas. In the panhandle town of Pampa, he fell in love and married Mary Jennings in 1933, the younger sister of a friend and musician named Matt Jennings. Together, Woody and Mary had three children, Gwen, Sue and Bill. It was with Matt Jennings and Cluster Baker that Woody made his first attempt at a career, forming The Corn Cob Trio . However, if the Great Depression made it hard to support his family, the Great Dust Storm, which hit the Great Plains in 1935, made it impossible. Due to the lack of work, and driven by a search for a better life, Woody headed west along with the mass migration of "dust bowl refugees" known as "Okies." These farmers and unemployed workers from Oklahoma, Kansas, Tennessee, and Georgia had also lost their homes and land, and so set out with their families in search of opportunities elsewhere. Moneyless and hungry, Woody hitchhiked, rode freight trains, and even walked to California, developing a love for traveling on the open road --a practice which he would repeat often.
This land is your land This land is my land From California to the New York island; From the red wood forest to the Gulf Stream waters This land was made for you and Me.
As I was walking that ribbon of highway, I saw above me that endless skyway: I saw below me that golden valley: This land was made for you and me. I've roamed and rambled and I followed my footsteps To the sparkling sands of her diamond deserts; And all around me a voice was sounding: This land was made for you and me. When the sun came shining, and I was strolling, And the wheat fields waving and the dust clouds rolling, As the fog was lifting a voice was chanting: This land was made for you and me. As I went walking I saw a sign there And on the sign it said "No Trespassing." But on the other side it didn't say nothing, That side was made for you and me.
In the shadow of the steeple I saw my people, By the relief office I seen my people; As they stood there hungry, I stood there asking Is this land made for you and me? Nobody living can ever stop me, As I go walking that freedom highway; Nobody living can ever make me turn back This land was made for you and me.
Smith finally secured the Democratic presidential nomination in 1928. He then asked, with ER's help, FDR to run for governor of New York, believing that FDR would help him carry the state. ER worked even harder for Smith in 1928 than she did in 1924.
She wrote articles praising his candidacy for popular journals and directed women's activities for the Democratic National Committee. Smith lost his bid for the presidency, partly because of anti-Catholic sentiment, but FDR won. During FDR's governorship, Smith felt ignored. FDR did not consult him or appoint Smith's associates to his administration.
They also became rivals for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. When FDR won and began pursuing the policies of the New Deal, Smith became even more bitter and disaffected.
He became a leader of the Liberty League, a leading opponent of the New Deal, and supported the Republican presidential candidates, Alf Landon in 1936 and Wendell Wilkie in 1940, against FDR. ER, who always considered Smith a friend, tried to bridge the gap politics caused in their friendship by inviting Smith to stay in the White House when he came to Washington to attack the New Deal in 1936. Smith refused, sadly responding how political differences damaged good friendships. Smith died on October 4, 1944. ER went to his funeral.
Alfred E. Smith was the dominant Democratic politician in New York State during the years when FDR and ER emerged as political leaders. Although Smith grew up in relative comfort on the Lower East Side, he quit school and began work at the age of fourteen, after his father's death. In his political career, he emphasized his lowly beginnings, identified himself with immigrants, and campaigned as a man of the people. Although indebted to the Tammany Hall political machine for his entry into politics and for its ongoing support, he remained untarnished by corruption and worked for the passage of progressive legislation. He was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1903 and his oratorical gifts and skill at drafting legislation helped him become the majority leader. When he served as vice-chairman of the commission appointed to investigate factory conditions after the disastrous Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in 1911, he became acutely aware of the dangerous and unhealthy conditions under which many laborers worked and championed legislation to protect workers.
After serving as sheriff of New York County for several years beginning in 1915, Smith was elected governor of New York in 1918. He lost the election of 1920 in the Republican landslide of that year, but was re-elected governor in 1922 and served three more terms. As governor, he became known nationally as a progressive who sought to make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs. Under his leadership, New York strengthened laws governing workmen's compensation, women's pensions, and child and women's labor, issues ER's also fervently supported. In 1924, he unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president and FDR made the nominating speech in which he called Smith "the Happy Warrior of the political battlefield." ER, impressed with Smith's politics and his down-to-earth manner, threw herself into the 1924 election, and followed Smith's rival, her cousin Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., around in a car with a steaming teapot on its roof to remind voters of the Teapot Dome scandal.
Assuming the Presidency at the depth of the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
Born in 1882 at Hyde Park, New York--now a national historic site--he attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. On St. Patrick's Day, 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt.
Following the example of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he greatly admired, Franklin D. Roosevelt entered public service through politics, but as a Democrat. He won election to the New York Senate in 1910. President Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 1920.
In the summer of 1921, when he was 39, disaster hit-he was stricken with poliomyelitis. Demonstrating indomitable courage, he fought to regain the use of his legs, particularly through swimming. At the 1924 Democratic Convention he dramatically appeared on crutches to nominate Alfred E. Smith as "the Happy Warrior." In 1928 Roosevelt became Governor of New York.
He was elected President in November 1932, to the first of four terms. By March there were 13,000,000 unemployed, and almost every bank was closed. In his first "hundred days," he proposed, and Congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority.
By 1935 the Nation had achieved some measure of recovery, but businessmen and bankers were turning more and more against Roosevelt's New Deal program. They feared his experiments, were appalled because he had taken the Nation off the gold standard and allowed deficits in the budget, and disliked the concessions to labor. Roosevelt responded with a new program of reform: Social Security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new controls over banks and public utilities, and an enormous work relief program for the unemployed.
In 1936 he was re-elected by a top-heavy margin. Feeling he was armed with a popular mandate, he sought legislation to enlarge the Supreme Court, which had been invalidating key New Deal measures. Roosevelt lost the Supreme Court battle, but a revolution in constitutional law took place. Thereafter the Government could legally regulate the economy.
Roosevelt had pledged the United States to the "good neighbor" policy, transforming the Monroe Doctrine from a unilateral American manifesto into arrangements for mutual action against aggressors. He also sought through neutrality legislation to keep the United States out of the war in Europe, yet at the same time to strengthen nations threatened or attacked. When France fell and England came under siege in 1940, he began to send Great Britain all possible aid short of actual military involvement.
When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt directed organization of the Nation's manpower and resources for global war.
Feeling that the future peace of the world would depend upon relations between the United States and Russia, he devoted much thought to the planning of a United Nations, in which, he hoped, international difficulties could be settled.
As the war drew to a close, Roosevelt's health deteriorated, and on April 12, 1945, while at Warm Springs, Georgia, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt—former New York Gov.; former secretary of the Navy; cousin to T. R.; married Eleanor Roosevelt, TR’s niece; stricken with polio in 1921. Elected president in 1932—someone called Hoover and asked why didn’t he just make it unanimous and vote for FDR as well.
Bank holiday—closed banks for four days and made sure they were solvent.
Fireside chats—used the radio for propaganda.
Hired women and minorities for his cabinet.
Frances Perkins—Secretary of labor, first woman cabinet member.
Ralph Bunche—State Department;
Mary McLeod Bethune advisor for education
Eleanor was his eyes, ears and legs. She talked to the veterans in the bonus army. She wrote “My Day” column in newspaper. She resigned from the daughters of the American Revolution when they would not allow Marian Anderson to sing in Constitution Hall; she sang on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.
Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, became a distinguished public figure in her own right. She was one of the most active first ladies in American history. Roosevelt, a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, won fame for her humanitarian work and became a role model for women in politics and public affairs.
Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City. She was christened Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, but her family called her Eleanor, and she rarely used her real first name. In 1905, she married Franklin D. Roosevelt, a distant cousin. The couple had six children. They were Anna Eleanor (1906-1975), James (1907-1991), Franklin Delano, Jr. (died in infancy, 1909), Elliott (1910-1990), Franklin Delano, Jr. (1914-1988), and John (1916-1981). James and Franklin, Jr., both served in the United States House of Representatives.
Eleanor Roosevelt began to work politically on behalf of her husband after polio crippled him in 1921. During Franklin Roosevelt's terms as governor of New York and, later, as president, she frequently made fact-finding trips for him. While first lady, she traveled nationwide on lecture tours, held 350 press conferences for women reporters only, and wrote a daily newspaper column and many articles for magazines. She also worked with young people and the underprivileged, and fought for equal rights for minority groups.
to the United Nations General Assembly. In 1946, she was elected chairman of the UN's Human Rights Commission, part of the Economic and Social Council. She helped draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . In 1961, she returned to the General Assembly. Later that year, President John F. Kennedy appointed her head of the Commission on the Status of Women.
Eleanor Roosevelt wrote several books. They include This Is My Story (1937), This I Remember (1950), On My Own (1958), and Tomorrow Is Now (published in 1963, after her death).
Equal parts educator, politician, and social visionary, Mary McLeod Bethune was one of the most prominent African American women of the first half of the twentieth century—and one of the most powerful. Known as the "First Lady of the Struggle," she devoted her career to improving the lives of African Americans through education and political and economic empowerment, first through the school she founded, Bethune-Cookman College, later as president of the National Council of Negro Women, and then as a top black administrator in the Roosevelt administration.
Born the fifteenth of seventeen children to parents who were former slaves, Mary Jane McLeod grew up in rural South Carolina and attended segregated mission schools. She initially intended to become a missionary but turned to education when the Presbyterian mission board rejected her application to go to Africa. After marrying Albertus Bethune in 1898, she moved to Florida where in 1904 she founded the Daytona Educational and Industrial School for Negro Girls. In 1923, the school merged with the all-male Cookman Institute of Jacksonville and eventually became Bethune-Cookman College, a four-year, coeducational institution. Bethune served as the college's president until 1942 and again from 1946-47. At the same time, Bethune also cemented her position as a leader in African American education and the African American women's club movement by serving as president of state, regional, and national organizations, including the National Association of Colored Women. In 1935, she founded a more politically oriented organization, the National Council of Negro Women, a coalition of black women's organizations focused on ending segregation and discrimination and cultivating better international relationships. She served as its president until 1949.
Between 1936 and 1944 Bethune was director of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration (NYA) and chair of an informal Black Cabinet, a group of federally appointed black officials who met regularly to plan strategy and set black priorities for social change. Using her clout as a top-ranking African American administrator in the Roosevelt administration, Bethune lobbied for African American concerns and was instrumental in seeing that African Americans received help from the federal government. Often her efforts were unsuccessful — her attempt to ensure equal pay for African American federal workers was only partially successful, for example — but she persisted and African American youths were allowed to participate in NYA programs in numbers proportional to the number of African Americans in the national population.
Bethune did not confine her efforts on behalf of African Americans to government-sponsored programs. She was outspoken in her support for civil rights and actively supported efforts to end lynching and the poll tax. In addition, she picketed Washington businesses that refused to hire African Americans, demonstrated on behalf of the Scottsboro Boys and southern tenant farmers, and was a regular speaker at numerous conferences devoted to racial issues. She was also active in such civil rights organizations as the NAACP and the National Urban League. Passionately committed to African American history, she served as president of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History from 1936 to 1951.
During World War II, Bethune served as special assistant to the secretary of war and assistant director of the Women's Army Corps. In that capacity she organized the first women's officer candidate schools and lobbied federal officials, including Franklin Roosevelt, on behalf of African American women who wanted to join the military.
Bethune left the federal government after the NYA disbanded in 1944. She continued as president of the National Council of Negro Women until 1949 and, in that capacity, attended the founding conference of the United Nations. After her retirement, she returned to Florida where she continued to speak and write about civil rights issues. She died in 1955.
While Bethune was a well-established African American leader before she met Eleanor Roosevelt in 1927, her career benefited substantially from ER's enthusiastic support. ER valued Bethune's political acumen and dynamic personality and was instrumental in bringing her to Washington and into the NYA. She also saw to it that Bethune had regular access to Franklin Roosevelt. Besides being political allies, ER and Bethune were very close personal friends. They met on a regular basis, traveled together and attended many of the same meetings and conferences. ER considered Bethune "a dear friend" and the two women remained close until Bethune's death.
As work on the administration's legislative proposal continued into the closing days of 1934, Frances Perkins and her team were beginning to grow worried. This was a new area of American law and practice and there were serious constitutional questions about any Social Security scheme. The team was unable to decide on what basis to design the new system, but they knew the wrong choice might doom all hopes for the program. Just then fate lent a hand.
At the time, Harlan F. Stone was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (later to be elevated to Chief Justice), and he and his wife often held tea parties on Wednesday afternoons . Although she was not by nature fond of such affairs, Frances Perkins dutifully arrived at 5:45 p.m. one Wednesday afternoon for tea with the Stones and their guests. At one point in the afternoon Secretary Perkins found herself seated next to Justice Stone, and in their small talk he inquired as to how her work was going. The Secretary freely admitted they were stuck on the Administration's new Social Security bill, and were uncertain on what basis the new program should be founded. Upon hearing this, the Justice looked around to see if anyone was listening, leaned over to her, and putting his hand up to his mouth, whispered, "The taxing power of the Federal Government, my dear; the taxing power is sufficient for everything you want and need." The Secretary excitedly returned to her staff and announced she had made up her mind, they would base the new program on the government's power to tax. (She never told them how she had finally come to this insight.) When the new law was enacted, based on the power to levy payroll taxes, it was immediately challenged in the courts. And Justice Stone's provident prediction bore out. On May 24, 1937 the Supreme Court ruled 7-2 that the new Social Security program, based on the government's broad power to tax, was fully constitutional. So if a Supreme Court Justice invites you to tea, you should go. It just may be an invitation to change the course of history!
Marian Anderson (1897-1993), was an African American contralto. She gained fame primarily as a concert singer. In 1955, Anderson became the first black soloist to sing with the Metropolitan Opera of New York City. The famous conductor Arturo Toscanini praised her voice as one "that comes once in a hundred years."
Anderson was born on Feb. 27, 1897, in Philadelphia and sang in church choirs during her childhood. After graduating from high school, she studied voice and began to make concert tours. Anderson then spent several years studying and performing in Europe, where her singing won wide praise. She became a top concert singer in the United States after performing at Town Hall in New York City in 1935.
Racism affected Anderson's career. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution would not let her perform in Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., because she was black. She sang instead at the Lincoln Memorial for over 75,000 people. Anderson won the Spingarn Medal that year. She was a U.S. delegate to the United Nations (UN) in 1958 and won the UN peace prize in 1977. My Lord, What a Morning (1956) is her autobiography. She died on April 8, 1993.
The New Deal or Alphabet soup=FDR’s government programs
John Maynard Keynes—government spending; deficit spending
CCC civilian conservation Corps builds national parks and trails. Pay five dollars each month 25 dollars sent home
WPA and the PWA—builds roads, bridges, libraries, dams, etc.
FERA-federal emergency relief act
AAA agricultural adjustment act saved farms
NRA national recovery act blue eagle in every window
TVA Tennessee Valley authority dams and hydroelectric power plants
NYA national youth administration pays kids to go to school
SEC securities and exchange commission watchdog of the stock market
FDIC federal depositors’ insurance Corporation banks guaranteed
Wagner act and fair labor standards act
Court packing—Supreme Court shot down many of FDR’s plans; FDR wants to increase number of justices from 9 to 15. Congress says no, but Supreme Court passes social security act (establishes social security) and the Wagner act (unions can bargained collectively) and Fair labor standards act (minimum wage 40 cents)
Father Charles Coughlin—makes anti-Semitic comments
Huey Long—the kingfish from Louisiana—share the wealth—shot on courthouse steps in Baton Rouge.
Boosted morale, put people to work, made some headway, but not out of the depression until World War II.
FDR was confined to wheelchair or wearing braces gave the illusion that he could walk. The press play along with it.
Fala was his favorite dog, a Scots terrier accompanied him everywhere.
He had at least two mistresses—Missy LeHand and a Mrs. Lucy Mercer Rutherford. At one point, Eleanor was going to divorce him, but they decided that they could do more good as a team. They had had 5 children together. He always called her Babs.
He was elected for 4 different terms (1932, 1936, 1940, and lastly in 1944), and will die of a brain hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Georgia April 12,1945 “I have a terrific headache” before World War II ends.
On Sunday afternoons in the 1930s, families would turn on their radios and listen to a comedy, a mystery, or, in millions of households, the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin - the Radio Priest.
After his first broadcast on radio station WJR in 1926 he received eight letters from listeners. At his controversial peak, 30 million listeners coast-to-coast tuned in his broadcasts and he received 80 thousand letters a week.
Stations in London, Rome and Madrid carried his program. Fr. Coughlin was called many things: Social watchdog, Nazi, saint, anti-Semite. In response to the charge of anti-Semitism, he replied that he had also ..assailed prominent Gentiles, both Catholic and Protestant."
Fr.Coughlin espoused a strange blend of venom and compassion. He demanded "social justice" for the poor and railed against international banking. Originally a supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fr. Coughlin turned against the president, calling him "the great liar and betrayer."
Yet after Roosevelt's landslide re-election in 1936, Fr. Coughlin called on the public to support him, saying, "The people have spoken and the only American thing to do is abide by the will of the people."
He was instrumental in the construction of the Shrine of the LIttle Flower on Woodward in Royal Oak, collecting donations of nickels and dimes from listeners. As his influence grew, so did the criticism of his politics. Detroit Bishop Michael Gallagher refused to discipline Fr. Coughlin, saying: "Until a lawful superior rules otherwise, I stand steadfastly behind this priest."
Archbishop Edward Mooney, newly arrived as Detroit's first archbishop in 1937, was that superior. Fr. Coughlin was maneuvered out of the limelight and eventually silenced.
Fr. Coughlin continued to serve as pastor of the Shrine of the LIttle Flower until his retirement in 1966. He died in 1979 at the age of 88.
Father Divine (c. 1877-1965) founded a cultish religious movement known as the Peace Mission. He served as its director from 1915 to 1965. He originally opened a soup kitchen in downtown Harlem for the community had been hit hard by the Depression.
Father Divine is one of the more perplexing figures in twentieth-century African American history. The founder of a cultish religious movement whose members regarded him as God, Father Divine was also an untiring champion of equal rights for all Americans regardless of color or creed, as well as a very practical businessman whose many retail and farming establishments flourished in the midst of the Great Depression. Regarded by many members of the traditional black church as an imposter or even a lunatic, Divine was praised by other observers as a powerful agent of social change, alone among the many cult leaders in Depression-era New York in providing tangible economic benefits for thousands of his disciples.
Billy Sunday (1862-1935), was a baseball player who became a famous evangelist. He used his baseball background, slangy language, flamboyant manners, and highly developed promotional methods to become the most popular evangelist of the time. He was supposed to have preached to over 100 million people, and to have converted over a million in his campaigns.
William Ashley Sunday was born in Ames, Iowa. His early years were spent with his grandparents and at an orphans home. Sunday played baseball for major league teams in Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia from 1883 to 1890. During these years he was converted and began working with the YMCA. Billy Sunday became a Presbyterian minister in 1903.
Died: July 2, 1937, en route from Lae, New Guinea to Howland Island
Married: February 7, 1931, to George Putnam
Despite having to attend six different high schools, she was able to graduate on time.
Earhart was called "Lady Lindy" because her slim build and facial features resembled that of Charles Lindbergh.
Earhart refused to don typical flying gear -she wore a suit or dress instead of the "high-bread aviation togs," a close-fitting hat instead of a helmet, didn't put on her goggles until she taxied to the end of the field and removed them immediately upon landing.
She developed a friendship with Eleanor Roosevelt, who wanted to learn how to fly. Earhart had planned to teach her, for which the First Lady even got her student permit.
Earhart met Orville Wright at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in 1937, the same year she disappeared.
Earhart had such an impression on public that people often wrote and told her about naming babies, lakes and even homing pigeons "Amelia."
The United States government spent $4 million looking for Earhart, which made it the most costly and intensive air and sea search in history at that time.
She was the first woman to receive a pilot's license from the FAI.
Amelia Earhart was born on 24 July 1897 in Atchison, Kansas. Her flying career began in Los Angeles in 1921 when, at age 24, she took flying lessons from Neta Snook and bought her first airplane-- a Kinner Airstar. Due to family problems, she sold her airplane in 1924 and moved back East, where she took employment as a social worker. Four years later, she returned to aviation bought an Avro Avian airplane and became the first woman to make a solo-return transcontinental flight. From then on, she continued to set and break her own speed and distance records, in competitive events, as well as personal stunts promoted by her husband George Palmer Putnam.
Earhart's name became a household word in 1932 when she became the first woman--and second person--to fly solo across the Atlantic, on the fifth anniversary of Charles Lindbergh's feat, flying a Lockheed Vega from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland to Londonderry, Ireland. That year, she received the Distinguished Flying Cross from the Congress, the Cross of Knight of the Legion of Honor from the French Government, and the Gold Medal of the National Geographic Society from President Hoover.
In January 1935 Earhart became the first person to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean from Honolulu to Oakland, California. Later that year she soloed from Los Angeles to Mexico City and back to Newark, N.J. In July 1936 she took delivery of a Lockheed 10E "Electra," financed by Purdue University, and started planning her round-the-world flight.
Earhart's flight would not be the first to circle the globe, but it would be the longest--29,000 miles, following an equatorial route. On March 17, 1937 she flew the first leg, from Oakland, California to Honolulu, Hawaii. As the flight resumed three days later, a tire blew on takeoff and Earhart ground-looped the plane. Severely damaged, the aircraft had to be shipped back to California for repairs, and the flight was called off. The second attempt would begin at Miami, this time to fly from West to East; Fred Noonan, a former Pan Am pilot, would be Earhart's navigator and sole companion in flight for the entire trip. They departed Miami on June 1, and after numerous stops in South America, Africa, the Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, they arrived at Lae, New Guinea on June 29. About 22,000 miles of the journey had been completed. The remaining 7,000 miles would all be over the Pacific Ocean.
On July 2, 1937 at 0000 GMT, Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae. Their intended destination was Howland Island, a tiny piece of land a few miles long, 20 feet high, and 2, 556 miles away. Their last positive position report and sighting were over the Nukumanu Islands, about 800 miles into the flight. The U.S. Coast Guard cutter USCGC Itasca was on station near Howland, assigned on short notice to communicate with Earhart's plane and guide her to the island once she arrived in the vicinity.
But it soon became evident that Earhart and Noonan had little practical knowledge of the use of radio navigation. The frequencies Earhart was using were not well suited to direction finding (in fact, she had left behind the lower-frequency reception and transmission equipment which might have enabled Itasca to locate her), and the reception quality of her transmissions was poor. After six hours of frustrating attempts at two-way communications, contact was lost.
A coordinated search by the Navy and Coast Guard was organized and no physical evidence of the flyers or their plane was ever found. Earhart and Noonan's fate has been the subject of many rumors and allegations which were never substantiated. Modern analysis indicates that after passing the Nukumanu Islands, Earhart began to vector off course, unwittingly heading for a point about 100 miles NNW of Howland. A few hours before their estimated arrival time Noonan calculated a "sun line," but without a successful, radio-frequency range calculation, a precise "fix" on the plane's location could not be established. Researchers generally believe that the plane ran out of fuel and that Earhart and Noonan perished at sea.
Quotes by Amelia Earhart "After midnight the moon set and I was alone with the stars. I have often said that the lure of flying is the lure of beauty, and I need no other flight to convince me that the reason flyers fly, whether they know it or not, is the esthetic appeal of flying." "Flying may not be all plain sailing, but the fun of it is worth the price." "Not much more than a month ago I was on the other shore of the Pacific, looking westward. This evening, I looked eastward over the Pacific. In those fast-moving days which have intervened, the whole width of the world has passed behind us -except this broad ocean. I shall be glad when we have the hazards of its navigation behind us." ... Amelia Earhart, several days before she left for Howland Island and disappeared "...decide...whether or not the goal is worth the risks involved. If it is, stop worrying...." "Better do a good deed near at home than go far away to burn incense." "The most difficult thing is the decision to act, the rest is merely tenacity. The fears are paper tigers. You can do anything you decide to do. You can act to change and control your life; and the procedure, the process is its own reward." "My ambition is to have this wonderful gift produce practical results for the future of commercial flying and for the women who may want to fly tomorrow's planes." "One of my favorite phobias is that girls, especially those whose tastes aren't routine, often don't get a fair break... It has come down through the generations, an inheritance of age-old customs which produced the corollary that women are bred to timidity." "Preparation, I have often said, is rightly two-thirds of any venture." "Courage is the price that Life exacts for granting peace." "Women must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to others." "[Women] must pay for everything.... They do get more glory than men for comparable feats. But, also, women get more notoriety when they crash." "...now and then women should do for themselves what men have already done - occasionally what men have not done--thereby establishing themselves as persons, and perhaps encouraging other women toward greater independence of thought and action. Some such consideration was a contributing reason for my wanting to do what I so much wanted to do."
"In my life I had come to realize that when things were going very well indeed it was just the time to anticipate trouble. And, conversely, I learned from pleasant experience that at the most despairing crisis, when all looked sour beyond words, some delightful "break" was apt to lurk just around the corner." "Never interrupt someone doing something you said couldn't be done." "No kind action ever stops with itself. One kind action leads to another. Good example is followed. A single act of kindness throws out roots in all directions, and the roots spring up and make new trees. The greatest work that kindness does to others is that it makes them kind themselves." "Adventure is worthwhile in itself." "Never do things others can do and will do, if there are things others cannot do or will not do." "The more one does and sees and feels, the more one is able to do, and the more genuine may be one's appreciation of fundamental things like home, and love, and understanding companionship." "The most effective way to do it, is to do it." Quotes about Amelia Earhart "Being men and being engaged in a highly essential phase of the serious business of air transportation, they [airline mechanics] all naturally had preconceived notions about a woman pilot bent on a 'stunt' flight - not very favorable notions either. It was, undoubtedly, something of a shock to discover that the 'gal' with whom they had to deal not only was an exceptionally pleasant human being who 'knew her stuff,' but that she knew exactly what she wanted done, and had sense enough to let them alone while they did it. There was an almost audible clatter of chips falling off skeptical masculine shoulders." ... C.B. Allen, New York Herald Tribune "Amelia is a grand person for such a trip. She is the only woman flyer I would care to make such an expedition with. Because in addition to being a fine companion and pilot, she can take hardship as well as a man-and work like one." ... Fred Noonan, Amelia's navigator for the around-the-world flight "Amelia Earhart came perhaps before her time,...the smiling, confident, capable, yet compassionate human being, is one of which we can all be proud." ... Walter J. Boyne
During the fateful last evening of Rasputin's life, the conspirators drugged with poisoned wine (he had taken enough cyanide to kill six men),poisoned with cyanide in the cakes, shot at point blank range, beaten, and then dumped in the river. Yet the monk survived all of these and actually died by drowning when his body, wrapped in a carpet was thrown into the Moika Canal on the Neva River. Rasputin's corpse was discovered under the ice of the Neva on December 19. His hands had been untied and there was water in his lungs. He died from drowning.
Most persistent was the claim that the Tsar’s youngest daughter, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, survived. (Anastasia is Greek for “the woman who rose again.”) Only 17 at the time of the execution, the Russian report had it that she had not been hit by bullets (some may have ricocheted off her jewelry) but merely fainted. She revived moments later in a pool of her family’s blood and began screaming. At this point she was run through with many bayonets and bludgeoned to death. This much was reported and this much was confirmed in recent excavations.
The Anastasia rumors lived, bolstered perhaps by her failure to die in the initial volley. As early as 1925 Grand Duchess Olga (the Tsar’s sister) interviewed one Anna Anderson in Berlin. Anderson was a young woman with a history of mental illness, and Olga quickly rejected her claim to be Anastasia. Yet just three years later the first of at least four books was published claiming Anna Anderson was Anastasia. One, purporting to be a first-person account, titled I am Anastasia, was even rejected as a forgery by Anderson herself. Her claim was featured in a 1956 cover article in Life. Over the years additional faux-Anastasias appeared, many of them interviewed and rejected by Olga, who died in 1960. The Anastasia mania inspired four films, five plays, a musical, two ballets, two TV shows, and a 1956 song by Pat Boone. Ingrid Bergman copped an Oscar for her role in the 1956 eponymously titled movie.
The Last of the Romanovs: L to R: Olga, Marie, Nicholas II, Alexandra, Anastasia, Alexei, Tatiana Nicholas II, Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and Alexei(photo taken by Alexandra) The Last of the Romanovs