The Roaring Twenties!


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Roaring Twenties!

  1. 1. The Period Between the Wars The Roaring Twenties
  2. 4. Causes and Effects of World War I
  3. 5. <ul><li>Terms for the Roaring 20s to the Great Depression Between the Wars 1920s - 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vladimir Lenin 35. Louis Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>2. Red Scare 36. Al Smith </li></ul><ul><li>3. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre 37. Herbert Hoover </li></ul><ul><li>4. Palmer Raids 38. Teapot Dome Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sacco and Vanzetti 39. Albert P. Fall </li></ul><ul><li>6. Charles A. Lindbergh 40. Scopes Trial </li></ul><ul><li>7. Quota Act 41. Hoovervilles </li></ul><ul><li>8. Great Migration 42. RFC </li></ul><ul><li>9. Harlem Renaissance 43. Scottsboro boys </li></ul><ul><li>10. Langston Hughes 44. Bonus March </li></ul><ul><li>11. Bessie Smith 45. speculation </li></ul><ul><li>12. Marcus Garvey 46. buying on margin </li></ul><ul><li>13. Calvin Coolidge 47. John Maynard Keynes </li></ul><ul><li>14. Warren G. Harding 48. FDR </li></ul><ul><li>15. Normalcy 49. Eleanor Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>16. Henry Ford 50. The Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>17. assembly line 51. First Hundred days </li></ul><ul><li>18. The Jazz Singer 52. New Deal </li></ul><ul><li>19. KDKA 53. bank holiday </li></ul><ul><li>20. The Spirit of Saint Louis 54. WPA/PWA </li></ul><ul><li>21. Flappers 55. Social Security Act </li></ul><ul><li>22. F. Scott Fitzgerald 56. FDIC </li></ul><ul><li>23. Prohibition 57. TVA </li></ul><ul><li>24. Al Capone 58. NRA </li></ul><ul><li>25. speakeasies/bootlegging 59. Huey Long </li></ul><ul><li>26. Frances Perkins 60. Mary McLeod Bethune </li></ul><ul><li>27. Father Divine 61. deficit spending </li></ul><ul><li>28. Gertrude Ederle 62. Black Thursday </li></ul><ul><li>29. Dust Bowl 63. Twenty-First Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>30. Lindbergh Baby kidnapping 64. Wagner Act </li></ul><ul><li>31. court-packing 65. FERA </li></ul><ul><li>32. Billy Sunday/Father Coughlin 66. NYA </li></ul><ul><li>33. Relief, Reform, Recovery 67. AAA </li></ul><ul><li>34. Marian Anderson 68. CCC </li></ul>
  4. 6. &quot;Fire!&quot; <ul><li>By 1949, the Soviets had expanded their control to cover most of Eastern Europe, and it appeared that China would soon fall to the communists as well. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The fear-filled forties and fifties were a dark period when the spread of communism abroad increased anxieties and frustration at home,&quot; wrote Herb Block. In their zeal to stamp out all signs of subversion in the United States, professional and amateur anti-communists threatened to suppress American liberties as well,&quot; Fire !&quot; June 17, 1949 Reproduction from original drawing Published in the Washington Post (25) </li></ul>
  5. 7. Lenin <ul><li>Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин ), original surname Ulyanov ( Улья́нов ) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Lenin&quot; was one of his revolutionary pseudonyms. He is believed to have created it to show his opposition to Georgi Plekhanov who used the pseudonym Volgin, after the Volga River; Ulyanov picked the Lena which is longer and flows in the opposite direction. However, there are many theories on where his name came from and he himself is not known to have ever stated exactly why he chose it. He is sometimes erroneously referred to in the West as &quot;Nikolai Lenin&quot;, though he has never been known as such in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin was chilling in a German jail until his sudden release. He was put on a train back to Russia and he fomented a revolution that took Russia out of The Great War. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Palmer Raids & the Red Scare <ul><li>A. Mitchell Palmer (1872-1936), served as United States attorney general from 1919 to 1921 under President Woodrow Wilson. Palmer is best known for the Palmer Raids of January 1920, in which thousands of suspected anarchists and Communists were jailed with little regard for their constitutional rights. Many historians believe Palmer hoped to win the 1920 Democratic presidential nomination by capitalizing on the antiradical feelings that many Americans held at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Mitchell Palmer was born in Moosehead, Pennsylvania. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915. As a member of the Democratic national committee in 1912, he helped Wilson win the presidential nomination. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Random Facts <ul><li>Marcus Garvey—1914 universal Negro improvement association— </li></ul><ul><li>back to Africa movement-- black pride </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Randolph—1930s labor organizer sleeping car porters union </li></ul><ul><li>Flappers and gangsters—Al “Scarface” Capone and the Saint Valentine day massacre—Bugsy Moran </li></ul><ul><li>1922 Five-power treaty—first attempt at disarmament. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 Kellogg-Briand pact—14 nations signed outlawing war </li></ul><ul><li>Literature-- expatriates Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway left the country to write. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports: golf—Bobby Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Grange—scored four touchdowns in 12 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Dempsey—boxer </li></ul><ul><li>Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Notre Dame—the four horsemen—Knute Rochne Red Grange </li></ul><ul><li>Radio—Amos and Andy, Fibber McGee and Molly, the Lone Ranger KDKA </li></ul><ul><li>Coolidge said that he would not run for president in 1927; Herbert Hoover who was marvelous in rebuilding Europe after World War I runs against Al Smith. Al Smith was a Roman Catholic, had a New York accent, and was pro-wet. Hoover wins. </li></ul><ul><li>When the stock market crashes on October 24,1929, it signals the beginning of the Great Depression. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Gertrude Ederle Swims the English Channel Gertrude Ederle (1906 - ), who was born on October 23, 1906, was a superb swimmer. Not only did she win three Olympic medallions and break several records, but to top it all off, she went on to become the first woman to swim across the English Channel. When she swam the 21 miles on August 6, 1926, Ederle was only nineteen. Her time: 14 hours and 31 minutes - good enough to beat the previously set men's record.
  9. 11. The Great Bambino <ul><li>George Herman Ruth (1895 - 1948), often known to his fans as Babe Ruth, hit a total of 60 home runs in 1927. This record-breaker would remain a record itself until 1961, when Roger Eugene Maris (1934 - 85) hit 61 home runs. The record has since then been broken by Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs with 66 homers in 1998 and Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals with 70 in the same year. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruth was born on February 6, 1895, in Baltimore, Maryland. He first committed to professional baseball at age 20 by playing with the minor-league Baltimore Orioles. He would later sign with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees. In 1919, as a player for the Red Sox, he hit 29 homers. He joined the Yankees in 1920 and hit 54 home runs that year. The next year, he increased to 59. He finally broke the old record in 1927 with 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Babe Ruth, who earned more than $2 million in his career, was known by several other names as well. These included: the Bambino, the Behemoth of Bust, the Blunderbuss, the Colossus of Clout, the Mammoth of Maul, the Mauling Mastodon, the Mauling Monarch, the Prince of Powders, the Rajah of Rap, the Sultan of Swat, and the Wazir of Wham. Among all of his other accomplishments, this southpaw pitcher was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936. </li></ul>Babe Ruth Breaks Home Run Record (1927)
  10. 12. <ul><li>Jack Dempsey (1895-1983), became one of the most popular heavyweight boxing champions of all time. He was also one of the most fearsome with over 25 first-round knockouts, more than any fighter in history. He knocked out Jess Willard in 1919 to win the title. Dempsey lost the title in 1926 to Gene Tunney. Their second fight, in Chicago in 1927, featured the famous &quot;long count.&quot; Dempsey knocked Tunney down in the seventh round. But he did not go to a neutral corner immediately, so referee Dave Barry delayed starting the count over Tunney. Tunney rose at the count of 9, but observers estimated this was equal to a count of 14. Tunney went on to win the fight by a 10-round decision. </li></ul><ul><li>William Harrison Dempsey was born in Manassa, Colo. He started fighting professionally in 1914. Dempsey was nicknamed the Manassa Mauler by sports journalist Damon Runyon. Dempsey discussed his boxing career in his autobiography, Dempsey (1977). </li></ul>
  11. 13. Football <ul><li>Grange, Red (1903-1991), was one of the greatest running backs in football history. He won all-American honors in 1923, 1924, and 1925 while playing for the University of Illinois. His speed and elusive running style earned him the nickname &quot;the Galloping Ghost.&quot; Grange's most spectacular performance came against the University of Michigan in 1924, when he scored five touchdowns, four on long runs during the first 12 minutes of the game. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1925, Grange joined the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL). He traveled coast to coast with the team as it played a series of specially arranged games. These games drew huge crowds, who came mainly to see Grange, and played an important part in the growth of professional football. Grange played with the New York Yankees football team in 1926 and 1927 and again with the Bears from 1929 to 1934. From 1947 to 1963, he was a sports commentator on radio and television. He became one of the first members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. Harold Edward Grange was born on June 13, 1903, in Forksville, Pennsylvania, and raised in Wheaton, Illinois. He died on Jan. 28, 1991. </li></ul>The Galloping Ghost
  12. 14. Popular Radio Shows
  13. 15. Albert Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) <ul><li>Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) was born on March 14, 1879, in Germany. In 1905, Einstein published his theory of relativity in &quot;On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies.&quot; Among his other publications included The Meaning of Relativity . His research eventually earned him worldwide fame and a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the fact that he was born in Germany, he would not stay in his mother country forever. Einstein, who was a patent clerk and Jewish, immigrated to the U.S. in 1933 after Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany. In the U.S. he taught at Princeton University in New Jersey. In 1939, Einstein helped to inform Franklin Roosevelt, then President of the U.S., that Germany was possibly creating atomic weapons. The Advisory Committee on Uranium was created and the Manhattan Project, as the plan to develop atomic bombs was code-named, went into effect. </li></ul>
  14. 16. F. Scott Fitzgerald Publishes The Great Gatsby (1925) <ul><li>Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 - 1940), an American writer and screenwriter, was born on September 24, 1896, and published his book The Great Gatsby in 1925. His first novel, This Side of Paradise had been made available to the public in 1920. His writings often portrayed people who became successful in the social and financial worlds, but did not share the same prosperity in their morals. As a perfect reference to the times, Fitzgerald married a flapper named Zelda Sayre. Before his death in Hollywood on December 21, 1940, his many writings included over 150 stories and 5 novels. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Jazz Age and Louis Armstrong (The 1920's) <ul><li>The Roaring Twenties was alternatively known as The Jazz Age. This &quot;movement&quot; in which jazz music grew in popularity by immense standards in the U.S., also influenced other parts of the world. Following World War I, around 500,000 African Americans in search of better employment opportunities moved to the northern part of the United States. With them, they brought their culture and in New York, the start of the Harlem Renaissance. During this period of time, the works of African Americans in fields such as writing and music escalated. Styles of music including Dixieland and blues became popular as well. The Charleston, a lively dance with origins in South Carolina and African American styles, became immensely popular. The dance, which can be done solo, with two, or in a group, received attention after being shown in Runnin' Wild , a 1923 musical. One man, John Giola, from New York managed to do the Charleston for 22 hours and 30 minutes! This particular dance was introduced to Europeans in 1925. Other dances of the era included the Cake-Walk, the Turkey Trot, the Black Bottom, and the Bunny Hug. With the increased popularity of dances, events such as dance marathons were also created. Throughout the 1920's many people took an interest in music. They owned pianos, played sheet music, and listened to records. One name, arguably one of the most famous jazz musicians of all time, is worth mentioning. Louis Daniel Armstrong (1901 - 1971), from New Orleans, Louisiana, displayed his amazing talents as a trumpeter, cornet player, and singer during the Jazz Age. He studied and played with a famed cornet player named Joseph &quot;King Oliver&quot; Oliver (1885 - 1938). Afterwards, he became a member of Fletcher Henderson's group. In 1925, &quot;Satchmo,&quot; who had learned to play cornet at the age of twelve, started The Hot Fives. The band would later gain two more musicians and was appropriately renamed The Hot Sevens. His wife, Lil, was also a member of the group and played the piano. The following year, Armstrong recorded &quot;Heebie Jeebies&quot;. &quot;Pops&quot; did not restrict his talents to just music, however. He also starred in films such as Pennies from Heaven . He continued working in the last three years of his life, most of which was spent in hospitals. He died at home on July 6, 1971. Some of the many great artists of that time also included Duke Ellington (1899 - 1974), Joseph &quot;King Oliver&quot; Oliver (1885 - 1938), Bessie Smith (1894? - 1937), Benny Goodman (1909 - 1986), and Ma Rainey. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Adolf Hitler's Book, Mein Kampf , is Published (1925) <ul><li>In July of 1925, Adolf Hitler (1889 - 1945) issued his autobiography. The book, entitled Mein Kampf or My Struggle , would have a second volume in 1926; the People's Edition appeared in 1930. The book, written while Hitler was imprisoned early in his career, reflected his hatred of Jews, and his belief that Germans were a superior race. Outside of Germany the book was not given much notice, a fact the Allies would soon regret. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Austria. He served time in Germany's armed forces during World War I as a political spy and became a decorated corporal. He served as leader of the German Workers' Party, which would later be renamed the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party. In 1933, he came to power as chancellor of the Third Reich. Despite Hitler's doing away with democracy, the people of Germany applauded his efforts, for they were weary of the depressed state of affairs that followed Germany's defeat in World War I. After involving his country in a costly second world war, geared to make it the predominant world power, Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Warren G. Harding Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923), was elected president in 1920 by a people weary of wartime restraints and world problems. His supporters expected him to turn back the clock and restore the more carefree atmosphere of the days before World War I (1914-1918). Harding, an easygoing newspaper publisher and senator, encouraged this belief by campaigning on the slogan of &quot;Back to Normalcy.&quot; Actually, Americans would probably have elected any Republican candidate to the White House in 1920 in protest against the policies of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. They opposed particularly Wilson's definition of American ideals and his unwillingness to accept any changes in his plan for a League of Nations. They wished to reduce their responsibilities in world affairs and to resume their normal activities with as little bother as possible. It was easier to praise &quot;normalcy&quot; than to produce it during the Roaring Twenties. The word meant so many different things to different people. Some were rebels. They danced in cabarets, drank bootleg gin, and poked fun in novels and plays at “normal” American life. Others, reacting against the rebels, wanted to standardize thought and behavior. They persecuted radicals, tried to enforce prohibition, and fought to ban the teaching of evolution in the public schools. With so many crosscurrents at work in American society, Harding was unable to assert himself and provide a vision for the nation. The popularity of Harding's administration was damaged by the short but severe depression of 1921. Within two years, the Teapot Dome oil scandal and other graft in governmental agencies destroyed faith in his administration. Harding became aware of this widespread corruption early in 1923. Historians almost unanimously rank Harding as one of the weakest presidents. But these historians have recognized that the very qualities that made him weak also made him appealing in 1920. He failed because he was weak-willed and a poor judge of character. Nan Britton, a pretty blond thirty years younger than the President, was given a job in Washington, D.C., so that she could be near Harding. The two often met in the Oval Office, and their affair continued until Harding's death.   Harding was the sixth president to die in office. He was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.
  18. 20. <ul><li>Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923), was elected president in 1920 by a people weary of wartime restraints and world problems. His supporters expected him to turn back the clock and restore the more carefree atmosphere of the days before World War I (1914-1918). Harding, an easygoing newspaper publisher and senator, encouraged this belief by campaigning on the slogan of &quot;Back to Normalcy.&quot; Actually, Americans would probably have elected any Republican candidate to the White House in 1920 in protest against the policies of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. They opposed particularly Wilson's definition of American ideals and his unwillingness to accept any changes in his plan for a League of Nations. They wished to reduce their responsibilities in world affairs and to resume their normal activities with as little bother as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>It was easier to praise &quot;normalcy&quot; than to produce it during the Roaring Twenties. The word meant so many different things to different people. Some were rebels. They danced in cabarets, drank bootleg gin, and poked fun in novels and plays at “normal” American life. Others, reacting against the rebels, wanted to standardize thought and behavior. They persecuted radicals, tried to enforce prohibition, and fought to ban the teaching of evolution in the public schools. With so many crosscurrents at work in American society, Harding was unable to assert himself and provide a vision for the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The popularity of Harding's administration was damaged by the short but severe depression of 1921. Within two years, the Teapot Dome oil scandal and other graft in governmental agencies destroyed faith in his administration. Harding became aware of this widespread corruption early in 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians almost unanimously rank Harding as one of the weakest presidents. But these historians have recognized that the very qualities that made him weak also made him appealing in 1920. He failed because he was weak-willed and a poor judge of character. Nan Britton, a pretty blond thirty years younger than the President, was given a job in Washington, D.C., so that she could be near Harding. The two often met in the Oval Office, and their affair continued until Harding's death.   </li></ul><ul><li>Harding was the sixth president to die in office. He was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge. </li></ul>#29 Warren G. Harding
  19. 21. Events under Harding <ul><li>The Unknown Soldier of World War I was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate peace treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary were signed by the United States in 1921, after the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Free State became a self-governing country in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>Naval limitation treaty was signed in 1922. The United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, and Japan agreed to limit the size, number, and guns of their battleships. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated in Washington in 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established in 1922 by the Communist government. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature published in 1922 included Babbitt, Sinclair Lewis's novel about the limitations of American culture, and The Waste Land , T. S. Eliot's controversial poem. </li></ul><ul><li>A fascist party, led by Benito Mussolini, came to power in Italy in 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition played an important role in American life during Harding's presidency. Government agents destroyed huge amounts of beer and liquor. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Teapot Dome <ul><li>Teapot Dome, in U.S. history, scandal that began during the administration of Pres. Harding. In 1921, Sec. of the Interior Albert B. Fall secretly leased the naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyo., and Elk Hills, Calif., without competitive bidding. A Senate investigation (1922-23) revealed that Edward L. Doheny, who had leased the Elk Hills oil field, had loaned Fall large sums of money without interest, as had Harry F. Sinclair, recipient of the Teapot Dome lease. Fall was subsequently fined and sentenced to prison. Both Doheny and Sinclair were acquitted of bribery on legal technicalities, but Sinclair was later imprisoned for contempt of the Senate and attempted jury tampering. The oil fields were restored (1927) to the U.S. government by a Supreme Court decision. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Calvin Coolidge <ul><li>Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, &quot;You lose.&quot; </li></ul>
  22. 24. Calvin Coolidge <ul><li>Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, &quot;You lose.&quot; </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Coolidge, Calvin (1872-1933), was a shy, silent New England Republican who led the United States during the boisterous Jazz Age of the 1920's. He was the sixth vice president to become president upon the death of a chief executive. Coolidge was vacationing on his father's farm in Vermont when President Warren G. Harding died in 1923. The elder Coolidge, a notary public, administered the oath of office in the dining room. Never before had this ceremony been performed by such a minor official or by a president's father. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1924, Coolidge was elected to a full four-year term. He enjoyed great popularity and probably could have been reelected. But he decided to retire. His terse announcement became his most famous statement: &quot;I do not choose to run for president in 1928.&quot; Herbert Hoover succeeded him. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans respected the views of the closemouthed Coolidge. His reputation for wisdom was based on his common sense and dry wit. He issued few unnecessary public statements and rarely wasted a word. </li></ul><ul><li>Coolidge, who had risen to fame as governor of Massachusetts, served as president during the Roaring Twenties. Prosperity stimulated carefree behavior and a craving for entertainment. The nation's &quot;flaming youth,&quot; featured in the novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald, set the pace. Sports figures became national heroes as Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in one season and Gene Tunney defeated Jack Dempsey in the famous &quot;long-count&quot; bout. Charles A. Lindbergh made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Motion pictures began to talk, with Al Jolson starring in The Jazz Singer. George Gershwin brought jazz into the concert hall with his Rhapsody in Blue. Americans defied prohibition, and Al Capone and other gangsters grew rich by bootlegging liquor. A popular song summed up the spirit of the whole era: &quot;Ain't We Got Fun?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  The solemn, frugal Coolidge seemed to be a misfit from another era. But people voted for him even if they did not imitate his conduct. They cherished him for having the virtues of their pioneer ancestors. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Keep Cool With Coolidge <ul><li>&quot;Do the day's work. If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it.&quot;   —Speech to the Massachusetts Senate, 1913&quot;And be brief; above all things, Be Brief.&quot;   —Speech to the Massachusetts Senate, January 1915&quot;There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.&quot;   —Telegram to the American labor leader Samuel Gompers during a strike by police in Boston, Sept. 14, 1919&quot;... the chief business of the American people is business.&quot;   —Speech to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington, D.C., Jan. 17, 1925&quot;This Nation believes thoroughly in an honorable peace. ... It has never found that such a peace could be maintained only by a great and threatening array of arms.&quot;   —Inaugural Address, March 4, 1925&quot;... no Nation ever had an army large enough to guarantee it against attack in time of peace or insure its victory in time of war.&quot;   —Speech, Oct. 6, 1925&quot;I do not choose to run for President in 1928.&quot;   —Statement to reporters, Aug. 2, 1927&quot;Prosperity is only an instrument to be used, not a deity to be worshiped.&quot;   —Speech in Boston, June 11, 1928 </li></ul>
  25. 27. Events During Coolidge’s Term <ul><li>The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants admitted to the United States. It also established a quota system to prevent major changes in the racial or ethnic makeup of the nation's population. </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of radio broadcasting began about 1925. Nationwide audiences listened to such programs as &quot;The A & P Gypsies&quot; and &quot;The Voice of Firestone.“ </li></ul><ul><li>The Scopes Trial, in 1925, upheld the right of a state to ban the teaching of evolution in public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The first successful liquid-fuel rocket was launched in 1926 by Robert H. Goddard, the American rocket pioneer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz was the leading form of popular music. Jazz musicians who became stars during the mid-1920's included Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Fletcher Henderson. </li></ul><ul><li>Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees hit 60 home runs during the 1927 baseball season, a record that stood until 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact was signed by 15 nations in 1928 and eventually by nearly all the nations of the world. The signers of the treaty, also called the Pact of Paris, agreed not to use war to solve international problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillium mold, which produces the antibiotic drug penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming, a British bacteriologist. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles A. Lindbergh, an American aviator, became a world hero in 1927 when he made the first solo airplane flight across the Atlantic ocean. </li></ul>
  26. 28. The Jazz Singer Becomes the First Talkie (1927) <ul><li>The first film featuring spoken words was The Jazz Singer . Warner Brothers produced the talkie in 1927. Al Jolson (1886 - 1950), who was later in The Singing Fool , spoke the first words. In the previous year, the company had created a film with music. In 1928, Warner Brothers moved film making a step further. The Lights of New York became the first film to feature speech throughout the entire movie. The arrival of talkies hurt many silent film stars, but others like Charlie Chaplin were able to continue their work. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Al Jolson <ul><li>Al Jolson 1888–1950, American entertainer, whose original name was Asa Yoelson, b. Russia. He emigrated to the United States c.1895. The son of a rabbi, Jolson first planned to become a cantor but soon turned to the stage. After his New York City debut in 1899, he worked in circuses, in minstrel shows, and in vaudeville; in 1909 in San Francisco he first sang “Mammy” in black face, and his style brought him fame and many imitators. The first of his many Broadway appearances was in La Belle Paree (1911); his film work began with The Jazz Singer (1927), the first major film with sound and a landmark in the history of motion pictures. After 1932 he had his own radio show. Among the songs he made famous were “April Showers,” “Swanee,” “Sonny-Boy,” and “Mammy.” </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Jazz Age was a time of great change. <ul><li>Harding died in 1923 Calvin Coolidge became President. Coolidge would do nothing to control how the money was being spent by business. “The business of America is business.” </li></ul><ul><li>On January 16, 1029 the Eighteenth Amendment became law. It made it unlawful to make or sell any alcoholic drink except for medical, industrial, or religious reasons. The sale of alcohol went to gangsters such as Al Capone of Chicago. This caused some major problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many companies dealing in alcohol went out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>People openly broke the law </li></ul><ul><li>Judges and police became corrupt because they took bribes from bootleggers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some other changes were: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Ku Klux Klan came back to life. This was an organization that had begun after the Civil War to frighten and even kill black freemen. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Companies began to advertise. Many chain stores grew. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Women called Flappers began wearing short dresses, bobbing their hair, and smoking cigarettes in public. </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>4. Art and literature blossomed in the 20’s. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sports became popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Dempsey won the world heavyweight boxing </li></ul><ul><li>championship. Babe Ruth hit more home runs for the New York Yankees </li></ul><ul><li>than any other man in history. Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel in 14 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Many people enjoyed silly entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>A man named &quot;Shipwreck&quot; Kelly sat on top of a fifty-foot high </li></ul><ul><li>flagpole for two weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Some entered marathon dances. </li></ul><ul><li>College students ate goldfish and stuffed themselves into </li></ul><ul><li>closets and other small places. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>7. The 20's was the time for art & literature. Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Sinclair Lewis </li></ul><ul><li>were great writers of the time. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>8. Charles Lindbergh flew his plane The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in just over 33 hours. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>9. In 1929 higher tariff on goods from other countries was passed in Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>This hurt farmers because they were not able to sell their goods overseas. Companies could not sell their products. Many people lost money they had invested in companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The stock market crashed and the Great Depression started. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Charles Lindbergh <ul><li>The Public Hero </li></ul><ul><li>America has rarely given its heroes the stature it accorded Charles Lindbergh following the completion of his flight across the Atlantic. The image of a fearless pilot, master of one of the world's newest and most promising technologies, acting alone to risk all in his attempt to set a world record was simply irresistible. The &quot;Lone Eagle&quot; was exalted above all other modern-day heroes as a living example of the nation's greatest values. No greater symbol of all that was uniquely great about America could have been created by or for a public so sorely in need of a hero. Whether he enjoyed it or not, the adulation he inspired would achieve an intensity well beyond anything previously experienced by his contemporaries. Not until recent times would a trial be more widely followed, incite more passion, or do more to unite a people in their desire for retribution, than did the trial of Bruno Hauptmann, the nondescript man who stood accused of kidnapping and killing the hero's son. </li></ul>
  34. 36. The Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping <ul><li>On 1 March 1932 the country was stunned by the news that the twenty-month-old child of Charles and Anne Lindbergh had been abducted from his home in New Jersey. A search for the child was begun immediately and soon encompassed a five-state area. Kings and presidents sent their condolences, and people prayed for the safe return of the child as hundreds of press representatives from all over the world descended upon the Lindbergh home. Governor Roosevelt of New York offered to place the New York State police at the disposal of New Jersey's state police superintendent Norman Schwartzkopf. The police discovered few clues, and, as time passed, the absence of any news concerning the progress of the investigation left people feeling increasingly angry, frustrated, and vengeful. The outrage and disgust that had characterized the public's reaction to the news of the abduction was too real to be dissipated by the passage of time and would remain oddly disturbing to many. </li></ul>
  35. 37. The Arrest <ul><li>What few not actually connected with the investigation knew was that the kidnapper or kidnappers had established contact with the Lindbergh family through an intermediary, the eccentric Dr. John Condon. Arrangement was made for a partial payment, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be made in a cemetery in the Bronx. This exchange, which took place in the dead of night, brought the doctor into contact with the kidnapper and gave Lindbergh, who was also present, but at some distance, an opportunity to hear an accented voice, if only for a few seconds, call out to Condon. </li></ul><ul><li>In May, approximately one month after the first of the ransom notes was delivered and a portion of the ransom paid, the body of the Lindbergh child was discovered a short distance from his parents' home. No further demands for the payment of ransom were ever received. Despite the false leads reported to the police, Chief Schwartzkopf's grudging acceptance of the federal investigative assistance, and continuing public interest, there were no further developments in the case until almost two years later. In September 1934 several gold certificates bearing serial numbers that identified them as part of the ransom paid in the case began to surface in New York. One of the bills was traced to a gas station attendant, who provided a description of the man who had used it to purchase gasoline for his car. The trail the police followed finally led them to Bruno Hauptmann. </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Suspect <ul><li>Hauptmann, a carpenter by trade, had illegally entered the United States from Germany in 1924. Soon after, he married Anna Schoeffer and settled in New York City where he found work as a carpenter. Over the next few years the couple developed a small circle of friends, purchased a car, and managed, through their combined labor, to save approximately ten thousand dollars. In 1932 the couple moved into an apartment in the Bronx where Hauptmann, in his spare time, constructed a garage on the adjoining lot. That same year, while Anna was in Germany visiting family, Hauptmann and an acquaintance, Isidor Fisch, pooled their resources to set themselves up in a business. Hauptmann's first venture into a business of his own would eventually fail, taking with it a goodly portion of the couple's savings. Unbeknownst to Hauptmann, Fisch was also involved in a fencing operation, purchasing &quot;hot,&quot; or stolen, currency at a discount, and would remain so involved until 1933 when he returned to Germany. Fisch died there the following year. Hauptmann testified that in August 1934 he had discovered among the possessions Fisch had stored in Hauptmann's home a small box containing more than eleven thousand dollars in cash. Sometime thereafter, having heard nothing more from Fisch, he had decided to use some of the money to cover his own expenses. </li></ul>
  37. 39. The Trial <ul><li>Hauptmann's trial began on 2 January 1935. Never before in the nation's history had the press been so vigorous or single-minded in its pursuit of a story--every event, however remotely connected and irregardless of its significance, if any, was given a full measure of attention by a press corps supremely confident of the insatiability of the public's interest. Often distorted, rarely accurate, fully self-serving, the news reporting did little more than reinforce a nearly universally held opinion that the discovery of the ransom money in Hauptmann's possession was conclusive and overwhelming proof of his guilt. </li></ul>
  38. 41. The Evidence <ul><li>The evidence against Hauptmann raised as many questions as it did inferences of guilt: Dr. Condon described his meeting with the kidnapper in convincing detail despite the fact that he was terribly nearsighted and, though unbeknownst to the jury, had been inconsistent in the statements he had offered the investigators over the length of the investigation; Lindbergh saw no one but did hear a voice say &quot;Hey, Doc,&quot; a voice he connected with that of the defendant some three years after the fact; the ladder used by the kidnapper to gain access to the Lindbergh's house was a ramshackle affair, suggesting it had been assembled by someone unfamiliar with the carpenter's trade. Hauptmann's defense team suffered its moments of failure: no effort was made to exploit the disagreements that arose among handwriting experts respecting the authorship of the ransom notes. Documentary evidence showing that Hauptmann was at his place of employment around the time of the kidnapping was ignored and eventually misplaced. Hearsay evidence was permitted; other evidence was intentionally suppressed. It all made little difference. At the conclusion of the trial the jury acted quickly to condemn the defendant. Those errors that were identified after the trial were eventually found to be insignificant. In an atmosphere in which Hauptmann's guilt was so completely evident in the eyes of so many as to be beyond question, his request for a new trial was barely given consideration. Hauptmann maintained his innocence until he was executed on 3 April 1936. </li></ul>
  39. 42. DNA Proves Lindbergh Had Secret German Family <ul><li>BERLIN (Nov. 28) - Genetic tests have proven claims by three Germans that the American aviator Charles Lindbergh was their father and led a secret double life for almost two decades, a family adviser said Friday. </li></ul><ul><li>Anton Schwenk, media consultant to the Germans, said DNA tests conducted by the University of Munich in October proved with 99.9 percent certainty that Dyrk and David Hesshaimer and their sister Astrid Bouteuil were Lindbergh's children. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It's a delightful moment for them because they now have a feeling of belonging,&quot; Schwenk told Reuters. &quot;They knew all along he was their father because they spent time with him growing up. But it's good to have an iron-clad confirmation.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Lindbergh, who also had six children with his U.S. wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh, became famous for his daring 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic from New York to Paris in 33 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Lindbergh started a romance with Munich hat-maker Brigitte Hesshaimer in 1957 when he was 55 and she was 32. They had three children: Dyrk, now 45, Astrid, 43, and David, 36. </li></ul><ul><li>A restless world traveler, Lindbergh spent five to 14 days with his family in Munich up to three times a year until he died in 1974. Lindbergh and Hesshaimer kept the relationship a secret and the children knew the tall visitor only as &quot;Mr Careu Kent.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans said they did not discover the true identity of the mystery visitor until later. They described him as a loving man who devoted much time and energy to them, setting up trust funds and helping to buy a family house. </li></ul>
  40. 43. FROSTY SILENCE AT FIRST <ul><li>The Germans first revealed the secret in August, two years after their mother died and despite promising her to keep quiet. They said they only wanted to set the record straight and had no interest in Lindbergh's estate or tarnishing his legacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Their claim was initially met by frosty silence from the Lindbergh family. But Morgan Lindbergh, the aviator's grandson, came forward to say he believed the Germans were his relatives because they looked &quot;hauntingly familiar&quot; in photos. </li></ul><ul><li>He said he was willing to take a DNA test and had a warm meeting with the three Germans in Europe. But other family members were hesitant, wary of past hoaxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Schwenk said there had been &quot;amiable meetings as well as regular contacts with letters and calls&quot; between his clients and the Lindberghs. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;There are also meetings planned for next year in the United States,&quot; he added. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;They never had any doubt they were Lindbergh's children,&quot; he said. &quot;I'd say it's not a happy end to the story but a happy beginning.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Bouteuil said she only discovered the true identity of her father in the early 1980s after she found dozens of letters from Lindbergh and an article about him and confronted her mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his huge popularity in 1927, Lindbergh's reputation later suffered because of his pre-war sympathy for Nazi Germany and getting an award from Luftwaffe leader Hermann Goering. He was later rehabilitated and remained a celebrity until he died. </li></ul><ul><li>According to his biographer, A. Scott Berg, Lindbergh's marriage was in trouble in the late 1950s when the affair began. </li></ul><ul><li>Schwenk said a book and a television documentary were being planned about Lindbergh's double life and his Munich love story. </li></ul><ul><li>11/28/03 10:53 ET </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright 2003 Reuters Limited. </li></ul>
  41. 44. Pvt. Henry Tandey, VC at Marcoing September 28, 1918 <ul><li>The annals of history are full of fateful moments which scholars refer to as the great &quot;what if's&quot; of history, where if events had taken only a slight deviation the course of human affairs would have been dramatically different. Such a moment occurred in the last moments of the Great War in the French village of Marcoing involving 27 year old Private Henry Tandey of Warwickshire, UK, and 29 year old Lance Corporal Adolph Hitler of Braunau, Austria. Henry Tandey was born in Leamington, Warwickshire, on the 30th August 1891, son of former soldier James Tandey. After a difficult childhood, part of which was spent in an orphanage, he became a boiler attendant at a hotel in Leamington before enlisting in the British Army, joining the Green Howards Regiment in August 1910 and embarking on a 'Boys Own' adventurous life. </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Tandey was mentioned five times in dispatches and certainly earned his VC during the capture of the French village and crossing at Marcoing, his regiment held down by heavy machine gun fire Tandey crawled forward, located the machine gun nest and took it out. Arriving at the crossing he braved heavy fire to place wooden planks over a gaping hole enabling troops to roll across and take the battle to the Germans, the day still not over he successfully led a bayonet charge against outnumbering enemy troops which helped bring hostilities to an end. As the ferocious battle wound down and enemy troops surrendered or retreated a wounded German soldier limped out of the maelstrom and into Private Tandey's line of fire, the battle weary man never raised his rifle and just stared at Tandey resigned to the inevitable. &quot;I took aim but couldn't shoot a wounded man,&quot; said Tandey, &quot;so I let him go.&quot; [2] The young German soldier nodded in thanks and the two men took diverging paths, that day and in history. Hitler retreated with the remnants of German troops and ended up in Germany, where he languished in the humiliation of defeat at wars end. Tandey put that encounter out of his mind and rejoined his regiment, discovering soon after he had won the Victoria Cross. It was announced in the London Gazette on 14th December 1918 and he was personally decorated by King George V at Buckingham Palace on 17th December 1919, in newspaper reports a picture of him carrying a wounded soldier after the Battle of Ypres was published, a dramatic image which symbolized a war which was supposed to have put an end to all wars and immortalized on canvas by Italian artist Fortunino Matania. Leaving the army in 1926 at the rank of sergeant the 35 year old settled in Leamington where he married, settling back into civilian life he spent the next 38 years as Commissionaire, or plant security chief, at Triumph, then called the Standard Motor Company. He lived a quiet life and although regarded as a hero by all and sundry wasn't one to brag or boast, wouldn't mention the war unless asked about it. </li></ul>
  43. 46. Chamberlain & Hitler <ul><li>In 1938 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), Conservative PM from 1937-40, made his gloomy trip to Munich to meet Chancellor Hitler in a last ditched effort to avoid war which resulted in the ill-fated 'Munich Agreement'. During that fateful trip Hitler invited him to his newly completed retreat in Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, a birthday present from Martin Bormann and the NAZI Party. Perched 6017 feet up on Kehlstein Mountain it commanded spectacular views for 200 kilometers in all directions. While there the Prime Minister explored the hill top lair of the Führer and found a reproduction of Matania's famous Marcoing painting depicting allied troops, puzzled by the choice of art Hitler explained, &quot;that man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again, providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us&quot;. [2] </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Chamberlain's thoughts aren't recorded, World War II erupted soon after and he lost power to Winston Churchill, dying of stomach cancer within months of that event. Although I feel safe in assuming he wished Tandey had pulled the trigger, ridding the world of a venomous creature. Hitler seized the moment to have his best wishes and gratitude conveyed to Tandey by the Prime Minister, who promised to phone him on his return to London. It wasn't until that time Tandey knew the man he had in his gun sight 20 years earlier was Adolph Hitler and it came as a great shock, given tensions at the time it wasn't something he felt proud about. The story first broke in 1940 but no one gave it much thought at the time, however in recent years it has generated greater interest. Some historians are doubtful as it sounds too good to be true, however it has an unmistakable ring of truth to it. No one in their right mind would make up a story about having spared the life of a tyrant who at that time had just fire bombed Coventry, was Blitzing London and mass murdering people on the continent. Hitler's regiment was in the Marcoing region at the time although his presence cannot be verified, a great deal of German records for the Great War were lost in WWII due to allied bombing of Berlin which resulted in the destruction of a significant amount of the State Archives. So documents showing Adolph Hitler's exact whereabouts on 28 September 1918 are not available, Hitler biographers have differing opinions. However there is irrefutable evidence that Hitler possessed a copy of the famous Matania painting featuring Tandey as early as 1937, acquiring it from Tandey's old regiment. &quot;Colonel Earle said that he had heard from one Dr. Schwend that Hitler had expressed a wish to have a large photograph of the Matania painting. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>At the outbreak of the Great War, Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment and became a Dispatch Runner. He proved himself a capable and brave soldier, was twice wounded, once almost fatally gassed and awarded the Iron Cross in recognition of his bravery. He had a deep sense of destiny entwined with delusions of grandeur and a warped view of the world, influenced by melodramatic Wagnerian operas he cast himself as the savior of the Germanic race. He believed Private Tandey's benevolent action was part of the grand scheme of things, the gods were watching over their emissary, which was also his sentiment upon surviving assassination attempts later on. Hitler never forgot the moment he stared down the barrel of death, nor the face of the man who spared him, he stumbled across a newspaper featuring the famous image of Private Tandey which noted his being awarded the VC for bravery. Hitler kept it and on becoming Chancellor of Germany ordered government officials to obtain a copy of his service record and reproduction of the Matania painting, which he hung and pointed out to loyal disciples with pride. </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Tandey was haunted the remainder of his life by his good deed, the simple squeeze of a trigger would have spared the world a catastrophe which cost tens of millions of lives. He was living in Coventry when the Luftwaffe destroyed the city in 1940, sheltered in a doorway as the building he was in crumbled and city burned like a scene from Dante's Inferno. He was also in London during the Blitz and experienced that atrocity first hand, he told a journalist in 1940, &quot;if only I had known what he would turn out to be. When I saw all the people, woman and children he had killed and wounded I was sorry to God I let him go&quot;. [2] When war irrupted the 49 year old tried to rejoin his regiment to see to it that, &quot;he didn't escape a second time&quot;, [2] but failed the physical due to wounds received at the Battle of the Somme. Nonetheless he did his bit on the homefront, volunteering wherever he could be of service but was always haunted by an act of decency to an indecent man. Henry Tandey VC DCM MM died without issue in Coventry in 1977 aged 86, in accordance with his wishes he was cremated and interred at the British Cemetery in Marcoing alongside fallen comrades and close to where he won his Victoria Cross 60 years earlier. His widow sold his medals three years later for a record £27.000 and on Armistice Day 1997 they were presented to his old regiment, the Green Howards, by Sir Ernest Harrison OBE at a special ceremony at the Tower of London and are displayed with great pride at the Green Howards regimental museum. </li></ul>
  47. 51. The Sacco & Vanzetti Case 1927 Nicolo Sacco Bartolomeo Vanzetti
  48. 52. The Sacco & Vanzetti Case <ul><li>On April 15, 1920, a guard named Alessandro Berardelli and paymaster Frederick A. Parmenter were robbed and killed by gunmen. The two, who were employees of Slater and Morrill, a South Braintree, Massachusetts, shoe factory, were holding two containers of payroll (around $15,773.59). </li></ul><ul><li>An investigation took place and Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a fish peddler, were taken into custody. Although not much evidence was found, police discovered that both were carrying guns. Sacco also had in his possession a paper advertising an anarchist gathering. His gun, which matched the one that had been used in the killings, was proven to be the murder weapon in 1961. There was no evidence, however, that Sacco had used it during the crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of whether they had really committed the crime or not, many people around the world felt that the two Italian immigrants had not received a fair trial. What the two did receive, in their opinions, was prejudice. Sacco and Vanzetti had been mistreated for their heritage, World War I draft dodging, and anarchist beliefs. Despite Celestine Madeiros, a criminal on death row, admitting to being a part of the crime, the trial ended on July 14, 1921, and Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death. They were electrocuted on August 23, 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifty years after the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti, Michael Dukakis, the governor of Massachusetts, acknowledged that the two immigrants had not received a fair trial. On August 23, 1977, their names were cleared. </li></ul>
  49. 53. Leopold & Loeb Murder Trial <ul><li>For Chicago, the Leopold and Loeb trial was the crime of the century. A fourteen year old boy, Bobby Franks, was murdered by two young men, Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb, both from wealthy and socially established Jewish families, simply to commit the perfect crime. At their trial, the famous Clarence Darrow conducted a  </li></ul><ul><li>defense based upon psychological testimony, and captured the attention of the nation.   </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Capote uses this as the backdrop of his award-winning In Cold Blood. </li></ul>
  50. 54. Illinois v. Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb 1924 <ul><li>The crime that captured national attention in 1924 began as a fantasy in the mind of eighteen-year old Richard Loeb, the handsome and privileged son of a retired Sears Roebuck vice president. Loeb was obsessed with crime. Despite his high intelligence and standing as the youngest graduate ever of the University of Michigan, Loeb read mostly detective stories. He read about crime, he planned crimes, and he committed crimes, although none until 1924 were crimes involving physical harm to a person. ( Darrow and Leopold later saw Loeb's fascination with crime as form of rebellion against the well-meaning, but strict and controlling, governess who raised him.) For Loeb, crime became a sort of game; he wanted to commit the perfect crime just to prove that it could be done. </li></ul><ul><li>     Loeb's nineteen-year old partner in crime, Nathan Leopold, was interested in ornithology, philosophy, and especially, Richard Loeb. Like Loeb, Leopold was a child of wealth and opportunity, the son of a millionaire box manufacturer. At the time of their crime, the brilliant Leopold was a law student at the University of Chicago and was planning to begin studies at Harvard Law School after a family trip to Europe in the summer. Leopold already had achieved recognition as the nation's leading authority on the Kirtland warbler, an endangered songbird, and frequently lectured on the subjects of his ornithological passion. As a student of philosophy, Leopold was attracted to Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on early twentieth century academics was powerful, and the merits of ideas contained in books like his Beyond Good and Evil were fiercely debated in centers of learning like the University of Chicago. Leopold agreed with Nietzsche's criticism of moral codes, and believed that legal obligations did not apply to those who approached &quot;the superman.&quot; Leopold's idea of the superman was his friend and lover, Richard Loeb. </li></ul><ul><li>     </li></ul><ul><li>Loeb and Leopold had  an intense and stormy relationship. At one time Leopold contemplated killing Loeb over a perceived breach of confidentiality. This relationship, described by Darrow as &quot;weird and almost impossible,&quot; led the two boys to do together what they almost certainly would never have done apart: commit murder. Motives are often unclear, and they are in this trial. Neither the defense's theory that the murder was an effort by both to deepen their relationship nor the prosecution's theory that money to pay off gambling debts and a desire by Loeb to &quot;have something&quot; on Leopold in order to counter Leopold's unwanted demands for sex, are likely accurate. What is clearest about the motives is that Leopold's attraction to Loeb was his primary reason for participating in the crime. Leopold later wrote that &quot;Loeb's friendship was necessary to me-- terribly necessary&quot; and that his motive, &quot;to the extent that I had one, was to please Dick.&quot; For Loeb, the crime was more an escape from the ordinary; an interesting intellectual exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>     Murder was a necessary element in their plan to commit the perfect crime. The two teenagers spent hours discussing and refining a plan that included kidnapping the child of a wealthy parents, demanding a ransom, and collecting the ransom after it was thrown off a moving train as it passed a designated point. Neither Loeb nor Leopold relished the idea of murdering their kidnap victim, but they thought it critical to minimizing their likelihood of being identified as the kidnappers. Their victim turned out to be an acquaintance of the two boys, Bobby Franks. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  51. 55. <ul><li>On May 21, 1924, Leopold and Loeb lured a young neighbor boy, 14-year-old Bobby Frank, into their car. They killed him with a chisel, and stuffed his body in a culvert, and poured acid on the body to make it harder to identify. The next morning the Frank family received a special delivery letter -- a ransom note demanding $10,000 in unmarked bills for the return of the boy. </li></ul><ul><li>Before Mr. Frank could pay the ransom, police discovered the child's body. There was nothing linking the criminals to the crime except for a single pair of glasses. Police traced the glasses to a Chicago optometrist who had prescribed them for Nathan Leopold. If he hadn't lost his glasses, Leopold and his friend Loeb might have indeed gotten away with murder. </li></ul><ul><li>Leopold's and Loeb's parents hired the best, and most expensive, criminal attorney they could find -- Clarence Darrow. Darrow knew his clients would be convicted. His goal, as always, was to save them from the death penalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans read every detail of the Leopold and Loeb trial with fascination and repulsion. By 1924, automobiles like Ford's popular Model T were increasing criminal mobility; rising fears about crime would ultimately cause citizens to support a national police force. Chicago's WGN radio considered broadcasting the trial live, but decided it wasn't appropriate &quot;entertainment&quot; to send to families in their living rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>The trial reached its climax with Clarence Darrow's closing argument, delivered over twelve hours in a sweltering courtroom. Darrow admitted the guilt of his clients, but argued that forces beyond their control influenced their actions. Law professor Phillip Johnson describes Darrow's argument this way: &quot;Nature made them do it, evolution made them do it, Nietzsche made them do it. So they should not be sentenced to death for it.&quot; Darrow convinced the judge to spare his clients, mainly due to their youth. Leopold and Loeb received life in prison. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1936 Richard Loeb was killed in a prison fight with another inmate. In 1958, after thirty-four years behind bars, Nathan Leopold was released from prison. He died in 1971. </li></ul>
  52. 56. The Scopes Trial (1925) <ul><li>During the 1920's, a courtroom case in the United States changed the public's view of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution forever. This particular trial would also be the first-ever to be broadcast live on radio. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1925, a Tennessee biology teacher named John Thomas Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution. In the previous two years, Tennessee had been among several states in the U.S. to have fundamentalists propose laws to make teaching evolution illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union, with Clarence Seward Darrow (1857 - 1938) as its lawyer decided to defend Scopes. On the opposing side, William Jennings Bryan fought for Tennessee and against evolution in the classroom. Despite the fact that Scopes eventually lost a trial that he never testified at and was charged $100.00, Darrow was seen as the superior lawyer. Bryan, a three-time presidential candidate was humiliated and outsmarted. Only five days after the trial had ended, Bryan passed away. The outcome of the &quot;Monkey Trial&quot; was later changed; a technicality was found. </li></ul>
  53. 57. Evolutionary Cartoons
  54. 58. Evolutionary Cartoons
  55. 59. Flapper style An advert for lipstick
  56. 60. The Flapper The flapper, whose antics were immortalized in the cartoons of John Held Jr., was the heroine of the Jazz Age. With short hair and a short skirt, with turned-down hose and powdered knees - the flapper must have seemed to her mother (the gentle Gibson girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel. No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen. Mostly, the flapper offended the older generation because she defied conventions of acceptable feminine behavior. The flapper was &quot;modern.&quot; Traditionally, women's hair had always been worn long. The flapper wore it short, or bobbed. She used make-up (which she might well apply in public). And the flapper wore baggy dresses which often exposed her arms as well as her legs from the knees down. However, flappers did more than symbolize a revolution in fashion and mores - they embodied the modern spirit of the Jazz Age.
  57. 61. Fundamentalists vs. the Flappers
  58. 62. Black Sox Scandal <ul><li>In 1919, the Cincinnati Reds defeated the Chicago White Sox in the World Series. The next year, eight White Sox players were accused of throwing (trying to lose) the World Series in return for money from gamblers. Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the eight players from baseball. This scandal, called the Black Sox Scandal, shocked fans and hurt the game's reputation. Landis had been appointed commissioner in 1920 especially to investigate the scandal. A federal judge with a reputation for honesty, he helped restore public confidence in baseball. </li></ul><ul><li>Troubled by blisters from a new pair of shoes, Jackson played in his stocking feet. A fan gave him the nickname Shoeless Joe. Jackson played his first full major league season in 1911 and became an outfielder for the White Sox in 1915. Jackson's .356 career batting average ranks him behind only Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby in major league history. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1919 World Series, Jackson batted .375 and made no fielding errors. Many historians believe Jackson was unfairly judged. In 1989, the South Carolina state senate asked to have Jackson freed from blame. However, Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti denied the request. </li></ul>“ Say it ain’t so, Joe!”
  59. 63. O’Hare and Capone Part 1 <ul><li>A short history lesson, and a good one about life. Read both of these. They're very good... </li></ul><ul><li>World War II produced many heroes. One such man was Lieutenant Commander Butch O'Hare. He was a fighter pilot assigned to an aircraft carrier Lexington in the South Pacific. One day his entire squadron was sent on a mission. After he was airborne, he looked at his fuel gauge and realized that someone had forgotten to top off his fuel tank. He would not have enough fuel to complete his mission and get back to his ship. His flight leader told him to return to the carrier. Reluctantly he dropped out of formation and headed back to the fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>As he was returning to his mother ship, he saw something that turned his blood cold. A squadron of Japanese bombers was speeding their way toward the American fleet. The American fighters were gone on a sortie and the fleet was all but defenseless. He couldn't reach his squadron and bring them back in time to save the fleet. Nor, could he warn the fleet of the approaching danger. There was only one thing to do. He must somehow divert them from the fleet. He dove into the formation of Japanese planes. Wing-mounted 50 caliber's blazed as he charged in, attacking one surprised enemy plane and then another. Butch weaved in and out of the now broken formation and fired at as many planes as possible until finally all his ammunition was spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Undaunted, he continued the assault. He dove at the planes, trying to at least clip off a wing or tail, in hopes of damaging as many enemy planes as possible and rendering them unfit to fly. He was desperate to do anything he could to keep them from reaching the American ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the exasperated Japanese squadron took off in another direction. Deeply relieved, Butch O'Hare and his tattered fighter limped back to the carrier. Upon arrival he reported in and related the event surrounding his return. The film from the camera mounted on his plane told the tale. It showed the extent of Butch's daring attempt to protect his fleet. He had destroyed five enemy bombers. That was on February 20, 1942, and for that action he became the Navy's first Ace of WWII and the first Naval Aviator to win the congressional Medal of Honor. </li></ul><ul><li>A year later he was killed in aerial combat at the age of 29. His hometown would not allow the memory of that heroic action die. </li></ul><ul><li>And today, O'Hare Airport in Chicago is named in tribute to the courage of this great man. So the next time you're in O'Hare visit his memorial with his statue and Medal of Honor. It is located between terminal 1 and 2. </li></ul>
  60. 64. The Untouchables <ul><li>Ever since Eliot Ness first published The Untouchables in 1957, the public has fallen in love with the adventures of this authentic American hero. His book was a runaway best seller because it was the exciting true story of a brave and honest lawman pitted against the country's most successful gangster, Al Capone. The television series that followed in the 1950's and the Kevin Costner movie in 1987 built fancifully on the same theme. Then again in 1993, the television series has been remade for yet another generation to watch Eliot Ness battle it out again with the Capone Mob. Every school child knows what Eliot Ness did for two years in Chicago, but what happened to him afterwards when Al Capone went to jail? Almost nobody knows. Does that mean the young hero retired to a quiet life? Not by a long shot! With a new group of &quot;Untouchables,&quot; Eliot Ness went right on fighting the mob for another decade: staging daring raids on bootleggers and illegal gambling joints, catching criminals with his bare hands, and generally putting organized crime on the run. After Capone, he broadened his crusade to include labor racketeers, crooked cops and the country's most vicious serial killer, the Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run. </li></ul>Elliot Ness
  61. 65. <ul><li>So why didn't Eliot Ness write about his adventures after Chicago? Actually, he had planned to do just that, but he died of a heart attack just before the publishing of The Untouchables. This story is the result of hundreds of interviews and thousands of hours of research to capture events never before published. All the events contained in this story are substantively correct, although the exact dialogue, remembered from interviews taken decades after the event, may only be approximate. Ness's career in law enforcement continued for a decade beyond the Capone years, a decade in which his very considerable talents flowered. At the age of 33 in Cleveland, he faced the challenge of his career when he took over the corrupt and incompetent police force in a city that had become a haven for gangsters. Never one to sit behind a desk and administrate, Eliot took to the street with a new group of trusted confidants, mostly undercover investigators and reporters, until he cleaned up the police force and put the mob chieftains behind bars. Drawing on his master's degree in criminology, he turned the miserable Cleveland police force into one of the most modern, efficient and respected departments in the world. Crime in the city dropped 38 percent after he was on the job just a couple of years! Eliot Ness was so much more than just the courageous guy who battered down the door of Capone's biggest brewery. It's time the American public knew about the rest of his accomplishments, which are at once exciting, inspiring and long lasting. </li></ul>
  62. 66. O’Hare and Capone Part 2 <ul><li>Story number two: </li></ul><ul><li>Some years earlier there was a man in Chicago called Easy Eddie. At that time, Al Capone virtually owned the city. Capone wasn't famous for anything heroic. His exploits were anything but praiseworthy. He was, however, notorious for enmeshing the city of Chicago in everything from bootlegged booze and prostitution to murder. Easy Eddie was Capone's lawyer and for a good reason. He was very good! In fact, his skill at legal maneuvering kept Big Al out of jail for a long time. To show his appreciation, Capone paid him very well. Not only was the money big; Eddie got special dividends. For instance, he and his family occupied a fenced-in mansion with live-in help and all of the conveniences of the day. The estate was so large that it filled an entire Chicago city block. Yes, Eddie lived the high life of the Chicago mob and gave little consideration to the atrocities that went on around him. </li></ul><ul><li>Eddy did have one soft spot, however. He had a son that he loved dearly. Eddy saw to it that his young son had the best of everything--clothes, cars, and a good education. Nothing was withheld. Price was no object. And, despite his involvement with organized crime, Eddie even tried to teach him right from wrong. Yes, Eddie tried to teach his son to rise above his own sordid life. He wanted him to be a better man than he was. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, with all his wealth and power, Eddie couldn't give his son everything. Two things that Eddie sacrificed to the Capone mob that he could not pass on to his beloved son: a good name and a good example. </li></ul><ul><li>One day, Easy Eddie reached a difficult decision. Offering his son a good name was far more important than all the riches he could lavish on him. He had to rectify all the wrong that he had done. He would go to the authorities and tell the truth about Scar-face Al Capone. He would try to clean up his tarnished name and offer his son some semblance of integrity. To do this he must testify against The Mob, and he knew that the cost would be great. But more than anything, he wanted to be an example to his son. He wanted to do his best to make restitution and hopefully have a good name to leave his son. So, he testified. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the year, Easy Eddie's life ended in a blaze of gunfire on a lonely Chicago street. He had given his son the greatest gift he had to offer at the greatest price he would ever pay. </li></ul><ul><li>What do these two stories have to do with one another? </li></ul><ul><li>Well, you see, Butch O'Hare was Easy Eddie's son. </li></ul>
  63. 67. Al Capone Al Capone was one of the most famous and powerful gangsters in United States history. During the 1920's, he built a criminal empire in Chicago that became the model for present-day organized-crime operations. Capone was known as Scarface because his left cheek once had been slashed in a fight. In spite of his reputation, Capone was treated as a celebrity. He was often seen riding in an armored limousine to theaters and sports arenas, where he entertained guests in private boxes. Alphonse Capone was born on Jan. 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York, to poor Italian immigrants. The original family name was sometimes spelled Caponi. About 1920, Capone came to Chicago to work for a racketeer. A series of gangland shootings soon left the violent and clever Capone in control of much of the city's large-scale criminal activities. His gang dominated liquor, gambling, and prostitution rackets. It fought off rival gangs with submachine guns, and corrupted police and politicians with bribes. Capone gunmen were blamed for the murder of seven members of the Bugs Moran gang in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929, but this charge was never proved. In 1931, a federal jury convicted Capone of income tax evasion. The IRS had been gathering tax evasion information on Capone for some time through a hired agent, Eddie O'Hare. O'Hare ran Capone's dog and race tracks and told the IRS where they could find Capone's financial records. On November 24, Al Capone was sentenced to 11 years in Federal prison, fined $50,000, charged $7692 for court costs, and $215,000 in back taxes for tax evasion. The agent in charge of the case was Melvin Purvis. After eight years in prison, Capone retired to his mansion near Miami, Florida. Capone died in Florida on Jan. 25, 1947, from complications due to syphilis.
  64. 68. Speakeasies & bootlegging <ul><li>  The Roaring Twenties began on a dry note on January 29, 1920, at 12:01 a.m. when the 18th Amendment was put into effect. The Anti-Saloon League of New York and others who wanted to make the sale and manufacture of alcohol illegal — thereby combating the related moral and social ills associated with drinking — had successfully lobbied Congress to pass the amendment. The Volstead Act enforced the amendment. Prohibition had begun. As law enforcement officials shut down saloons across the country, speakeasies — illegal bars — sprouted up quickly. They were given their unique name for the need to whisper, or &quot;speak easy,&quot; as patrons attempted to cross their illegal thresholds. A secret knock, password or handshake could get a prospective drinker through a door that appeared to lead to an ordinary apartment, deli, tailor, or soda shop. Once inside, however, there was plenty of drinking and entertainment, including torch singers, cabaret singers, and vaudeville acts. </li></ul>
  65. 69. Former Chicago Speakeasies <ul><li>Then in 1920, the best thing that could have happened for jazz, they passed the most idiotic law in the history of the United States, prohibition... Well, from a handful of saloons around the country, you now have thousands and thousands of speakeasies, especially in all the major cities. I mean, at one point in New York City alone, Manhattan had 5,000 speakeasies. And in the competition, you want to bring in people, you have music. So suddenly, there's work. There's tons of work for jazz musicians. Also, Prohibition is loosening up morals. It's doing exactly the opposite of what it was supposed to do. Women, for example, did not drink in saloons. They sure drank in speakeasies ... So the Jazz Age became a kind of umbrella term to this whole loosening up, this whole lubrication thanks to Prohibition when everybody was drinking more than they should just to defy an absolutely unenforceable law. By the late 1920s, it was obvious that Prohibition was failing. Bootleggers made gin and bribed public officials in order to keep their businesses thriving. More people were drinking than ever before. Many Americans challenged the law by carrying hidden flasks, though some drinkers paid a high price for this illegal habit, dying of wood alcohol poisoning. The social ills caused by the consumption of alcohol worsened as gang murders, turf wars, and booze smuggling became commonplace. Controlling the presence of speakeasies was futile. They opened as quickly as they were shut down. Finally, on February 20, 1933, the 21st Amendment was passed, repealing the 18th Amendment and ending Prohibition. Herbert Hoover and other republicans referred to the Prohibition Era as a &quot;noble experiment,&quot; and as legal bars, saloons and clubs opened once again, speakeasies became a memory of the past. </li></ul>
  66. 70. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre <ul><li>With the age of telephone and radio communication dawning as it was during the Jazz Age, it spawned not only convenience for everyday life, but for the organizing of crime syndicates as well. Chicago's bloody history during the Jazz Age, is a testimony to the failure of prohibition laws introduced in 1919. The St. Valentine's Day massacre is not noteworthy for its uniqueness of gangland murder, for these syndicate 'hits' were common throughout the 1920s, especially in Chicago. What makes the murders so special on this occasion was the effect it had on the entire Unites States public, and the outrage that followed emphatically pronounced that something had to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>In the modern era, Chicago is one of the world's great cities, and does have better historical moments outside of the times of 1920s. Sitting on the toe of Lake Michigan, it is the Illinois corner which Indiana and Wisconsin meet. Chicago contains some of the world's most famous architecture, arts, airport, sports teams, and all manner of metropolitan delight. The passing of time has healed the wounds of the gang wars, and Chicago's history in the 20s and 30s is treated with fascination, and while not arrogantly celebrated, is certainly regarded as important Americana. It has a retrospect to the gangster era, growing much in the same way Tombstone, Arizona celebrates the gunfighters of the O.K. Corral. Al Capone has become legend, albeit eras apart, as similar to those gunfighters of the old west. </li></ul><ul><li>The Al Capone story is really a study of power, where power corrupt is turned to power absolute. It isn't entirely necessary to understand Al Capone's history to appreciate the gangland politics of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. However, the events leading up to it are intertwined with Capone's history. </li></ul>
  67. 71. <ul><li>Capone was born in New York in 1899 and lived his youth there. He apprenticed in the ways of racketeering under the guidance of Johnny Torrio. Contrary to popular notion, Italian Americans involved with the bootlegging of alcohol, for example, were not intent on provoking violence in their community. In fact, they were a surprisingly peaceable people, simply providing a service in a time where an awkward law tried to prevent the consumption of alcohol. They did favors and received favors in return. Torrio and others became victims of these circumstances, and things simply fell out of control. </li></ul><ul><li>The Torrio-Capone empire began in Cicero, a township south of Chicago which at the time was less integrated with Chicago as it is today. The South-Side of Chicago eventually became under their control. To convey all the events describing this evolution is a book in itself. There were many other gangs involved in the rackets, chief among them was the Dion O'Banion gang, which chiefly controlled the North-Side of Chicago. O'Banion was not interested in arranging deals with Torrio-Capone organisation, and friction between the two groups grew from there. O'Banion ended up assassinated by trying to destroy the Torrio-Capone group using informants to watch their movements and reporting the activity to the authorities. Since the murder of O'Banion in November, 1924, the gang wars snowballed into a circle of revenge. Just as Torrio was leaving the organization as a main player, he fell victim to an assassination attempt in January 1925 leaving him severely debilitated at the hands of &quot;Hymie&quot; Weiss and &quot;Bugs&quot; Moran. Weeks before this, Al Capone too was targeted by the same gang, and their use of the Thompson machine gun on Capone's car left many holes, but none in the body of Capone who, by a lucky chance was not there. Capone was relieved by the good fortune, but seemed more impressed by the Tommy Gun's destructive power evidenced by the damage sustained to his car. This signature weapon for 1920s gangster movies and television programs was born, although it was not quite as common the weapon portrayed in the media. </li></ul>
  68. 72. <ul><li>&quot;Bugs&quot; Moran came to the top of the North-Side gang by virtue of the deaths of bosses before him. Drucci and Weiss preceded Moran, and before them, O'Banion. Moran's gang was not armed with same clout as Capone when it came to corruption of the authorities. Moran in comparison to Capone was a nuisance competitor, a powerful thug, without the intricate organization of the Capone machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack McGurn featured prominently within the Capone syndicate. Of all of Capone's people, he was responsible for many of Chicago's gangland murders, often without Capone's consent. McGurn upset Capone on a number of occasions for going over the top in violence, because everything McGurn did reflected on Capone in the media. Capone liked things kept quiet, but McGurn's reckless behavior of killing and maiming, prompted Capone to implore him not to take actions unless he had permission. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Bugs&quot; Moran had Capone on his list for assassination for years now, but realised the more reasonable goal of knocking off his main henchman Jack McGurn. He dispatched the brothers Frank and Peter Gusenberg for the job. </li></ul><ul><li>After days of watching and following McGurn, they opened fire while McGurn was using a public payphone inside a hotel lobby. Certain they had accomplished the mission, the brothers fled. But McGurn was lucky. After the initial salvo, he collapsed below the glass and was afforded some shielding from the bullets by the wood in the booth. Nevertheless, he was severely shot and was close to death. Because of the location of the shooting, McGurn was afforded quick access to medical attention. The worst scenario for the Moran gang had occurred, the survival of the most violent man in Capone's service. </li></ul><ul><li>Capone did not like the situation. The heat on his organization was bad enough as it was, but knew that such an action was likely to set the gang wars on a new and deadly course. It is a common misconception that Capone masterminded the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. While it is true it was to his interest that these people were eliminated, he would have preferred it not occur. After all, this was McGurn's vendetta against Moran. So Capone left Chicago for Miami, to be as far away from complicity as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>McGurn planned carefully for this hit. He utilized two seasoned gunmen from Capone's group, Albert Anselmi and John Scalise. Also employed was a Chicago outsider, Fred Burke, and it is assumed that the fourth was another outsider, possibly a recruit from a gang in alliance with Capone's. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was simple. Pose as police and pretend a raid. The question was, to raid what? The idea was to lure the gang together by creating a liquor transaction of Canadian Whisky from a 'supposed' dealer. This dealer would inform McGurn of the pickup location and the plan would execute. To ensure the snare would come off properly, it was tested to ensure the Moran boys were comfortable with the arrangement. After the first shipment, the trust factor ensured that Moran gang's guard would be down. </li></ul><ul><li>On the next occasion, Moran set the place of transaction to be at the S.M.C. Company garage. Moran would be handling the cash himself. McGurn was informed that Moran would be there himself at 10:30 am on February 14, a Thursday. There was one problem. The men McGurn hired for lookouts, didn't exactly know what Moran looked like. </li></ul>
  69. 74. Quick Facts • The U.S. gross national product (GNP) rose to $71.6 billion. In 1910, it had been $30.4 billion. (1920) • American writer Sinclair Lewis, or Harry Sinclair Lewis (1885 - 1951), publishes Main Street . (1920) • In New York, George Gershwin's (1898 - 1937) Rhapsody in Blue is performed. (1924) • Harold Ross founds the New Yorker . (1925) • Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899 - 1961) publishes his book, The Sun Also Rises . (1925) • Walt Disney (1901 - 1966) presents Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie , a cartoon complete with sound. Disney provided the voice of the soon-to-be famous mouse. (1928) • Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899 - 1961) publishes A Farewell to Arms . (1929) • Charlie Chaplin (1889 - 1977) stars in The Kid , his first full-length film. Other notable actors at the time included Douglas Fairbanks (1883 - 1939) and Mary Pickford (1893 - 1979).
  70. 75. Babe Didrikson Zaharias <ul><li>Babe Zaharias is generally considered the greatest woman athlete in sports history. She gained her most enduring fame in golf and track and field, but she also competed in basketball, baseball, pocket billiards, tennis, diving, and swimming. In a 1932 track and field meet, she set four world records in three hours. At the 1932 Olympic Games, she set world records in the 80-meter hurdles, the javelin throw, and the high jump. </li></ul><ul><li>Didrikson began concentrating on golf in the early 1930's. Her style of play dramatically changed women's golf. Her powerful swing, low scores, and showmanship attracted many new fans to the sport. She won the U.S. Women's Amateur tournament in 1946. In 1946 and 1947, she won 17 tournaments in a row, including the 1947 British Women's Amateur. She became the first American to win this event. Didrikson turned professional in 1947. She was one of the founders of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). She won the U.S. Women's Open in 1948, 1950, and 1954. The 1954 victory came a year after she had cancer surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Mildred Ella Didrikson was born on June 26, probably in 1911, 1912, or 1914, in Port Arthur, Texas. She was nicknamed Babe after baseball slugger Babe Ruth because of the many home runs she hit playing baseball as a child. She married George Zaharias, a wrestler, in 1938. </li></ul>
  71. 76. Harlem Renaissance <ul><li>The Great Migration was a mass movement of African American northwards for factory jobs away from the dangerous KKK-infested, Jim Crow-enforcing South. There were plenty of jobs available as the nation’s productivity soared. </li></ul><ul><li>One place where Black pride, music and culture flourished was a section of New York City known as Harlem. Poets, musicians, and writers abounded, capturing the African American experience in art, word, and jazz. </li></ul><ul><li>A rebirth of black pride took hold within the United States with a flowering of artistic ability. Bessie Smith, the Duke, Satchmo, Zora Neal Hurston, and Langston Hughes were just a few of the brilliant artistes that blossomed in this period. </li></ul>
  72. 77. Josephine Baker
  73. 78. <ul><li>Josephine Baker, (1906-1975), was an internationally famous African American entertainer. She began her career in the early 1920's as a chorus dancer in black musical comedies and in black nightclubs in New York City. She did not become a star until she moved to Paris in 1925, where she performed in black revues at the Follies Bergere and other Parisian music halls. She also owned a nightclub. Her rhythmic dancing and flamboyant stage presence made her a sensation by the late 1920's. </li></ul><ul><li>Baker returned to the United States to perform in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1936. For a time, she operated a nightclub in New York City. She retired in 1956 to devote more time to her family of adopted children. She raised her family on her estate in France until financial difficulties forced the sale of the property. Baker often returned to the stage in the 1960's and early 1970's. She was born on June 3, 1906, in St. Louis, Missouri. She died on April 12, 1975. </li></ul>Josephine Baker
  74. 79. <ul><li>Surviving the 1917 riots in East St. Louis, Illinois, where the family was living, Josephine Baker ran away a few years later at age thirteen and began dancing in vaudeville and on Broadway. In 1925, Josephine Baker went to Paris where, after the jazz revue La Revue Nègre failed, her comic ability and jazz dancing drew attention of the director of the Folies Bergère. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually an instant hit, Josephine Baker became one of the best-known entertainers in both France and much of Europe. Her exotic, sensual act reinforced the creative images coming out of the Harlem Renaissance in America. </li></ul><ul><li>During World War II Josephine Baker worked with the Red Cross, gathered intelligence for the French Resistance and entertained troops in Africa and the Middle East. She smuggled in information written in invisible ink on her sheets of music and occasionally had secrets &quot;pinned inside her underwear&quot;. She was awarded the Legion de France by Charles DeGaulle himself after the war. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, Josephine Baker adopted, with her second husband, twelve children from around the world, making her home a World Village, a &quot;showplace for brotherhood.&quot; She returned to the stage in the 1950s to finance this project. In 1951 in the United States, Josephine Baker was refused service at the famous Stork Club in New York City. Yelling at columnist Walter Winchell, another patron of the club, for not coming to her assistance, she was accused by Winchell of communist and fascist sympathies. Never as popular in the US as in Europe, she found herself fighting the rumors begun by Winchell as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Josephine Baker responded by crusading for racial equality, refusing to entertain in any club or theater that was not integrated, and thereby breaking the color bar at many establishments. In 1963, she spoke at the March on Washington at the side of Martin Luther King, jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Josephine Baker's World Village fell apart in the 1950s and in 1969 she was evicted from her chateau, which was then auctioned off to pay debts. Princess Grace of Monaco gave her a villa. In 1973 Baker married an American, Robert Brady, and began her stage comeback. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975, Josephine Baker's Carnegie Hall comeback performance was a success, as was her subsequent Paris performance. But two days after her last Paris performance, she died of a stroke. </li></ul>Josephine Baker
  75. 80. Satchmo Louis Armstrong The dynamic and mesmerizing music of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington is forever etched in jazz history. He was a songwriter, composer and acclaimed performer that helped shape modern music as we know it. Louis Armstrong was born in a poor section of New Orleans known as “the Battlefield” on August 4, 1901. By the time of his death in 1971, the man known around the world as Satchmo was widely recognized as a founding father of jazz – a uniquely American art form. His influence, as an artist and cultural icon, is universal, unmatched, and very much alive today. Through the years, Louis entertained millions, from heads of state and royalty to the kids on his stoop in Corona. Despite his fame, he lived a simple life in a working-class neighborhood. To this day, everyone loves Satchmo – just the mention of his name makes people smile. The Duke
  76. 81. Bessie Smith was a rough, crude, violent woman. She was also the greatest of the classic Blues singers of the 1920s. Bessie started out as a street musician in Chattanooga. In 1912 Bessie joined a traveling show as a dancer and singer. The show featured Pa and Ma Rainey, and Smith developed a friendship with Ma. Ma Rainey was Bessie's mentor and she stayed with her show until 1915. Bessie then joined the T.O.B.A. vaudeville circuit and gradually built up her own following in the south and along the eastern seaboard. By the early 1920s she was one of the most popular Blues singers in vaudeville. In 1923 she made her recording debut on Columbia, accompanied by pianist Clarence Williams. They recorded &quot;Gulf Coast Blues&quot; and &quot;Down Hearted Blues.&quot; The record sold more than 750,000 copies that same year, rivaling the success of Blues singer Mamie Smith (no relation). Throughout the 1920s Smith recorded with many of the great Jazz musicians of that era, including Fletcher Henderson, James P. Johnson, Coleman Hawkins, Don Redman and Louis Armstrong. Her rendition of &quot;St. Louis Blues&quot; with Armstrong is considered by most critics to be one of finest recordings of the 1920s. Bessie Smith was one of the biggest stars of the 1920s and was popular with both Whites and African-Americans, but by 1931 the Classic Blues style of Bessie Smith was out of style and the Depression, radio, and sound movies had all damaged the record companies' ability to sell records so Columbia dropped Smith from its roster. In 1933 she recorded for the last time under the direction of John Hammond for Okeh. The session was released under the name of Bessie Smith accompanied by Buck and his Band. Despite having no record company Smith was still very popular in the South and continued to draw large crowds, although the money was not nearly as good as it had been in the 1920s. Bessie had started to style herself as a Swing musician and was on the verge of a comeback when her life was tragically cut short by an automobile accident in 1937. While driving with her lover Richard Morgan (Lionel Hampton's uncle) in Mississippi their car rear-ended a slow moving truck and rolled over crushing Smith's left arm and ribs. Smith bled to death by the time she reached the hospital. John Hammond caused quite a stir by writing an article in Downbeat magazine suggesting that Smith had bled to death because she had been taken to a White hospital and had been turned away. This proved not to be true, but the rumor persists to this day.
  77. 82. Langston Hughes <ul><li>Langston Hughes </li></ul><ul><li>James Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln, Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, eventually settling in Cleveland, Ohio. It was in Lincoln, Illinois, that Hughes began writing poetry. Following graduation, he spent a year in Mexico and a year at Columbia University. During these years, he held odd jobs as an assistant cook, launderer, and a busboy, and traveled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman. In November 1924, he moved to Washington, D.C. Hughes first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926. He finished his college education at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania three years later. In 1930 his first novel, Not Without Laughter, won the Harmon gold medal for literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Hughes, who claimed Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg, and Walt Whitman as his primary influences, is particularly known for his insightful, colorful portrayals of black life in America from the twenties through the sixties. He wrote novels, short stories and plays, as well as poetry, and is also known for his engagement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing, as in Montage of a Dream Deferred. His life and work were enormously important in shaping the artistic contributions of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. Unlike other notable black poets of the period--Claude McKay, Jean Toomer, and Countee Cullen--Hughes refused to differentiate between his personal experience and the common experience of black America. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Langston Hughes died of complications from prostate cancer in May 22, 1967, in New York. In his memory, his residence at 20 East 127th Street in Harlem, New York City, has been given landmark status by the New York City Preservation Commission, and East 127th Street was renamed &quot;Langston Hughes Place.&quot; </li></ul>
  78. 83. Dream Deferred <ul><li>What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? </li></ul>
  79. 84. Langston Hughes‘ Mother to Son <ul><li>Well, son, I'll tell you: Life for me ain't been no crystal stair. It's had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor -- Bare. But all the time I'se been a-climbin' on, </li></ul><ul><li>And reachin' landin's, And turnin' corners, And sometimes goin' in the dark </li></ul><ul><li>Where there ain't been no light. So boy, don't you turn back. Don't you set down on the steps 'Cause you finds it's kinder hard. Don't you fall now -- For I'se still goin', honey, I'se still climbin', And life for me ain't been no crystal stair. </li></ul>Pastel drawing of Hughes by Winold Reiss
  80. 85. Langston Hughes’ poetry <ul><li>I, Too </li></ul><ul><li>I, too sing America. </li></ul><ul><li>I am the darker brother. </li></ul><ul><li>They send me to eat in the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>When company comes, </li></ul><ul><li>But I laugh, </li></ul><ul><li>And eat well, </li></ul><ul><li>And grow strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow, </li></ul><ul><li>I'll be at the table </li></ul><ul><li>When company comes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody'll dare </li></ul><ul><li>Say to me, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eat in the kitchen,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Then. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, </li></ul><ul><li>They'll see how beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>I am And be ashamed– </li></ul><ul><li>I, too, am America. </li></ul>
  81. 86. Zora Neale Hurston 1891 - 1960 <ul><li>It was a spring afternoon in West Florida. Janie had spent most of the day under a blossoming pear tree in the back-yard. She had been spending every minute that she could steal from her chores under that tree for the last three days. That was to say, ever since the first tiny bloom had opened. It had called her to come and gaze on a mystery. From barren brown stems to glistening leaf-buds; from the leaf-buds to snowy virginity of bloom. It stirred her tremendously. How? Why? It was like a flute song forgotten in another existence and remembered again. What? How? Why? this singing she heard that had nothing to do with her ears. The rose of the world was breathing out smell. It followed her through all her waking moments and caressed her in her sleep. It connected itself with other vaguely felt matters that had struck her outside observation and buried themselves in her flesh. Now they emerged and quested about her consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>- Their Eyes Were Watching God </li></ul>
  82. 87. <ul><li>Zora Neale Hurston has been the subject of intense critical attention since her &quot;re-discovery&quot; in the late 'sixties. The most prolific African-American woman writer of her time or earlier, the power of her imagery and the richness of the culture which she brings to life through her writings have found her enthusiastic new audiences in recent years. Hurston herself was unable to make a living from her writings and worked as a teacher, a librarian and a domestic in order to earn her livelihoo