Genghis Khan (pronounced /ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/ or /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/; Mongolian: Чингис Хан, Chinggis Khaan , or Činggis Qa γ an ), IPA:); c. 1162 - 1227), born Temüjin (meaning "ironworker“), was the founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire the largest contiguous empire in history.
He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions and raids of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. During his life, the Mongol Empire eventually occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
In the 1200s, Genghiz Khan united Mongol tribes and conquered a vast empire that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe. Genghiz Khan imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty. His highly trained armies contained some of the most skilled horsemen in the world. In their conquest of China, the Mongol armies faced the problem of attacking walled cities. Mongol and Chinese armies used missile weapons against each other. It took 150 years for the Mongols to complete their conquest of China. Once a conquest was complete, the Mongols were not oppressive rulers. They often allowed conquered peoples to live much as they had — as long as they paid tribute to the Mongols. The heirs of Genghiz Khan established peace and order within their domain. Historians today refer to this period as the Pax Mongolica , or Mongol Peace.
Only Mongols could serve in the military or hold the highest government jobs. Chinese officials were allowed to rule in the provinces. The Chinese despised their foreign conquerors. A mix of Chinese and foreign customs developed. Foreigners were welcomed into China and a number of Chinese products, such as gunpowder and porcelain, were introduced in Europe. Early Ming rulers sought to reassert Chinese greatness after years of foreign rule. To accomplish this, they did the following:
Restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous than ever
Revived Confucian learning
Repaired the canal system that linked regions and made trade easier
Made Chinese cities home to many industries, including porcelain, paper, and tools
Developed new technologies, which increased output in manufacturing
The silkworms are born in spring, are fed on mulberry leaves and make the floss thread, forming a nice cocoon, of which an elegant butterfly is born. The butterflies make eggs, of which worms are born again. It is the history of the cycle of the nature and the production of silk.
大清 Great Qing In 1644, the Mings set up a new dynasty called the Qing (meaning pure). The Manchus extended their empire including Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet. Taiwan was added in 1683. It ruled a huge empire for almost 300 years.
At first only the rich people of China practiced foot binding. This was because women with bound feet could not walk properly and needed a lot of care. Bound feet had to be washed daily and the toenails had to be cut every day so that they wouldn't grow too long and cut the foot. Sometimes the cloth would be wrapped too tightly and women would get gangrene or blood poisoning. Poor people didn't bind their daughters feet at first because they couldn't afford to spend a lot of time caring for a women who sat around not working. Eventually, the practice spread to the poor people who wanted their daughters to marry rich husbands. If a poor girl did not marry a rich husband, she had to try to work in the fields walking on her deformed feet. The Manchus tried to end the foot-binding—but that did not end until 1900s.
Foot binding is a custom that started in China during the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907). Back then small feet were considered beautiful so young girls were forced to bind their feet to stop them from growing. Foot binding involved wrapping strips of cloth around the feet of baby girls. The cloth pushed the small toes under the foot. This broke made the foot bow and brought the big toe and heel closer together. The strips would be tightened every day and the girls would have to walk with their feet bound. The small toes would break and the whole foot became deformed. The purpose of binding was to keep feet from growing larger than 10cm, or 3.9 inches. This binding process caused a lot of pain and even stopped them from walking correctly. Feet would become so deformed they looked like hooks and were called lotus hooks. Special small slippers were made to fit the feet. The shoes would get smaller as the feet became more deformed.