1750-1914:AN AGE OFREVOLUTIONS Latin American Independence Movements
IMPERIALISM IN THE CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH AMERICA, 1898– 41917 Referred to as Banana Republics
LATIN AMERICAN WARS OF 3INDEPENDENCE What caused discontent in Latin America? How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence? How did nations of South America win independence?
3WHAT CAUSED DISCONTENT IN LATIN AMERICA? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. Peninsulares were those born of Spanish parents in Spain; therefore, they had the most wealth, education, & status. Creoles resented their second-class status. Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
3 CENTRAL HAITI MEXIC AMERICA OIn 1791, Toussaint Father Miguel Hidalgo Spanish-ruled landsL‟Ouverture led slaves and José Morelas led declared theirin revolt. popular revolts. independence in theBy 1798, enslaved Rebels led by Agustín early 1820s.Haitians had been de Iturbide overthrew Local leaders set upfreed. the Spanish the United ProvincesIn 1802, Napoleon viceroy, creating an of Central America.sent an army to independent Mexico.recapture Haiti. The union soonNapoleon‟s forces Iturbide took the title of fragmented intoagreed to a truce, or emperor, but was separate republics oftemporary peace. quickly overthrown. Guatemala, Nicaragu Liberal Mexicans set up a, Honduras, ElIn 1804, Haitian Salvador, and Costa the Republic of Mexico.leaders declared Rica.independence. STRUGGLES FOR INDEPENDENCE
INDEPENDENCE IN SOUTH AMERICA 3 In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence.Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,”:the George Washington of SouthAmerica,” led an uprising thatestablished a republic in Venezuela.He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador,Peru, and Bolivia. In 1816, José de San Martínhelped Argentina win freedom fromSpain. He then joined forces withBolívar. Bolívar tried to unite the liberatedlands into a single nation called GranColombia. However, bitter rivalriesmade that dream impossible.Before long, Gran Columbia split into
INDEPENDENT NATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA ABOUT 1844 3
3INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes European domination of Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Spread of Enlightenment ideas American and French revolutions Revolutionary leaders emerge Growth of nationalism in Latin America Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Toussaint L„Ouverture leads Attempts made to rebuild slave revolt in Haiti economies Bolívar, San Martín, and others 18 separate republics set up lead successful revolts in Latin Continuing efforts to achieve stable America democratic governments and to Colonial rule ends in much of gain economic independence Latin America
François Toussaint- Simón Louverture-Miguel BolívarHidalgo Key People Pedro I José de San Martín
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS, 18TH & 19TH C. Wars of Independenc e In Latin America Many Latin American nations tried a break for freedom while Napoleon was in power
RESULTS Caudillos Strong military leaders emerge Dictatorship and totalitarian systems emerge Dependency theory challenges “Modernity” theory Western European markets determine the product South America dependent upon others buying their one crop Banana Republics United Fruit Company controlled Central America in late 19th and early 20th century Phrase coined to designate politically unstable, dependent on limited agriculture, and ruled by a small, wealthy and corrupt clique put in power by the United States government in conjunction with the CIA and the US business lobby
LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL CLASSES Peninsulares were men born in Spain or Portugal who held highest offices and important military and political positions Creoles were Spaniards born in the Latin American colonies who were officers in army, but not in government and controlled much of the land and business in the colonies. But they deeply resented power of the peninsulares. Mestizos made up the majority of the society because it was mixed European and Indian. They worked as servant to the peninsulares and Creoles and as plantation overseers and farmhands. Mulatto-European and African mixed ancestry. The Native Americans/Africans were the lowest society group but also the largest. They were not known as citizens but did much labor.
FRENCH COLONIES: REVOLUTION IN HAITI Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
• The first Latin American uprising was in the French colony of Haiti, which was where huge plantations of sugar, cotton and coffee spread across the mountains and valleys of the lush tropical land. The Plantations were owed by French planters and worked by the colony‟s enslaved African population• There was a high demand of sugar and coffee from the small colony of Haiti• 500,000 to 560,000 people living in Haiti in the late 1700s were enslaved or had been• Unrest erupted in the early 1790‟s when enslaved Africans led by François Toussaint-Louverture revolted by setting fires to plantation homes and fields of sugarcane.• Napoleon sent forces in 1802 in order to take control of the colony and successfully captured Toussaint- Louverture and imprisoned him in France until his death in 1803.• Yellow fever was the death of thousands of French soldiers which is what the Haiti people needed to defeat
TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE Former slave, self-educated. Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat. Allegedly got name (“opening” in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines. Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791. 100,000 slaves in revolt. By 1801, L’Ouverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves. In January 1802, French troops landed. Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery French accused him of planning another uprising. Sent him to a prison in the French Alps.
Father Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest who was the leader of the Mexican war for Independence. He started the movement of independence in 1810. With his help, the fight for independence lasted for 11 years but Miguel did not see it to the end. He was executed in 1811 because of traitors who sold him out to the Spaniards. Miguel Hidalgo was known as a risk taker with the motto: “We want a free Mexico;” with this motto, his fight for independence never ended.May 8, 1753 –July30, 1811
• Miguel Hidalgo led the fight against the Spanish government in Mexico because of the deep care he had for the poverty- stricken Native Americans and mestizos.• Hidalgo‟s goals were political freedom, an end to slavery, and improvements to living conditions for Mexico‟s poor and revolt was the only way to bring change• On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo gave a stirring address that became known as “el Grito de Dolores” that called for Mexicans to fight for “Independence and Liberty.”• In 1811 the well-trained Spanish army finally overwhelmed the rebels and Hidalgo was captured and executed
Agustín de Iturbide José Francisco de SanSimón Bolívar July September 27, 1783 – Martín 24, 1783 – July 19, 1824 February 25, 1778 –December 17, 1830 August 17, 1850
Chilean liberator Bernardo O‟Higgins by the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siquieros at Chillán‟s Escuela México.The son of the Irish-born governor ofChile, he was a leading figure in themovement to overthrow the rulingSpanish administration and was thefirst head of state of the independentChile. OHiggins Rides Again, Arica, Chile - Every South American city displays its heroes in bronze. In Arica, its Bernardo OHiggins who does the honors. OHiggins fought alongside of Argentinas Jose San Martin, defeating Spain at Chacabuco, bringing independence to Chile in
Agustín de Iturbide decisively ended the Mexican War of Independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of Regency in 1821 and Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from May 19, 1822 to March 19, 1823. Agustín de Iturbide is also credited as the original designer of the Mexican flag. Simón Bolívar led many colonies to independence because he believed in equality and saw liberty as “the only object worth a man‟s life.” Bolívar‟s nickname was “The Liberator” because he devoted his life to the freedom for Latin Americans. In 1810, Simón Bolívar started a revolt against the Spaniards in Caracas which lasted 9 years until he crushed Spain‟s power in northern South America. Also called “George Washington of South America” José de San Martín led Latin American armies over the Andes Mountains and into Chile where he joined Bernardo O‟Higgins. The two men successfully achieved independence for Chile in 1818. In 1820, they also captured Lima and declared Peru independent. In 1826, Bolívar and his armies had liberated all of South America.
BolivarSanMartín O’ Higgins
GRAN COLOMBIA, 1820-1830 Bolivar’s vision of a united South America. Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions. Bolivar resigned in 1828. In 1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903.
BRAZIL GAINS INDEPENDENCE Brazil gains independence without the bloodshed because when Napoleon‟s French army had invaded Portugal, causing the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil. King João transferred his monarchy to Brazil and immediately introduced governmental reforms in Brazil. With the different reforms made by King João, Brazil was a self-governing kingdom without the Portuguese in 1815. In September 1822 Brazil won full independence from Portugal and crowned Dom Pedro as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.
CHALLENGES THAT COME WITH GROWTH• Because of the high mountains and thick jungles made transportation and communication difficult, hindering trade and economic growth, which let many fertile lands remaining undeveloped.• Stable food source is important to growth; building infrastructure is equally important—schools, roads, hospitals…• In the Colonies the executive branch of the government had the political power.• The judicial branch was weak and limited, and• the legislative branch was practically nonexistent.• The leaders were well educated but had no experience in the legislative process, and with low literacy rates, the people were slow to get a grip on democratic process.• But there were still the separation between the upper and lower classes, but now the creoles owned the best land and controlled business and government, not the peninsulares.
• Although Catholicism remained the official religion and Church and government continued to be closely tied.• With the gain of independence came the increase of political conflicts. Liberals called for separation of Church and state, the breakup of large estates, higher taxes on land, public social services, and civilian control of the government. There were liberals than there were the creoles, most of whom were rich landowners, church leaders, and military officers. The decades that followed the wars for independence saw an ongoing struggle for economic strength and social justice.
4POLITICAL PROBLEMS During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area. What they really needed: Land Reform a break with traditional customs experience with government infrastructure separation of Church and State
Revolutions in Europe
1 OPPOSING IDEOLOGIESAt the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried toturn the clock back to the way things had been before 1789.Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposedby the Congress of Vienna.The clash of people with opposing ideologies, orsystems of thought and belief, plunged Europeinto more than 30 years of turmoil.
1WHAT WERE THE GOALS OF CONSERVATIVES?Conservatives pursued the following goals: Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe. Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors. Maintain an established church. Suppress revolutionary ideas.
1THE LIBERAL AND NATIONALIST CHALLENGEChallenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals andnationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and theFrench Revolution. LIBERALISM NATIONALISM Liberals wanted: National groups who Governments based on shared a common heritage written constitutions and set out to win their own separation of powers. states. Natural rights of liberty, equality, and Nationalism gave people prosperity. with a common heritage a Rulers elected by the sense of identity. people and responsible to them. Nationalism often bred A republican form of intolerance and led to government. persecution of other ethnic
Revolutions in Europe
REVOLTS AGAINST THE OLD ORDER 1Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism,revolutionaries fought against the old order. In the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers and becomes “The Powder Keg of Europe”. In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy.
THE BALKANS, 1878 4
2 HOW DID REVOLUTION SPREAD IN 1830?The revolts in Paris inspired uprisingselsewhere in Europe. Most weresuppressed by military force. Buthere and there, rebels did winchanges from conservativegovernments. Even when they failed,revolutionaries frightened rulers badlyenough to encourage reform later in Polandthe century. Nationalists in Poland staged anBelgium The one notable success uprising in 1830.for Europe‟s revolutionaries in 1830took place in Belgium. The Congress However, theof Vienna had united Belgium and rebels failed toHolland under the Dutch king. gain widespreadThe Belgians resented thisarrangement and pushed for support, and wereindependence. brutally crushedIn 1831, Belgium became an by Russianindependent state with a liberal forces.constitution.
REVOLUTIONS 2IN EUROPE,1830 AND1848
2REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across Europe. In Austria, revolts caused Metternich to resign. The Austrian government agreed to reforms, but these gains were temporary. With Russian help, Austrian forces defeated the rebels. Many were imprisoned, executed, or exiled. Nationalists in Italy rebelled against Austrian Hapsburg rulers. They expelled the pope and installed a nationalist government. Before long, Austrian troops ousted the new government and the French army restored the pope to power. In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly. Within a year, Frederick dissolved the assembly and issued his own constitution keeping power in his own hands.
Conflicting IdeologiesThis cartoon showsPrince Metternichstanding resolute againstthe angry crowd behindhim who are pushing forreform. Metternichrepresented theconservative order andopposed revolutionaryideals such as freedomand progress.How does the cartoonistportray those in thecrowd?What does the crowdsupport?What did Metternich doto suppress revolutionaryideas?
THE BALKANS, 1878 4
Serbs in BattleSerb leader Karageorge (left) leads the Serbsagainst the Ottomans at the Battle of Misarduring the first Serbian rebellion.(a) Why would this battle and others like it help lead to a sense of Serbian national identity?(b) Why was this sense of nationalism important for the Serbs?
Belgium Wins IndependenceThe one notable success in 1830 took place in Belgium. In 1815, the Congressof Vienna had united the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and theKingdom of Holland under the Dutch king. The Congress had wanted to createa strong barrier to help prevent French expansion in the future.The Belgians resented the new arrangement. They and the Dutch had differentlanguages. The Belgians were Catholic, while the Dutch were Protestant. TheBelgian economy was based on manufacturing; the Dutch, on trade.In 1830, news of the Paris uprising ignited a revolutionary spark in Belgium.Students and workers threw up barricades in Brussels, the capital. Britain andFrance believed that they would benefit from the separation of Belgium andHolland and supported Belgian demands for independence. As a result, in 1831,Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution.Rebels Fail in PolandNationalists in Poland also staged an uprising in 1830. But, unlike theBelgians, the Poles failed to win independence for their country.In the late 1700s, Russia, Austria, and Prussia had divided up Poland. Poleshad hoped that the Congress of Vienna would restore their homeland in 1815.Instead, the great powers handed most of Poland to Russia.In 1830, Polish students, army officers, and landowners rose in revolt. Therebels failed to gain widespread support, however, and were brutally crushed byRussian forces. Some survivors fled to Western Europe and the UnitedStates, where they kept alive the dream of freedom.
2REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848 • Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830 and 1848? • How did revolution spread in 1830? • What were the results of the 1848 revolutions?
WHY DID REVOLUTIONS OCCUR IN FRANCE IN 1830 AND 1848? 2 1830 1848 Charles X, a strong believer When the government in absolutism, suspended the tried to silence critics and legislature, limited the right to prevent public vote, and restricted the meetings, angry crowds press. took to the streets. Liberals and radicals rebelled and took control of Paris. Louis Philippe abdicated. Moderate liberals put in place a constitutional Revolutionary leaders monarchy, and chose proclaimed a Second Louis Philippe as king. Republic.
REVOLT IN FRANCE IN 1830 Wanted to restore absolute monarchs Had support of ultraroyalists- -nobles favoring a return to the old order Dissolved the Assembly and held new elections Charles X Issued the July Ordinances Measures that showed the dissolved assembly, ended press freedom, and restricted voting rights Les Trois Glorieuses—in return for July Ordinances Three glorious days of rioting and revolution, again! Parisian workers and students forced Charles to give up the throne and flee to Great Britain
Louis Philippe accepted the throne as “The Citizen King” Dressed and behaved like a middle class citizen Favored wealthy and ignored middle class demands Francois Guizot Louis-Philippe I Prime minister of France Also refused middle class demands François Guizot accepts the charter from Louis-Philippe, the "Citizen-King".
FRANCE--THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 Guizot feared a demonstration and cancelled a banquet February 22 Crowds flooded the streets singing “The Marseillaise” and shouted protests to Guizot Troops called to calm it sided with the rebels and joined the parade 52 civilians were killed or wounded Louis Philippe fled to Great Britain Rebels declared France a republic Marianne/Liberte
Written and composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle Allons, enfants de Patrie, http://www.nationalanthems.info/fr.htm Le jour de gloire est arrive; Contrenous de la tyranne, Letendard sanglant est leve, Letendard sanglant est leve, Entendezvous, dans les campagnes, « The Marseillaise » Mugir ces feroces soldats? Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras, Arise children of the fatherland Egorger nos fils, nos compagnes. The day of glory has arrived Aux armes, citoyens! Against us tyrannys Formez vos bataillons! Bloody standard is raised Marchons, marchons! Listen to the sound in the fields Quun sang impur abreuve nos sillons! howling of these fearsome soldiers The They are coming into our midst To cut the throats of your sons and consorts To arms citizens Form your battalions March, march Let impure blood Water our furrows
2WHY DID THE UPRISINGS FAIL? By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789. Rulers used military force to suppress the uprisings. Revolutionaries did not have mass support. A growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reforms.