1750-1914: An Age of Revolutions Latin American Independence Movements
Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 4 Referred to as Banana Republics
3 Latin American Wars of Independence What caused discontent in Latin America? How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence? How did nations of South America win independence?
3 What Caused Discontent in Latin America? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. Peninsulares were those born of Spanish parents in Spain; therefore, they had the most wealth, education, & status. Creoles resented their second-class status. Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
3 CENTRAL AMERICA MEXICO HAITI Father Miguel Hidalgo and José Morales led popular revolts. Rebels led by Agustín de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy, creating an independent Mexico. Iturbide took the title of emperor, but was quickly overthrown. Liberal Mexicans set up the Republic of Mexico. In 1791, Toussaint L’Ouvertureled slaves in revolt. By 1798, enslaved Haitians had been freed. In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to recapture Haiti. Napoleon’s forces agreed to a truce, or temporary peace. In 1804, Haitian leaders declared independence. Spanish-ruled lands declared their independence in the early 1820s. Local leaders set up the United Provinces of Central America. The union soon fragmented into separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. Struggles for Independence
Independence in South America 3 In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence. Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” :the George Washington of South America,” led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In 1816, José de San Martínhelped Argentina win freedom from Spain. He then joined forces with Bolívar. Bolívar tried to unite the liberated lands into a single nation called Gran Columbia. However, bitter rivalries made that dream impossible. Before long, Gran Columbia split into three independent countries: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador.(Panama)
Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844 3
3 Independence Movements in Latin America Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes European domination of Latin America Spread of Enlightenment ideas American and French revolutions Growth of nationalism in Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Revolutionary leaders emerge Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Toussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave revolt in Haiti Bolívar, San Martín, and others lead successful revolts in Latin America Colonial rule ends in much of Latin America Attempts made to rebuild economies 18 separate republics set up Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence
François Toussaint-Louverture- Simón Bolívar Miguel Hidalgo Key People José de San Martín Pedro I
Latin American Independence Movements, 18th & 19th C. Wars of Independence In Latin America Many Latin American nations tried a break for freedom while Napoleon was in power in Spain & Portugal
Results Caudillos Strong military leaders emerge Dictatorship and totalitarian systems emerge Dependency theory challenges “Modernity” theory Western European markets determine the product South America dependent upon others buying their one crop Banana Republics United Fruit Company controlled Central America in late 19th and early 20th century Phrase coined to designate politically unstable, dependent on limited agriculture, and ruled by a small, wealthy and corrupt clique put in power by the United States government in conjunction with the CIA and the US business lobby
Latin American social classes Peninsulareswere men born in Spain or Portugalwho held highest offices and important military and political positions Creoles were Spaniards born in the Latin American colonies who were officers in army, but not in government and controlled much of the land and business in the colonies. But they deeply resented power of the peninsulares. Mestizos made up the majority of the society because it was mixed European and Indian. They worked as servant to the peninsulares and Creoles and as plantation overseers and farmhands. The Native Americans/Africans were the lowest society group but also the largest. They were not known as citizens but did much labor. Mulatto-European and African mixed ancestry.
French colonies: Revolution in Haiti Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
The first Latin American uprising was in the French colony of Haiti, which was where huge plantations of sugar, cotton and coffee spread across the mountains and valleys of the lush tropical land. The Plantations were owed by French planters and worked by the colony’s enslaved African population
There was a high demand of sugar and coffee from the small colony of Haiti
500,000 to 560,000 people living in Haiti in the late 1700s were enslaved or had been
Unrest erupted in the early 1790’s when enslaved Africans led by François Toussaint-Louverture revolted by setting fires to plantation homes and fields of sugarcane.
Napoleon sent forces in 1802 in order to take control of the colony and successfully captured Toussaint-Louverture and imprisoned him in France until his death in 1803.
Yellow fever was the death of thousands of French soldiers which is what the Haiti people needed to defeat the French and gain their independence in 1804.
Toussaint L’Ouverture Former slave, self-educated. Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat. Allegedly got name (“opening” in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines. Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791. 100,000 slaves in revolt. By 1801, L’Ouverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves. In January 1802, French troops landed. Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery French accused him of planning another uprising. Sent him to a prison in the French Alps. He died 10 months later, April 1803.
Father Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest who was the leader of the Mexican war for Independence. He started the movement of independence in 1810. With his help, the fight for independence lasted for 11 years but Miguel did not see it to the end. He was executed in 1811 because of traitors who sold him out to the Spaniards. Miguel Hidalgo was known as a risk taker with the motto: “We want a free Mexico;” with this motto, his fight for independence never ended. May 8, 1753 –July 30, 1811
Miguel Hidalgo led the fight against the Spanish government in Mexico because of the deep care he had for the poverty-stricken Native Americans andmestizos.
Hidalgo’s goals were political freedom, an end to slavery, and improvements to living conditions for Mexico’s poor and revolt was the only way to bring change
On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo gave a stirring address that became known as “el Grito de Dolores” that called for Mexicans to fight for “Independence and Liberty.”
In 1811 the well-trained Spanish army finally overwhelmed the rebels and Hidalgo was captured and executed
Agustín de Iturbide September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824 José Francisco de San Martín February 25, 1778 – August 17, 1850 Simón Bolívar July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830
Chilean liberator Bernardo O’Higgins by the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siquieros at Chillán’s Escuela México. The son of the Irish-born governor of Chile, he was a leading figure in the movement to overthrow the ruling Spanish administration and was the first head of state of the independent Chile. O'Higgins Rides Again, Arica, Chile - Every South American city displays its heroes in bronze. In Arica, it's Bernardo O'Higgins who does the honors. O'Higgins fought alongside of Argentina's Jose San Martin, defeating Spain at Chacabuco, bringing independence to Chile in 1818, and served as its first "Supreme Director".
Agustín de Iturbide decisively ended the Mexican War of Independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of Regency in 1821 and Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from May 19, 1822 to March 19, 1823. Agustín de Iturbide is also credited as the original designer of the Mexican flag. Simón Bolívar led many colonies to independence because he believed in equality and saw liberty as “the only object worth a man’s life.” Bolívar’s nickname was “The Liberator” because he devoted his life to the freedom for Latin Americans. In 1810, Simón Bolívar started a revolt against the Spaniards in Caracas which lasted 9 years until he crushed Spain’s power in northern South America. Also called “George Washington of South America” José de San Martínled Latin American armies over the Andes Mountains and into Chile where he joined Bernardo O’Higgins. The two men successfully achieved independence for Chile in 1818. In 1820, they also captured Lima and declared Peru independent. In 1826, Bolívar and his armies had liberated all of South America.
Gran Colombia, 1820-1830 Bolivar’s vision of a united South America. Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions. Bolivar resigned in 1828. In 1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903.
Brazil gains Independence Brazil gains independence without the bloodshed because when Napoleon’s French army had invaded Portugal, causing the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil. King João transferred his monarchy to Brazil and immediately introduced governmental reforms in Brazil. With the different reforms made by King João, Brazil was a self-governing kingdom without the Portuguese in 1815. In September 1822 Brazil won full independence from Portugal and crowned Dom Pedro as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. In 1825, Portugal finally recognized Brazil’s independence.
the legislative branch was practically nonexistent.
The leaders were well educated but had no experience in the legislative process, and with low literacy rates, the people were slow to get a grip on democratic process.
But there were still the separation between the upper and lower classes, but now the creoles owned the best land and controlled business and government, not the peninsulares.
Although Catholicism remained the official religion and Church and government continued to be closely tied.
With the gain of independence came the increase of political conflicts. Liberals called for separation of Church and state, the breakup of large estates, higher taxes on land, public social services, and civilian control of the government. There were liberals than there were the creoles, most of whom were rich landowners, church leaders, and military officers. The decades that followed the wars for independence saw an ongoing struggle for economic strength and social justice.