Finely made lanternswere greatly favoredby Europeanmerchants
Britain’s Union Jack Lin Zexu, Chinese official Trading Opium for TeaBy the 1830s, British merchant ships were arriving in China loaded with opium totrade with the Chinese for tea. In 1839, Chinese government official Lin Zexu wrotea letter to Britain’s Queen Victoria condemning the practice: “We have heard thatin your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severity—this is strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is . . . . Since . . . you donot permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drugtransferred to another country.”
China In the 1700s, China enjoyed a favorable balance of trade. They had forbidden all strangers to trade with them, but...
The Power of OpiumBy 1779, the British EastIndia Company wasimporting opium intoChinaWithin a generation,opium addiction in Chinabecame widespread Mandarin with Opium Pipe
The East India Company’s opium factory stacking roomReminds me of somethingThis slide gives an impression of the huge volume of opium imported intoChina by the British. The East India Company developed a monopoly onopium cultivation in India, but disengaged itself legally and officially fromthe illicit trade with China by using vessels owned by private merchants (theboats were known as “country ships”) to transfer and sell the opium inChina.
In 1839, a Chinese official China and Britain Clash demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou (Canton) over Opium stop. The British refused, and war ensued.In 1839, theemperor of Chinasent acommissioner toCanton to put anend to the opiumtrade. The Britishignored thisdemand, and theChinesegovernmentresponded byhaving thecommissionerdestroy 20,291chests of opium. Chinese unloading opium from a British ship
The Opium War: 1839–1842 Britain, with its powerful navy, occupied several Chinese ports, including Hong Kong. British armies also met with success, coming within miles of Peking, the Chinese capital. In 1842, the Chinese conceded and Britain forced them to sign a treaty. The British navy attacks
The Opium WarDuring the late 1700s, British merchants began making huge profits by tradingopium grown in India for Chinese tea, which was popular in Britain. Soon, manyChinese had become addicted to the drug. Silver flowed out of China in paymentfor the drug, disrupting the economy.The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers. Theycalled on Britain to stop the trade. The British refused, insisting on the right of freetrade.In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British merchants, triggering the OpiumWar. British gunboats, equipped with the latest in firepower, bombarded Chinesecoastal and river ports. With outdated weapons and fighting methods, the Chinesewere easily defeated.
Britain gained •Control of Hong The Treaty of Kong Nanjing •The right to trade in five major cities •Extraterritoriality •The legalization of opium in China •The treaty forced China to accept some major concessions and further opened the country to European trade. •It was an Unequal TreatyOn 1 July 1997 , Hong Kong wastransferred from the UK to the PRC, officially The signing of the Treaty of Nanjingending 156 years of British colonial rule. aboard the British ship Cornwallis
Unequal TreatiesIn 1842, Britain made China accept theTreaty of Nanjing Britain received ahuge indemnity, or payment for lossesin the war. The British also gained theisland of Hong Kong. China had to openfive ports to foreign trade and grantBritish citizens inChina extraterritoriality, the right tolive under their own laws and be triedin their own courts.The treaty was the first of a series of“unequal treaties” that forced China tomake concessions to Western powers.A second war, lasting from 1856 to1858, ended with France, Russia, andthe United States pressuring China tosign treaties stipulating the opening ofmore ports to foreign trade and lettingChristian missionaries preach in China.
Who do the 5 characters at the table represent? What is China’s reaction to their dinner plans?
The Open Door Policy Turmoil in China “Spheres of influence” and “Open Door” policy-- formulated by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay. No nations formally accepted Hay’s proposal, but they didn’t counter the Open Door policy’s provisions either. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay
Internal ProblemsBy the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.
The Taiping RebellionWeakens China
China Faces the West– During the 1500s, Chinese civilization had been highly advanced and had little interest in European goods– Chinas political, economic, and military position weakened under the Qing dynasty who ruled from 1644-1912– The Unequal Treaties • In early 1800s, British merchants found a way to break Chinas trade barriers and earned huge profits. In exchange of tea, silk, and porcelain, the merchants smuggled a drug called opium, which they obtained from India and Turkey, into China. • In 1839 Chinese troops tried to stop the smuggling and war broke out and was fought for three years. • In 1842 British won the Opium War, which led to the Treaty of Nanking which forced China to yield many of its rights to western powers and Hong Kong was given to Great Britain. • Over the next 60 years the unequal treaties increased foreign influence in China and weakened the Qing dynasty. Civil war, such as the Taiping rebellion(1850-1864), also eroded the dynastys power, and in 1890s, European powers as well as Japan claimed large sections as • Spheres of Influence -areas where they had exclusive trading rights
The Trade IssuePrior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreigntraders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than itimported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more fromthe Chinese than they sold to them. **** We do so now, too!In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the firstin a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to makeconcessions to western powers. China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. Reparations now The British gained the island of Hong Kong. China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant Britishcitizens in China extraterritoriality. Rights as if they were exemptfrom local law; like diplomatic immunity.
During late 1800s reformers began the "self- strengthening" movement involved Chinese importing both Western technology and educational methods. It also improve Responses agriculture, strengthen the armed forces, and ended the European practice of extraterritorialityChinese weakness was furthered by modernizing Japan that ended in Chinas defeat and loss of territory. (Sino-Japanese War) Japan gained the island of Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula as well as trading benefits in Chinese territory, and also Korea. Reformers gained influence from Emperor Guang Xu and launched theHundred Days of Reform to modernize the government and encouragednew industries. However his mother, Ci Xi, returned to power, arrested herson, and halted the reform.
Reform EffortsIn the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengtheningmovement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China.The movement made limited progress because the government didnot rally behind it.After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor GuangXu launched the Hundred Days of Reform.Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and theemperor was imprisoned.
Ci Xi struggled to hold power. She agreed to give in to The some of her peoples demands for change. She established school and reorganized the government. Even in these efforts people began to believe in the modern republic.Revolutionaries wanted China to regain its former power Revolution and influence. On of them, a doctor named Sun Yat- sen (Sun Yixian) and others formed the United League. of 1911Their goal was to modernize China on the basis of the "Three Principles of the People“: Nationalism: freedom from Foreign control Democracy: representative government Livelihood: economic well-being for all Chinese controlThe revolutionary cause was strengthened in 1908 when Ci Xi died, and two-year-old Prince Pu Yi became emperor. The Last EmperorRevolution swept China as peasants, soldiers, workers, and court officials turned against the weak dynasty and on January 1912, Sun Yat-sen became the first president of the new Chinese republic.
Fall of the Qing DynastyAs the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China.In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers.Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush ofreforms.Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic.When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos.In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled.Sun Yixian (Yatsen) was named president of the new Chinese republic.Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”:nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.
In response to the European presencein China, nationalist groups emergedand organized in the hopes of removing The Boxerforeign influence from the country. Rebellion, 1899One group named the “HarmoniousFists” (called the “Boxers” byEuropeans) attacked foreignmissionaries, Chinese Christians, andgovernment officials whom they heldresponsible for allowing Europeans todominate China. In mid-1900, close to150,000 Boxers occupied Beijing.An international force composed ofEuropean, American, and Japanesesoldiers occupied Beijing and defeated American, Japanese, andthe Boxers. British troops storming Beijing
The Boxer RebellionSuffering from the effects offloods and famine, poverty,and foreign aggression,Boxers (below) participatedin an anti-foreignmovement. In 1900, some140,000 Boxers attemptedto drive Westerners out ofChina. An internationalforce eventually put downthe uprising.Why were Westerners andWestern influences a sourceof discontent for the Boxers?
The Boxer Protocol• China was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol • Required to pay damages to Europeans • Forced to allow foreign soldiers to live in Beijing Signing of the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901.
Imperialism in China to 1914
Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with theWest? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.
Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with theWest? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West. c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.
Sun Yixian The Qing DynastySun Yixian (1866–1925) was not born topower. His parents were poor farmers. FallsSun’s preparation for leadership camefrom his travels, education, and personalambitions. In his teen years, he lived withhis brother in Hawaii and attended Britishand American schools. Later on, heearned a medical degree.Sun left his career in medicine to struggleagainst the Qing government. After afailed uprising in 1895, he went into exile.Sun visited many nations, seeking supportagainst the Qing dynasty. When revolutionerupted in China, Sun was in Denver,Colorado. He returned to China to beginhis leading role in the new republic.How did Sun’s background prepare him Also known as Sun Yat-sento lead?
The Big 64: Happy Birthday Communist China! The Big 60: 2013
Japanesewomen minglewith Europeansin Yokohama’stradingcompound inthis woodcutprint created bya Japaneseartist in 1861.
The emperor Meiji wrote apoem to provide inspirationfor Japan’s efforts to becomea modern country in the late1800s: “May our country, Taking what is good, and rejecting what is bad, Be not inferior To any other.”
Cooperation: Japan as a World PowerAfter its rapid modernization in the late 1800s, Japan took itsplace among the leading powers of the world. It asserted thatpower throughout the 1900s, with varying results. Today,Japan’s economy is second in size only to that of the UnitedStates. Conduct research on Japan and write a paragraphdescribing its role in international affairs today.
The Meiji Restoration•Tokugawa Shogunateoverthrown by imperialforces.•Emperor Mutsuhitoruled 1867–1912•Modernization of Japanwas swift. Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the The “Opening” of United States sailed to Japan and anchored in Edo Bay near Tokyo. He had instructions Japan from U.S. President Millard Fillmore to openPerry brought many the country to trade with the United Statesgifts, but he alsothreatened tobombard theJapanese if theyrefused to tradewith the U.S. TheJapanese conceded,leading to whatmany called the“opening of Japan.”On March 31, 1854,the U.S. and Japansigned a treaty thatopened two portsto American shipsand proclaimedpeace andfriendship betweenthe two countries Japanese admire gifts brought by U.S. Commodore Perry
– Japan didnt trade until 1853, when four Modernizing American warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into the bay at Japan Edo(present-day Tokyo).He wanted to trade with Japan and so they signed a treaty with Perry in 1854.– Meiji Leaders/Meiji Restoration • First five years after Perry, shogun signed treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States. Unhappiness at the treaties led to the overthrow of the shogun in 1868. A group of Samurai gave its allegiance to the new emperor, Mutsuhito, but kept the real power to themselves. • Mutsuhito was known as the Meiji, or Enlightened emperor, Japans new rulers were called Meiji leaders. They strengthened the military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.– They established a system of universal education designed to produce loyal, skilled citizens who worked for Japans modernization.
Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan. The government responded by trying to revive old ways. The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced unequal treaties on Japan. Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest. Discontented daimyo (landowners) and samurai (warriors) overthrew the shogun and “restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history.
Reforms Under the Meiji The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy. ECONOMIC SOCIAL GOVERNMENT CHANGE REFORMSAdopted the German modelof government Encouraged Japan’s Ended legal distinctionsSet forth the principle that business class to adopt between classesall people were equal under western methods Set up schools and athe law Built factories and sold universityEstablished a western-style them to wealthy businessbureaucracy families, known as Hired westerners to teachUsed western technology to zaibatsu the new generationstrengthen the military modern technologyEnded the special privilegeof samurai under bushido
Japanese ImperialismAs with western industrial powers, Japan’seconomic needs fed its imperialist desires. In 1905, Japan defeated Russia inIn 1894,Japan defeated China in the Russo-Japanese War, gainingthe Sino-Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rightstreaty ports in China and in parts of Manchuria. Russia wascontrol over the island of humiliatedTaiwan. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, absorbing the kingdom into the Japanese empire and ruling it for 35 years.
Japan’s Rising Power• Industrialization –Japan had acquired an efficient government, a vigorous economy, and a –In late 1870s Japan began to strong military. industrialize in an effort to strengthen –People of Korea had revolted against its economy. Chinese rule in 1894. So Japan decided to –Japanese government revised tax intervene and defeated the Chinese army structure to raise money for in the Sino-Japanese war. Although Korea investment. It also developed a became independent, they were partially modern currency system, supported owned by Japan. the building of postal, and telegraph –In 1904 the Japanese navy launched a networks, railroads. and port facilities. surprise attack on Port Arthur, a Russian port. This was a major victory, because so –Beginning in the late 1880s, Japans few expected Japan to win the Russo- economy grew rapidly. Growing Japanese War. population also provided a continual –Japan had victory after victory and supply of cheap labor eventually had Russia sign a treaty in 1905 –By 1914 Japan had become one of that granted control of Korea and other the worlds leading industrial nations, nearby areas. It annexed Korea as a – hungry for empire and eager to colony in 1910 and continued to expand its empire for the next 35 years. use their new military.
Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly?Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity.Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development.The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China.The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.得たい E Tai = one people; community;Everyone dedicated to the same ideals—as in to rebuild after tsunami
In the Japanese woodblock print below, Japanese boats go out to meet one of CommodoreMatthew Perry’s ships in Tokyo Bay. In response to Perry’s expedition, the Japanesestatesman Lord li considered Japan’s strategy toward contact with foreign powers:“There is a saying that when one is besieged in a castle, to raise the drawbridge is toimprison oneself. . . . Even though the Shogun’s ancestors set up seclusion laws, they leftthe Dutch and Chinese to act as a bridge. . . . Might this bridge not now be of advantage tous in handling foreign affairs, . . . providing us with the means whereby we may for a timeavert the outbreak of hostilities and then, after some time has elapsed, gain a completevictory?”
In the image, aJapanesewoman wearsWesternclothing.What role didwesternizationplay in helpingboth Japan andSiam avoidcolonization byEuropeannations?
Japan modernized with amazing speed during the Meiji period. Its success was due to a number of causes. Japan had a strong sense of identity, partly because it had a homogeneous society—that is, its people shared a common culture and language. Economic growth during Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development. Japan also had experience in learning and adapting ideas from foreign nations, such as China.The powerfulbanking andindustrial familieswere knownas zaibatsu provided capital forbusiness start-ups.
Korea in the MiddleImperialist rivalries put the spotlight on Korea. Located at a crossroads of EastAsia, the Korean peninsula was a focus of competition among Russia, China, andJapan. Korea had been a tributary state to China for many years. A tributary stateis a state that is independent but acknowledges the supremacy of a strongerstate. Although influenced by China, Korea had its own traditions andgovernment. Korea had also shut its doors to foreigners. It did, however,maintain relations with China and sometimes with Japan.By the 1800s, Korea faced pressure from outsiders. As Chinese power declined,Russia expanded into East Asia. Then, as Japan industrialized, it too eyed Korea.In 1876, Japan used its superior power to force Korea to open its ports toJapanese trade. Faced with similar demands from Western powers, the “HermitKingdom” had to accept unequal treaties. Japan Rising In this political cartoon, Japan is depicted marching over Korea on its way to Russia. Why would Russia feel threatened by Japan’s aggression in Korea?
The Japanese inKoreaIn thisillustration,Japanesesoldiers marchinto Seoul,Korea’s capitalcity.Japan controlledKorea from 1905until 1945.
There wasno looting,no breaking in lines.Everyone wasvery politeand waitedtheir turnin anorderly manner.This line is forKerosene. 得たい
AssessmentWealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai. d) zaibatsu.Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society. c) a homogeneous society. b) a military society. d) an isolated society.Random Japanese terms: Shogun Daimyo zaibatsu Samurai bushido seppuku/hari kari
AssessmentWealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai. d) zaibatsu.Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society. c) a homogeneous society. b) a military society. d) an isolated society.
Currency from a British colony in Malaya In 1867, Phan Thanh Gian, a Vietnamese official, faced a dilemma. The French were threatening to invade. As a patriot, Phan Thanh Gian wanted to resist. But as a devoted follower of Confucius, he was obliged “to live in obedience to reason.” And based on the power of the French military, he concluded that the only reasonable course was to surrender: “The French have immense warships, filled with soldiers and armed with huge cannons. No one can resist them. They go where theyA European woman beingtransported in a rickshaw want, the strongest *walls+ fall before them.”in French Indochina
• The East Indies and the Philippines are the two distinct geographic areas that France, Spain, Great Britain, United State, and the Netherlands had set Southeast• up colonies in that region. The Islands of Southeast Asia Asia – At the beginning of the 1800s, the Dutch controlled most of the East Indies and Spain controlled the Philippines. – The East Indies, present-day Indonesia, had many natural resources, including rich soil where farmers grew indigo, and tea, coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar; miners dug for tin and copper; loggers cut down ebony, teak, and other hardwood trees. Dutch Government used a method of forced labor called the culture system to gather all these materials. – Diponegoro, a Native prince from the East Indian island of Java, started a revolt against the Dutch in 1825. Though it lasted 10 years, it After the Spanish-American War, failed, and the Dutch encountered little we had promised to grant the opposition for the next 80 years. In the early Philippines their independence, 1900s, Dutch won control of the entire but we did not. Aguinaldo led a archipelago. rebellion against US and was brutally suppressed.
French Indochina “French Indochina” encompassed a number of self- governing regions in Southeast Asia, including modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (labeled as Kampuchea).
Colonization of Southeast AsiaBy the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia.They: introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroadsThese changes benefited Europeans far morethan the people of Southeast Asia.
• In early 1880s, there consisted on a mainland region that included Burma (Myanmar), and Malaya in the west, Vietnam in the east, and Siam, Cambodia, and Laos in the Middle. All though the 1800s, Great Britain Mainland and France struggled for domination of the area• The British swept in from India in the 1820s. Over the Southeast next 60 years, they took full control of Burma and neighboring Malaya. Asia• Slowly, France was conquering Indochina, the region that includes: – Present-day Vietnam – Cambodia – Laos• They established complete control in the 1880s.• European rivalries for control of resources brought much disturbance to mainland Southeast Asia.• Western influences changed traditional ways of life.• Colonial landowners and trading companies forced local farmers and workers to grow cash crops, mine coal, and cut teak trees.
The Monroe Doctrine U.S. and Britain opposed Spain’s plan to regain former colonies Monroe Doctrine-In 1823, James Monroe and John Quincy Adams issued warning to European powers that an attempt to gain land in Latin America would be considered a threat to the United States. The British navy helped to enforce the Doctrine. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: The Western Hemisphere is Ours! Stay Out! Or else!
Senator Albert J. Beveridge• Oct 6, 1862- April 27, 1927• Orator, Senator, and historian• 1898, Gave speech on America’s growing as a world power• “Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world must and shall be ours. We will establish trading-posts throughout the world as distributing-points for American products…Great colonies governing themselves, flying our flag and trading with us, will grow about our posts of trade.”
Writer and political activistConsidered father of modernist poetryWritings sparked Cuban revolution against SpainDied in battle against Spaniards
Remember the Maine!To show support for the Cubans, U.S. President William McKinley sent the battleship the Maine to Havana, the capital of Cuba.The ship exploded in a harbor near Havana.Newspapers blamed Spain for the explosion.The battle cry “Remember the Maine!” swept across the United States.1898, Congress declared war on Spain.The Spanish-American War lasted four months and resulted in an American victory. It was a “Splendid Little War!”
The Spanish-American War 1898 The Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. Spain ruled Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other overseas possessions during the 1890s. In the mid-1890s, Cubans revolted against their Spanish rulers. Many Americans demanded that the United States aid the rebels. On Feb. 15, 1898, the United States battleship Maine blew up off the coast of Havana, Cuba. No one was certain what caused the explosion, but many Americans blamed the Spaniards. Demands for action against Spain grew, and "Remember the Maine" became a nationwide war cry. On April 25, 1898, at the request of President William McKinley, Congress declared war on Spain. The United States quickly defeated Spain, and the Treaty of Paris of Dec. 10, 1898, officially ended the war. Under the treaty, the United States received Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines from Spain. Also in 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.Spanish-American War marked the emergence of the United States as a worldpower. This brief conflict between the United States and Spain took place betweenApril and August 1898, over the issue of the liberation of Cuba. In the course of thewar, the United States won Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands.
The Spanish-American War“A Splendid Little War”“Remember the Maine!” (and to hell with Spain!)
Remember the Maine!Arriving 25 January, Maine anchored in the center of the port, remainedon vigilant watch, allowed no liberty, and took extra precautions againstsabotage. Shortly after 2140, 15 February, the battleship was torn apart bya tremendous explosion that shattered the entire forward part of the ship.Out of 350 officers and men on board that night (4 officers were ashore),252 were dead or missing. Eight more were to die in Havana hospitalsduring the next few days. The survivors of the disaster were taken onboard Ward Line steamer City of Washington and Spanish cruiser AlfonsoXII. The Spanish officials at Havana showed every attention to thesurvivors of the disaster and great respect for those killed. The Court ofInquiry convened in March was unable to obtain evidence associating thedestruction of the battleship with any person or persons. The destructionof Maine did not cause the U.S. to declare war on Spain, but it served as acatalyst, accelerating the approach to a diplomatic impasse. In addition,the sinking and deaths of U.S. sailors rallied American opinion morestrongly behind armed intervention. The United States declared war onSpain 21 April.
Prelude February 15 to 1898 WarYellow Journalism—”You provide the pictures, I’ll supply the war.”
Lieutenant Catlin later testified that heheard the sound like the "crack of apistol and (then) the second (was) aroar that engulfed the ships entireforward section."Indeed the entire forward section ofthe Maine had broken almost entirelyin half.
A Splendid Little War, By Jingo!
• America went to war against Spain to free Cuba from Spanish domination. But the war provided the United States an opportunity to seize overseas possessions and begin Facts / Statistics building an American empire. After ousting Spain from Cuba, Dates: 1898-1901 the United States seized Puerto Rico. And subsequently it annexed the Philippines, Samoa, Guam, and Wake Island, Troops: 306,760 followed by Hawaii. Deaths: 2,446• . A New Navy, A New War After the Civil War, the United States neglected its navy, which ranked twelfth in the world by 1880. Although the United States had no overseas colonies to protect, business and government leaders realized that a strong navy was essential to defend trade and growing international interests. Beginning in 1881, Congress supported a modernization program that would make the American navy effective. The new ships would have steel hulls, steam engines, and large, rifled guns. At first, the ships still used sails as a backup to steam power. But by the 1890s, the U.S. Navy had converted to all-steel and -steam, and ranked among the top five navies in the world. Naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan stated, “Americans must now begin to look outward. The growing production of the country demands it . . . .” This Means War! On February 15, 1898, a mysterious explosion sank the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor, triggering a war between the United States and Spain. The Maine had come to Cuba to protect American citizens while Cuban revolutionaries were fighting to win independence from Spain. The United States supported their cause, and after the Maine exploded, demanded that Spain give Cuba freedom. Instead, Spain declared war, and America quickly followed suit, moving Commodore George Dewey into position in the Philippines and Commodore Winfield Scott Schley into Santiago Bay. War fever was fanned by the press, particularly publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Although the United States claimed it had no designs on Cuba, many believed the war would be an opportunity to seize other overseas possessions and begin building an American empire. Newspapers printed maps to help Americans follow the war. The United States now entered an era of overseas expansion
Admiral George Dewey• In 1900 much of America was caught up in what might be termed Dewey Delirium. For the first time since the Civil War, Americans had set their sights upon a war hero whose allegiance was to the entire nation, not just the North or South. George Dewey, a commodore at the time, slipped into Manila Bay in the Philippines on the night of April 30, 1898 and quietly plotted to destroy the once-formidable Spanish Pacific fleet. Just 4 days earlier, the US had declared war on Spain in response to events in Cuba. Caught unawares, the Spanish fleet in Manila was destroyed a mere two hours after Dewey issued his famous order, "You may fire when ready, Gridley." Millions were on hand in New York harbor to greet Dewey upon his triumphant return to the States. Congress bestowed upon him the special rank of admiral of the navy. Other honors followed, including the naming of a chewing gum, Deweys Chewies, after him. He also enjoyed the dubious distinction of providing the inspiration for a laxative: The Salt of Salts. Such adulation prompted Dewey to consider politics. Though he lacked any party affiliation and had never himself voted, in March 1900 Dewey let it be known that he was making himself available to the American people as a presidential candidate. "If the American people want me for this high office, I shall be only too willing to serve them," he declared. He went on to point out that "since studying this subject I am convinced that the office of the President is not such a very difficult one to fill..." The Admirals lack of command of the issues of the day caused few to take him seriously. One reporter wrote, "A great sailor should have a better chart in a strange sea." Failing to secure any serious backing for his presidential bid, Dewey served out his days as the head of the General Board of the Navy Department.
"Gridley, you may fire when ready".
Where is the Olympia berthed?
The USS Olympia - a battle cruiser - and theUSS Becuna - a submarine - atIndependence Seaport Museum, PennsLanding.
The United States Expands its Empire
Treaty of Paris 1899• After heated debate, United States Congress approved the Treaty of Paris on February 6, 1899, by a two-thirds margin (57 to 27). The following day, President McKinley signed the treaty, and the United States officially controlled Spains former colonies—Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. With the Treaty of Paris, the United States emerged as an imperial power.• Under the treatys terms, the U.S. gained possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and for $20 million, the Philippines. As for Cuba, the U.S. could neither keep it without reneging on the Teller Amendment, nor release the island without abandoning it to the revolutionary aims of the Cuban insurgency.
Great White Fleet - Teddy Roosevelt sent the sixteen new battleships of the Atlantic Fleet on a voyage around the world in 1907. These ships were painted white with added gold detailing. Postcards were made depicting the individual ships, their welcoming at foreign and domestic ports, and other events the fleet took part in around the world. Other countries also published cards of the fleet’s visit to their ports, most notably in Japan.
This is how we become both Momma and Cop to the World
In 1854,Commodore Perry establishes Open Door policy with the Far East. In 1900, with the backing of the Great White Fleet, TR convinces them to agree to trade deals with relative ease.TR sends Taft and Alice on atrade/visit to Japan. Thesecret deal was that we wouldlook the other way if Japanexpanded its sphere ofinfluence in the East. Bottomline, we sold out Korea.The Japanese virtually rapethe country, north and south. Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Alice Roosevelt (TR’s daughter) on a goodwill mission to Japan and the Philippines in 1905.
Territorial GainsDuring late 1800’s and early 1900’s ,U.S. made many territorial gains.1867- purchased Alaska from Russia 1898- annexed HawaiiGained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico in victory in Spanish-American War.1917- US purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark
Roosevelt developed plan to obtain the isthmus. A man, a plan,American agents encouraged the people of Panama to rebel against a canal, Columbia.The U.S. Navy helped the rebels. Panama!The new Republic of Panama signed the land over to the United States.
U.S. wanted quick access Isthmus of Panama across the Isthmus of Panama for trade and military reasons. A man, a plan, a canal, PanamaIsthmus of Panama connects Central and South AmericaSeparates Atlantic and Pacific OceansColumbia had rights to the isthmus.Pres. Theodore Roosevelt tried to sign treaty with them to gain the land, but Columbia refused.And so….
TR cartoon by Berryman “The news reaches Bogota”The Panama Canal One of Roosevelts proudest accomplishments--and most controversial--was acquiring U.S. rights to building and operating a canal in Panama. This cartoon shows him throwing dirt on the Colombian capital. (Cartoon by W. A. Rogers)
Panama CanalThe Construction of the Panama Canal lasted 10 year between 1904- 1914.Involved more than 40,000 workers.Many died of malaria and yellow fever. A sanitation program contained the mosquitoes.The canal was hailed as one of the greatest engineering feats .It was an engineering marvel; it was built on time,and it came in under budget.
Walter ReedWalter Reed, an American medical doctor had received his medical degree by the time he was 18years old. He joined the Army and became a captain. For 16 years he had served in an outpost thatwas far away from other doctors. He wanted to be able to study and learn more about medicine, so heasked for a four month leave. He learned so well that they allowed him to study for seven months atJohns Hopkins Hospital.He continued to study and do experiments at the Army outpost. He and some other doctors studiedtyphoid fever * and discovered that it was carried by flies.Yellow fever * was a dreaded disease. 90,000 people in the United States had died of the disease.Many American soldiers in Cuba had died also. Reed noticed that people who cared for the patientswith yellow fever didnt usually get the disease. So he concluded that people didnt catch it from eachother.Reed began looking for answers. He remembered the research they had done on typhoid fever. Hewondered if maybe mosquitoes might be spreading it. Some of the doctors and soldiers volunteeredto take part in the experiment.The mosquitoes were put in test tubes. First they bit the arms of men who already had yellow fever.Then they were allowed to bite the arms of people who didnt have the disease. After many tests,they decided that the mosquito did carry the disease from one person to another.The next step was to get rid of the mosquitoes. They sprayed the areas of water where themosquitoes were hatching, with chemicals. This stopped the spread of the disease.
The Influence of the United States 4In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that theAmerican continents were no longer open to colonization by any Europeanpowers.In 1904, the United States issued the RooseveltCorollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under thispolicy, the United States claimed“international police power” in theWestern Hemisphere. In the next decade, the United States frequently intervenedmilitarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives andinvestments.In 1903, the United States backed the Panamaniansin a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land tobuild the Panama Canal.“A man, a plan, a canal, Panama” To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of “Yankee Imperialism.”
Benito Juárez isthe central figureof this detail fromMexican artistDiego Rivera’smural SundayAfternoon inAlameda Park.Sugar cane, aLatin American cash crop
Mexican President Remember the Alamo!Antonio López deSanta Anna(above) is well-known for hisruthless decisionto give no quarterto the Texandefenders of theAlamo, a fort inSan Antonio, Texas,during the TexasRevolution.The illustration shows Texandefenders of the Alamo bravelyfighting against overwhelmingodds.In what light does thisillustration present thedefenders of the Alamo?
Uncle Sam Takes OffThis cartoon representsthe entry of the UnitedStates into competitionwith European powersover new territory in theEastern Hemisphere inthe early 1900s.Uncle Sam representsthe United States.The horse wears asaddle that reads“Monroe Doctrine.”European powers watchin frustration.What do the wheels onUncle Sam’s bicyclerepresent?Why are the Europeanpowers shouting atUncle Sam?
Latin American ConcernsThe canal gave the U.S. great access to Latin America.The Roosevelt Corollary was added to the Monroe Doctrine.This said U.S. would intervene to make Latin American countries honor foreign debtsMany Latin Americans looked at the United State’s interventions as steps to turn Latin American countries into colonies.
RevolutionMany Mexicans unhappy with dictator-like rule of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna1835- Mexicans and Americans in Texas revolt1845- Texas becomes a state of the United StatesThis sparks Mexican War which United States winsU.S. gains much Mexican land through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
La Reforma and French ConflictLa Reforma was a Mexican period of changeBenito Juarez was elected president in 1855He reduced power of the military, separated the church and state, and improved the lot of impoverished farmers1863-French troops came to collect money owed to France1864-Austrian Archduke Maximilian named emperor of Mexico1867-French troops withdrew under American pressure and Juarez returned to powerJuarez died mysteriously and Porfirio Diaz seized power, who limited individual rights, but the economy grew.
Mexican Revolution• 1910-1920: many Mexicans fought authorities, and many immigrated to U.S.• Armies were made up of farmers, workers, ranchers, and soldaderas (women soldiers)
Power Struggles• Revolution started in 1910 when Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz in 1910• Madero killed by one of his followers, Victoriano Huerta• Huerta overthrown by Mexican revolts• Three revolutionary leaders emerged:• Emiliano Zapata,• Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and• Venustiano Carranza
Where’s Pancho?Villa was unhappy with the result, crosses the border of New Mexico, and kills 18 Americans.Pres. Woodrow Wilson sent American troops to Mexico to capture Villa.The troops were withdrawn because of the start of World War I in 1917
Villa looked for the recognition of the United States, for his government, and as he did not obtain it, he visited the border population of Columbus, where he takes weapons. North American General Pershing entered Mexican territory, persecuting it, without never reaching it. Carranza was killed in a revolt in 1917-1920. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 12,000 troops, under Gen. John J. Pershing into Mexico on March 15 to pursue Villa. In the U.S., this was known as the Pancho Villa Expedition During the search, the United States launched its first air combat mission when eight airplanes lifted off on March 19. The expedition to capture Villa was called off as a failure onGeneral January 28, 1917.Pancho Modern historians debate whether Villa was involved with the Germans and how much aid and information passed through Villa them. Some contend that the Germans encouraged Villas actions against U.S. interests and incursions into Texas and New Mexico in order to create instability on the southern border of a power Quote: they definitely did not want interfering in World War I. Other "Dont let it actions by the Germans such as the Zimmermann Telegram end like this. correspond with Germanys wish to destabilize the United States. Tell them I The extent of Villas role as an abettor of German interests and said receiver of German aid is still very much in question, but the idea something." would not seem to be in contradiction with his opportunistic (Last words.) tendencies.
Protecting U.S. Interests• In the late 1800s and early 1900s the United States policy in Latin America was based on protecting U.S. interests and keeping European countries out of the area. The United States used military occupation and other tactics to ensure dominance in this region.• In 1916 and 1917, General “Black Jack” Pershing led an unsuccessful expedition with over 10,000 men into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa. In other incidents, the U.S. bombarded or occupied Latin American locations.
J. J. Pershing“Black Jack” Pershing had spent years looking for Pancho Villa with his Buffalo soldiers, but he gets to be the leader of the AEF— American Expeditionary Forces—our army in Europe during WWI.He is the Supreme Commander for all of our forces—highest honor and only Washington held this rank before him.
And the Winner is…..Zapata used battle cry, “Tierra y Liberdad” meaning “Land and Liberty”He fought for the impoverished farmers.Villa proposed radical reforms.Carranza was more conservative and in1915- with the help of American support,Carranza became president.
Carranza’s Rule• Carranza reluctantly introduced a liberal constitution• He was slow in carrying out reforms• Force was used to fight opposition• 1920- Carranza was killed in a revolt• Revolt brought Alvaro Obregon to power• Tensions cooled between Mexico and the United States until…
The Zimmerman Telegram • The German ambassador Zimmerman telegraphs the Mexican ambassador with a proposition. The British intercept it and decode it for US. • The Kaiser is offering Mexico choice parts of the US (CA, TX, NM) if they attack US and keep US off balance during The Great War. • This angers US so much that we will join the Allies against Germany.