During the 1500s and 1600s many European thinkers began relying on their own reasoningrather than on traditional beliefs. They developed the scientific method, establishing factsthrough observation and experimentation. This development, and the development of newinstruments, resulted in an explosion of knowledge known as the scientific revolution. Theuniverse was now thought to work according to definite laws, which encouraged people tobelieve that they could discover the natural laws governing human behavior. Understandingthose laws could improve society. The philosopher John Locke concluded that governmentsauthority rested on popular consent and that the people had a right to overthrow an unjustgovernment. The 1700s were known as the Age of Enlightenment, when it was believed thatthe light of reason would free all people from the darkness of ignorance and superstition.
1 Progress and ReasonScientific progress convinced Europeans of the power of humanreason.If people used reason to find laws that governed the physicalworld, why not use reason to discover natural laws, or lawsthat governed human nature?Thus, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution inthinking, which came to be known as the Enlightenment.Through the use of reason, people and governments couldsolve social, political, and economic problems.
Some random terms• Scientific Revolution--Time period in Europe from 1500-1700 in which many advances in technology and science were made• Scientific Method--The process used to answer a question by proposing a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, and concluding results• Deism--A belief in God only based on factual evidence and the nature of reason
Scientific Method • Nomenclature—Lab Report— 1. Domain1. Hypothesis 2. Kingdom2. Apparatus 3. Phylum3. Procedure 4. Class4. Observations/Data 5. Order5. Conclusion 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species
Nicholas Copernicus • Pol. Mikotaj Kopérnik, 1473–1543, Polish astronomer. After studying astronomy at the Univ. of Kraków, he spent a number of years in Italy studying various subjects, including medicine and canon law. He lectured c.1500 in Rome on mathematics and astronomy; in 1512 he settled in Frauenburg, East Prussia, where he had been nominated canon of the cathedral. There he performed his canonical duties, practiced medicine, was a legal officer, and wrote a pioneering treatise on currency reform. But the work that immortalized him is De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, in which he set forth his beliefs concerning the universe, known as the Copernican system.• The Copernican system, the first modern European theory of planetary motion that was heliocentric, i.e., that placed the sun motionless at the center of the solar system with all the planets, including the earth, revolving around it.• That treatise, which was dedicated to Pope Paul III, was probably completed by 1530 but was not published until 1543, when Copernicus was on his deathbed. Modern astronomy was built upon the foundation of the Copernican system.
Tycho Brahe • Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (de Knudstrup) (14 December 1546 – 24 October 1601), was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. Coming from Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden, Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist.• As an astronomer, Tycho worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tychonic system.• Tycho is credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time, and the data was used by his assistant Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. No one before Tycho had attempted to make so many planetary observations.
• While a student, Tycho lost part of his nose in a duel with a fellow Danish nobleman. This occurred in the Christmas season of 1566, after a fair amount of drinking, while Tycho, just turned 20 years old, was studying at the University of Rostock in Germany. Attending a dance at a professors house, he quarreled over a heated game of paisley ale. A subsequent duel (in the dark) resulted in Tycho losing the bridge of his nose. From this event Tycho became interested in medicine and alchemy.• For the rest of his life, he was said to have worn a realistic replacement made of silver and gold, using a paste to keep it attached. Some people believed that it was made of copper.• He also had a tame moose (elk) that got drunk, fell down the stairs, and died.• Tychos observations of stellar and planetary positions were noteworthy both for their accuracy and quantity, but he would not adopt the heliocentric model of the universe.
Johannes Kepler• Johannes Kepler --December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome The student of Copernican Astrononomy. They also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newtons theory Surpasses his of universal gravitation. Teacher!• He was an apprentice to Tycho Brahe for several years, but left because Tycho would not share well.
Galileo Galilei • • Galileo was a practicing Catholic, yet his writings on CopernicanGalileo Galilei of Pisa was a Tuscan astronomer, • heliocentrism disturbed somephilosopher, and physicist who is closely • in the Catholic Church whoassociated with the scientific revolution. Hisachievements include improving the telescope, a • believed in a geocentric modelvariety of astronomical observations, the first law • of the solar system. They argued thatof motion, and supporting Copernicanism heliocentrism was in direct contradiction of theeffectively. He has been referred to as the "father Bible, at least as interpreted by the church fathers,of modern astronomy" as the "father of modern and the highly revered ancient writings of Aristotlephysics," and as "father of science." His and Plato (especially among the Dominican order,experimental work is widely considered facilitators of the Inquisition).complementary to the writings of Francis Bacon in • In 1633, the Inquisition held the final hearing onestablishing the modern scientific method. Galileo’s supposed heresies –heliocentric universe-Galileos career coincided with that of Johannes -, he was then 69 years old and pleaded for mercy,Kepler. The work of Galileo is considered to be a pointing to his "regrettable state of physicalsignificant break from that of Aristotle. In addition, unwellness“. Threatening him with torture,his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church is imprisonment, and death on the stake, the trialtaken as a major early example of the conflict of forced Galileo to "abjure, curse and detest" hisauthority and freedom of thought, particularly work and to promise to denounce others whowith science, in Western society. held his prior viewpoint. Galileo did everything the church requested him to do, which was toIn 1992, 359 years after the Galileo trial, publish a recantation of his theories. He was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment,Pope John Paul II issued an apology, lifting but kept under house arrest.the edict of Inquisition against Galileo.
Sir Francis Bacon• Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. Although his political career ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific revolution. Indeed, his dedication may have brought him into a rare historical group of scientists who were killed by their own experiments.• His works established and popularized an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method or simply, the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.• He wrote magnificent (and short!) essays like “Of Studies” and debated things like how many angels could stand on the head of a pin while in coffeehouses with his pals.
“Of Studies” by Francis Bacon• “STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business…• “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. “
Sir Isaac Newton• Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher alchemist, and theologian who is perceived and considered by a substantial number of scholars and the general public as one of the most influential men in history. His 1687 publication of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (usually called the Principia)is considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Keplers laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.
“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.”• In mathematics, Newton shares the credit for the development of the differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newtons method" for • From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on approximating the zeroes of a function, optics. During this period he and contributed to the study of power investigated the refraction of light, series. demonstrating that a prism could• Newton remains influential to scientists, as decompose white light into a spectrum demonstrated by a 2005 survey of of colors, and that a lens and a second scientists and the general public in Britains prism could recompose the Royal Society asking who had the greater multicolored spectrum into white light. effect on the history of science, Newton or From this work he concluded that the Albert Einstein. Newton was deemed to lens of any refracting telescope would have made the greater overall contribution suffer from the dispersion of light into to science. colors (chromatic aberration), and as a proof of the concept he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. Actually building the design, the first known functional reflecting telescope, today known as a Newtonian telescope.
Rene Descartes • Rene Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes influence in “Cogito mathematics is also apparent, the Cartesian coordinate system allowing geometric shapes to be expressed inergo sum.” algebraic equations being named for him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. • He also invented the notation which uses superscripts to show the powers or exponents, for example the 2 used in x2 to indicate squaring. • “I think, therefore, I am”=“Cogito ergo sum.”
• William Harvey was an English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. William Harvey
Robert Hooke He looked at cork Cells.• Robert Hooke, was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work.• Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity (Hookes Law) and for his work as "the father of microscopy" — it was Hooke who coined the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life.
Robert Boyle• Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose experiments/observations of chemical elements and reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy; discovered Boyles Law-volume and pressure are inversely proportional to one another at the same temperature. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry.
• Joseph Priestley was an 18th- century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited as the English chemist who isolated gases and discovered oxygen, although and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery. He consistently tried to fuse Enlightenment rationalism with Christian Joseph theism. Priestley
Antoine and Marie Lavoisier French chemist and his wife who named elements and discovered the law of the conservation of mass. A pioneer of stoichiometry--the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in a His wife took notes and drew lovely balanced chemical reaction graphs/sketches and made (chemicals). It can be used to translations of their experiments calculate quantities such as the amount of products that can be produced with the given reactants and percent yield.Balanced equation: Na + Cl = NaCl
• Creation of an international scientific community; scholars could engage in discourse about theories and ideas, thus expanding knowledge
1 Political Thinkers of the Enlightenment THOMAS JOHN BARON de HOBBES LOCKE MONTESQUIEUPeople are naturally People are basically The separation ofcruel, greedy, and selfish. reasonable and moral. powers is the best way to protect liberty.People entered into a People have certainsocial contract, in order natural rights. Each branch ofto live in an organized government should A government has a duty serve as a check onsociety. to the people it governs. the others.Only an absolute If a government fails, themonarchy can ensure an people have the right toorderly society. overthrow it.
Voltaire• François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, and philosopher known for his wit and his defense of civil liberties, including both freedom of religion and free trade.• Voltaire was a prolific satirical writer and produced works in almost every literary form including plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works, more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.• Candide is characterized by its sarcastic tone and its erratic, fantastical, and fast-moving plot. A picaresque novel that parodies many adventure and romance clichés, the struggles of which are caricatured in a tone that is mordantly matter-of- fact. Still, the events discussed are often based on Voltaire is known to have used historical happenings, such as the Seven Years War. at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime of• “All is for the best in the best of all writing. possible worlds".
1 New Economic ThinkingThinkers called physiocrats focused on economic reforms. Like thephilosophes, physiocrats looked for natural laws to define a rationaleconomic system.Physiocrats rejected mercantilism in favor of a policy called laissezfaire. Laissez faire means allowing businesses to run with little or nogovernment interference.In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that the free marketshould be allowed to regulate business activity. Smith supportedlaissez faire, but also believed that a government had a duty toprotect society, administer justice, and provide public works.
2 The Roles of Censorship and SalonsGovernment and church officials tried to protect theold order. To defend against the attacks of theEnlightenment, they used censorship, the restrictingof access to ideas and information. They banned andburned books and imprisoned writers.Salons were informal social gatherings where writers,artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas. TheFrench were into the salons, but theEnglish were into coffeehouses.
2 Enlightenment Ideas Spread• What roles did censorship and salons play in the spread of new ideas?• How did philosophes influence enlightened despots?• How did the Enlightenment affect arts and literature?• Why were the lives of the majority unaffected?
Denis Diderot• Diderot is best remembered as the general editor of the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) and as one of its main contributors. The project absorbed most of his energies from 1750 to 1772.• Conceived initially as a translation of the Chambers Cyclopaedia, the Encyclopedia developed into an overview of world knowledge and was intended to illustrate its inherent harmony and order. In Diderots hands the work became an organ of radical and anti-reactionary propaganda; hence publication was from time to time impeded by the French authorities—government & Church • Diderot was a polymath very familiar with the scientific trends of his day. • Diderot thought man was generally susceptible to modification by environmental influences. He ascribed most of the evil he saw around him to the baleful influence of European (especially French) society. • He hangs out with Madame de Pompadour in her Salons.
1 The Philosophes and Society Thinkers called philosophes believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. MARY VOLTAIRE ROUSSEAU WOLLSTONECRAFTDefended the principle of Believed that people were basically good. Argued that a woman shouldfreedom of speech. be able to decide what is in Argued that government her own interest and shouldUsed wit to expose abuses controls should be minimal and not be completelyand corruption. should only be imposed by a dependent on her husband.Opposed the slave trade and freely elected government. Called for equal educationreligious prejudice. Felt the good of the community for girls and boys. should be placed above individual interests.
2 Literature and the ArtsIn the 1600s and 1700s, the arts evolved to meet changing tastes. LITERATURE COURTLY ART Literature developed new forms and a Artists and designers developed wide new audience. the Rococo style, which was personal, elegant, and charming. Middle class readers enjoyed stories about their own times. Great numbers of novels were written. MUSIC New kinds of musical entertainment evolved, such as ballets and operas. Music followed ordered, structured forms. Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were brilliant and influential composers of this time.
Enlightened Despots Enlightened despots were absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. FREDERICK THE CATHERINE THE JOSEPH II GREAT of Prussia GREAT of Russia of AustriaExerted tight control over Was interested in Most radical of enlightened despots. (Maria Theresa’s son!)subjects, but saw himself Enlightenment ideas butas a “servant of the state.” intended to give up no power. Granted toleration to Protestants and Jews. Made some limited reforms inTolerated religious law and government. Ended censorship and trieddifferences. to control the Catholic Granted nobles a charter of Church. limited rights.Distributed seeds and Sold church property totools to peasants. Criticized the institution of build hospitals. serfdom, but did not abolish it. Abolished serfdom.
As Minister Plenipotentiary to France, it was Ben whoconvinced the French to become our ally. He appearedto be a rustic rube, but really was a sly fox. He was verypopular in France for his scientific achievements, buthe was popular everywhere with the ladies!
Some more random terms• Pacifism--the doctrine that all violence is unjustifiable like the Quakers, the Amish…• Classicism--The principles or styles characteristic of the literature and art of ancient Greece and Rome• Romanticism--a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature and emotion rather than civilization• Metaphysics-- the principles of philosophy as applied to explain the methods of any particular science
John Wesley• John Wesley (28 June 1703 – 2 March 1791) was an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian.• Wesley is largely credited, along with his brother Charles Wesley, with founding the Methodist movement which began when he took to open-air preaching in a similar manner to George Whitefield.• In contrast to George Whitefields Calvinism . Methodism was a highly successful evangelical movement in the United Kingdom, which encouraged people to experience Christ personally.• It also was against slavery.• He wrote some really neat hymns, too.
• Immanuel Kant was an 18th-century German philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg, Russia). Kant was the last influential philosopher of modern Europe in the classic sequence of the theory of knowledge during the Enlightenment beginning with thinkers John Locke, David Hume, etc.Kant created a new widespread perspective in philosophy which influenced philosophy throughto the 21st Century. He published important works on epistemology, as well as works relevant toreligion, law, and history. One of his most prominent works is the Critique of Pure Reason, aninvestigation into the limitations and structure of reason itself. It encompasses an attack ontraditional metaphysics and epistemology, and highlights Kants own contribution to these areas.The other main works of his maturity are the Critique of Practical Reason, which concentrates onethics, and the Critique of Judgment, which investigates aesthetics and teleology.• Kant is best known for his transcendental idealist philosophy that time and space are not materially real but merely the ideal a priori condition of our internal intuition. Also, he made an important astronomical discovery, namely the discovery of the retardation of the rotation of the Earth, for which he won the Berlin Academy Prize in 1754. Even more importantly, from this Kant concluded that time is not a thing in itself determined from experience, objects, motion, and change, but rather an unavoidable framework of the human mind that preconditions possible experience.
Kant’s philosophy:• “Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.”• He argues that the immaturity is self-inflicted not from a lack of understanding, but from the lack of courage to use one’s reason, intellect, and wisdom without the guidance of another.• Our fear of thinking for ourselves.• He exclaims that the motto of enlightenment is “Sapere aude”! – Dare to be wise!
2 The Lives of PeasantsPeasant life varied across Europe. Peasant culture, basedon centuries-old traditions, changed slowly.In Western Europe, serfdom had largely disappeared.Peasants worked their own plots of land, were tenants oflarge landowners, or worked as day laborers, but had littlefuture and were not very socially mobile.America will look better and better to them!In central and Eastern Europe, serfdom remained firmlyrooted. Peasants owed labor services to their lords andcould be bought and sold with the land.
3Why Did Britain Rise to Global Power in the 1700s? Location placed England in a position to control trade during the Renaissance. In the 1700s, Britain was usually on the winning side in European conflicts. England had developed a powerful navy, which could protect its growing empire and trade. England offered a more favorable climate to business and commerce than did its European rivals. The union of England and Scotland brought economic advantages to both lands.
Growth of Constitutional 3 GovernmentIn the century following the Glorious Revolution, threenew political institutions arose in Britain:1. Political parties emerged in England in the late 1600s. The first politicalparties, the Tories and the Whigs, represented small exclusive groups ofwealthy men.2. The cabinet system was a group of advisers to the prime minister. Theywere called the cabinet because they met in a small room.3. The Prime Minister was the leader of the majority party in Parliamentand in time the chief official of the British government.The appearance of these institutions was part of the evolution of Britain’sconstitutional government, that is a government whose power is definedand limited by law.
King George III, 3 House of HanoverGeorge III came to power anxious to reassert royal power. Hewanted to end Whig domination, choose his own ministers,dissolve the cabinet system, and make Parliament follow his will.Toward these ends, he:• Gave parliamentary seats to his friends and supporters. (Lords Gresham and North)• Tried to force English colonists in North America to pay the costsof their own defense. (Raised taxes)In 1775, George’s policies in North America triggered theAmerican Revolution, which ended in a loss for Britain.
French and Indian Warpropaganda Abigail Adams John Adams Lord North General La Fayette RevolutionaryProclamation of 1763 Durham boats General CornwallisSugar Act/Stamp Act Samuel Adams LexingtonNavigation Acts Phillis Wheatley ConcordEmbargo/nonimportation John Hancock GermantownTownshend Duties Ben Franklin SaratogaQuartering Act Paul Revere YorktownBoycott George Washington Marblehead, MAEffigy Thomas Jefferson Bunker Hill/Breed’s HillBoston Massacre Patrick Henry BostonSons of Liberty Crispus Attucks MonmouthCommittees of Correspondence Thomas Paine PhiladelphiaTax/duty Peter Salem Treaty of ParisTea Act John Locke Valley ForgeIntolerable Acts Nathan Hale TrentonBoston Tea Party Natural rights“Gentleman” Johnny Burgoyne Emmanuel LeutzePopular sovereignty George Rogers ClarkSocial contract Francis Marion/The Swamp Foxpatriots/minutemen/militia Gen. GageTories/Loyalists General HoweRedcoats/Lobsterbacks Ethan AllenGuerilla warfare Benedict Arnold/Major Andre1st Continental Congress George IIIHessians/mercenaries Molly Pitcher2nd Continental Congress Deborah Sampson GannetCommon Sense/The Crisis Admiral de GrasseOlive Branch Elizabeth Freeman/Mum BettDeclaration of Independence Baron von SteubenRevolutionary War Gen. PulaskiAmerican Revolution T. KosciuskoMorgan’s Rifles William Dawes
4 The 13 ColoniesBy the mid 1700s, the colonies were home to diversereligious and ethnic groups. The colonists felt entitled to therights of English citizens, and their colonial assembliesexercised much control over local affairs.Although the ways of life between the colonists of NewEngland and those in the south differed, the colonists sharedcommon values, respect for individual enterprise, and anincreasing sense of their own identity separate from that ofBritain.
4 Growing Discontent After 1763, relations between Britain and the 13 colonies grew strained.George III wanted the colonists to help pay for theSeven Years’ War and troops still stationed along thefrontier.“No taxation without representation.” The colonists protested thatsince they had no representation in Parliament, the British had noright to tax them.British troops fired on a crowd of colonists in the “Boston Massacre.”Colonists protested by dumping British tea into Boston Harbor in the Boston TeaParty.Representatives from each colony met in a Continental CongressIn Philadelphia. War broke out between Britain and the colonists.The Second Continental Congress declared independence from Britain and issuedthe Declaration of Independence.
EnlightenmentHobbes Social contract— FederalismLocke Government for people – Am. Revolution Natural rights- life, liberty, property — Declaration of IndependenceVoltaire Tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and speech – Bill of RightsMontesquieu Separation of Powers --ConstitutionRousseau Religious Freedom -- Bill of Rights
4 A New ConstitutionThe new constitution reflected the Enlightenment ideas of Locke,Montesquieu, and Rousseau. • The framers of the Constitution saw government in terms of a social contract. They provided for an elective legislature and an elected president. • The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal government and the states. • The federal government was separated among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Each branch was provided with checks and balances on the other branches. • The Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, recognized that people had basic rights that the government must protect.