Xenophobia—the fear/distrust of any one who is foreign or strangers. Ethnocentricity—the firm belief that your society is the center of the universe, the best, and , therefore, that everyone else is not as good.
English Settlements England was already in America as early as 1475, by some speculations, fishing on the coasts of Newfoundland. They continued their quiet enterprise in the New World throughout the 1500's, fishing along the North American coast between France's fur trade to the north and Spain's mineral exportation to the south. The English began trade with the Indians for pelts and furs, and also began to raid villages and take slaves. They also made good money raiding Spanish treasure ships. Interest in America increased during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I; it was seen as a way to compete with Spain and an untapped source for raw materials, gold, and more lucrative trade routes, such as the elusive Northwest Passage. Many English fishermen spent time re-supplying or even passing the winter on the North American shore. However, it wasn't until 1587 that a permanent colony was proposed. By the late 16th century, Europe, and particularly England, by this time was becoming increasingly imperial. War-torn lands brought about a population shift of people into the urban areas; the population of London at this time tripled. This created not only an increase desire for land, but also a more stratified society with a growing middle class. It was this English middle class that would come to America, looking to make money and to own land.
Roanoke & CroatoanEnglish Settlement at Roanoke 1584-1590 Sketch of Roanoke
'Lost Colony' Just after the colonists left, supply ships from Raleigh and then the long-awaited Grenville arrived, now too late. Grenville left fifteen soldiers to watch over the abandoned colony. These fifteen soldiers would never be seen again. 1587 (July)--Roanoke 2: The Lost Colony. Raleigh once again organized an expedition to colonize America, two years after his first failure. This time he recruited 150 people, including women and families, and notably experienced farmers and less soldiers. However, they came just as ill-equipped and just as hostile toward the native populations. Although the second expedition had planned to settle farther in the bay, they ended up settling at the original site of the first colony. The fifteen soldiers that had been left there were not to be found; one body was recovered, but no sign of the others was ever discovered.
PowhatanEnglish Settlement at Jamestown 1607-1620 1607 (May 14)--England in Virginia. After the disastrous first colony at Roanoke, the English once again came to the Chesapeake area in May 1607. An English businessman recruited 120 men who wanted to go to America, and they sailed on three ships for the New World under Captain John Smith.
Captain John Smith Virginians know that Captain John Smith was one of the first American heroes. But because he was a proud and boastful man, it is difficult to know which parts of his life are fact and which are fiction. What many people may not know is that Smith's adventures started even before Jamestown. Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. He began his travels by joining volunteers in France who were fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, he set off for the Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship. In 1600 he joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks in the "Long War." A valiant soldier, he was promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary. He was fighting in Transylvania two years later in 1602. There he was wounded in battle, captured, and sold as a slave to a Turk. This Turk then sent Smith as a gift to his sweetheart in Istanbul. According to Smith, this girl fell in love with him and sent him to her brother to get training for Turkish imperial service. Smith reportedly escaped by murdering the brother and returned to Transylvania by fleeing through Russia and Poland. After being released from service and receiving a large reward, he traveled all through Europe and Northern Africa. He returned to England in the winter of 1604-05.
Pocahontas Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas - a nickname which means "my favorite daughter, or mischievous one" and not her real name (her real name was Matoaka, or little down feather from the Canada geese that winter on the Chesapeake) - told the leader of the colony, John Smith, of her father's agenda; history would remember her as "saving" the colonists from a trap. The story of Pocahontas saving John Smith may possibly be legend; however, legend follows history in the next saga. After negotiations were broken off, Pocahontas was taken prisoner by the colonists as a bargaining chip for the return of white prisoners Chief Powhatan had. Later, she married John Rolfe, a white settler and established a peace between the Powhatan and the Virginia settlers.
Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (1580 – 1638was the Director General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633. He is most famous for the purchase of the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans (Algonkins), on May 24, 1626. However, it is little noted that Minuit purchased the island not from its owners, but from a tribe in the Bronx who had no claim on the island. Minuit was appointed the third director general of New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company in December 1625 and arrived in the colony on May 4, 1626. On May 24 of the same year he is credited with the purchase of the island from the natives -- perhaps from a Metoac tribe known as the Canarsee -- in exchange for trade goods valued at 60 guilders. This figure is known from a letter by Peter Schagen to the board of the Dutch West India Company: a traditional conversion to US$ 24 using 19th century exchange rates is not particularly meaningful. The trade goods are sometimes identified as beads and trinkets, but that may also have been an embellishment by 19th century writers. A contemporary purchase of rights in Staten Island, New York to which Minuit was also party involved duffel cloth, iron kettles and axe heads, hoes, wampum, drilling awls, "Jew's Harps," and "diverse other wares".
Peter Stuyvesant PETER STUYVESANT(1610?-1672), was the last Dutch governor of New Netherland. This area included land in present-day New York and several nearby states. Around 1632, Stuyvesant entered the service of the Dutch West India Company. By 1643, its directors had appointed him governor of the Caribbean islands of Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire. The next year, he lost a leg while taking part in an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Spanish island of St. Martin. In 1646, Stuyvesant became director-general of all Dutch territory in the Caribbean and North America. In 1647, he arrived in New Amsterdam (now New York City) to take charge of New Netherland. In New Netherland, Stuyvesant had to deal with disorder in the colony's government, boundary disputes with other European colonies, and conflicts with a number of local Indian tribes. He soon negotiated peace treaties with several Indian groups. In 1650, he established the colony's eastern border by agreeing to give New England colonists much disputed land. But Stuyvesant protected all land under actual Dutch control from further English expansion. In 1655, he captured New Sweden, including lands in what are now New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. He named the region New Amstel and made it a part of New Netherland. Stuyvesant governed with absolute power. His methods were often effective, but they caused tension between him and the colonists. In 1664, an English fleet ordered the surrender of New Amsterdam. The colonists refused to support Stuyvesant, and he was forced to give in. He sailed to Holland in disgrace, but he returned to New York after a few years and settled on his bouwerij (farm), part of which later became the Bowery of New York City. Stuyvesant died there and lies buried on the site of St. Mark's Church.
Peg-Leg Pete Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal which became Broad Street, and Broadway. He lost his leg in a battle with the Spanish over the island of Saint Maarten and wore a peg leg for most of his adult life, leading the Native Americans to dub him "Father Wooden Leg".
“Old Silver Nails” Stuyvesant became known as "Peg Leg Pete" and "Old Silver Nails" from the stick of wood studded with silver nails that was his artificial limb. The ill-fitting prosthesis may have been the reason for his reputed ill-tempered manner and autocratic style.
Lasting Impact of the Dutch Sinter Klaus--The original Santa Claus was the Dutch Sinter Klaus, or "Klaus of the cinders," which was the Dutch name for the Good God Thor! The god Thor was the god of the sun, of fire and of lightning (his name, of course, means "thunder"). His altar was in every home throughout the pre-patriarchal Scandinavian world, and in most people's homes for long after the Bronze-age invaders arrived . It was the fireplace, of course. Every year on his birthday (Yuletide, December 25), Thor would visit every little child and bring presents, coming down the chimney to his own personal altar. (He was known as "Klaus of the cinders" or Sinter Klaus, because children assumed he would have to be singed just a bit in order to come through the flaming fire in mid-winter.) Easter Eggs Waffles Toboggans and Sledding and Sleighs Skiing and ice skating Bowling—Ten Pins Sauerkraut
Dutch trade with the Iroquois Indians, NOT the Hurons
French Settlements The French settled along the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi Rivers. Most of the people living in these outposts were men. They spent their time going up and down the river in canoes trapping or trading their furs. The beaver was the main trade fur. A few people got rich on the beaver fur trades. Unfortunately they were not the trappers. The one who made money were the men who bought the furs from the trappers. In the summer the trappers lived alone or in pairs in the woods. In the winter these trappers with the Indians. They usually lived with the Algonquians or the Huron. Because the French helped the Algonquians and Huron, they became enemies with the Iroquois who were enemies with the Algonquians and Huron. Many French settlers were killed by the Iroquois. The French king controlled his empire in America. The king ruled the area through the Royal Governor. Men under the Royal Governor were called seigniors. The seigniors controlled large pieces of land. In this hierarchy the lowest group of people were called habitants. They were the workers. The law stated that all furs, lumber, and fish from the French colonies could be traded only with France or other French colonies. This kept the money between the French colonies and France.
The introduction of European weapons had a huge impact on the warfare and the lifestyles of the Indians. Within just 20 years, guns would become an irreplaceable part of Indian warfare in the northeast, and an integral part to hunting. However, also with guns, the beaver would be increasingly wiped out along the St. Lawrence Seaway. France had the policy of only supplying guns to converted Christian Indians and in fact used firearms as persuasion for conversion. The Huron continued to use the French to their advantage, to try to press the Iroquois from the fur trade. Champlain in battleby Samuel de Champlain, 1630 Map of Quebec
Iroquois & HuronEuropeans Choose Sides 1609-1640 1603-1616--Champlain. While the English began colonies in Virginia, the French, meanwhile, to the north, began reshaping their policy in the New World. In 1603, Samuel de Champlain came to America, and, unlike his predecessors who were steered by the Iroquois, he became more involved in Indian politics. Champlain wanted to break the dominance of the Iroquois and thus sided with their enemy, the Algonquin-speaking tribes specifically the Huron. Champlain would make over 20 voyages to the New World.1606--Champlain Visits Plymouth. Champlain, on one of his voyages, visited and mapped the Indian village of Patuxet, which would become, in 1620, the site of Plymouth colony. 1608--Quebec Made Into Settlement. Champlain helped to create the first permanent French settlement at Quebec (a Huron village which Cartier had usurped into a French trade post in 1541). Samuel de Champlain 1609 (June 29)--New Warfare; European Guns. In 1609 the first war in America took place where Europeans took part. It changed the scope of warfare forever. The Huron, equipped with French guns and aided by French soldiers, marched into Iroquois territory to engage them. Reportedly, Champlain fired his gun once and the Iroquois fled, thus marking a victory for the Huron.
BEER AND THE MAYFLOWERDid a thirst for beer… play a role in the colonizing of America? The Mayflower is headed for Virginia… but ends up putting ashore at Plymouth rock. One Pilgrim's diary explains why: "We could not take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer. "Yes- the Pilgrims made port because they ran out of beer (then considered an essential and a healthy part of everyone's daily diet)! Once ashore, they promptly erected a brew-house… and got to work brewing up a new batch to slake their thirsts. So Plymouth, Massachusetts ended up becoming the historic home of the pilgrims… because they needed to make a beer run!
Cape Cod They scouted the area for some weeks before deciding on the right location.
Plimoth The region they landed on was on Cape Cod, modern-day Provincetown, Massachusetts. A party went onshore to explore. They found a field where Indians had buried corn for the winter, and immediately took it for themselves. However, there was no drinkable water near by and the ground was very rocky. The ship's captain knew of another bay nearby that had been settled by the Patuxet but now was depopulated. It had been scouted by English explorers from Virginia and was already called "Plymouth" on the maps. (It had gotten the name Plymouth almost 30 years earlier, from the 16-year old Prince Charles of England; Charles had been presented with a map of the New World made by the explorer John Smith and he took it upon himself to rename capes and rivers and landmarks with English names.) The captain took the Mayflower there. 1620 (December 11)--Landing on Plymouth. The Mayflower landed at Plymouth on December 11 1620. Again, a scouting ship went ashore and this time deemed the deserted Patuxet village as suitable.
The First Thanksgiving 1621 (fall)--First Thanksgiving. By harvest time of 1621, the English settlers had a lot to be thankful for. Because of Squanto, they had warm homes, a newly built church, and a plentiful corn harvest that would last through the winter. The English settlers celebrated with a feast, as was common practice at harvest time in both European and Indian cultures. They used the feast as an opportunity to negotiate with the Wampanoag, hoping to obtain signed rights to the land. They invited the Wampanoag to the three-day feast with the intention of winning them over. They had invited just Squanto, Samoset, and Massasoit plus their families, not realizing the size of Indian families; 91 Indians arrived for the celebration. The English women did not eat at the feast; it was their custom to wait on the men and then eat later, so the English women stood behind the eaters during the meal. The Indians had no such custom, and the Indian women sat at the table. This "first thanksgiving" was nothing remarkable; it was based on long-standing traditions of feasting after the harvest and the friendliness between the two groups was not as pure or wholesome as popular images make it seem but for political wheedling.
Thanksgiving As was their custom, the Indians brought food, and it was a good thing they did because the settlers were not prepared to feed so many. The English settlers provided wild ducks and fried corn bread; the Wampanoag brought venison, boiled pumpkin, fish, lobster, berries, and plums. Famous depictions of the "first Thanksgiving" show the Wampanoag in the background or sitting lower than the colonists, connoting them as uncivilized and also, inaccurately, as the receivers of white bounty. Also, note the headdress in the black and white picture - Wampanoag did not wear these.
Massachusetts Bay Colony--1630 Is not the same as Plymouth. Settled a decade later by five ships of wealthy, well-provisioned Puritans who set up towns and cities in record time. Boston—the City on the Hill was named after English Puritan preacher, John Boston. Part of the Great Migration of English to colonies due to Enclosure Movement.
Mary Rowlandson 1676 (February 10)--Mary Rowlandson Captured. It was during King Philip's war that Mary Rowlandson was captured by a band of Nipmunk. After she was returned home, she wrote a famous account of her ordeal called The Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, which became the forerunner of a popular genre of English literature in the 17th century, captivity narratives. Indian captive narratives serve a directly political purpose, and can be seen as a kind of political propaganda. The captivity narratives also usually refer to the religious contrast between the Christian captive and the pagan Indians. Mary Rowlandson's captivity story, for instance, was published in 1682 with a subtitle that included her name as "Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, a Minister's Wife in New England." That edition also included "A Sermon on the Possibility of God's Forsaking a People that have been near and dear to him, Preached by Mr. Joseph Rowlandson, Husband to the said Mrs. Rowlandson, It being his Last Sermon." The captivity narratives served to define piety and women's proper devotion to their religion, and to give a religious message about the value of faith in times of adversity. (After all, if these women could maintain their faith in such extreme circumstances, shouldn't the reader maintain her or his faith in less challenging times?)
1675 (June 24)--Swansea Attacked. After several outlying settlements were raided and burned by Wampanoag in June 1675, the village of Swansea was attacked on June 24. The Wampanoag burned all the houses and slaughtered all of the men from the garrison. They decapitated the slain, placed their heads and hands on poles, and then planted the poles along the river. The Wampanoag continued to strike across New England throughout the next fifteen months, attacking settlements and convoys and garrisons in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. The Narragansett, once allies of the white settlers, joined the Wampanoag - they also had enough of white encroachment. Some New England Indians like the Mohegan sided and fought with the settlers. The fighting tactics of the Indians - guerilla warfare - was so effective, it would be adopted by the settlers in 100 years, in the American Revolution. The white settlers responded with an increase in garrisons and military fortification. Soldiers were installed to protect settlements, and armies were sent out to route the Indians. The armies in turn attacked Indian settlements.
In white villages, the Christianized Indians who lived among the whites were sent to internment camps or to outlying islands on the coast, to keep them from joining the war.
It was a large and bloody conflict on both sides. Over 1,000 settlers were killed (or 5% of the total settler population) and thousands of Indians died, some who were not even involved in the conflict.
King Philip's War What's in a Name. The conflict has been recorded by white historians as "King Philip's War" even though Metacom was not a king and it was not a war. Metacom was chief of a particular clan, not over all the Indians in the area. It was not a war, but a series of skirmishes, of attacks from both sides, as the Indians fought to control the continuing influx of English in their territory and the English fought for subordination of the Indians. The conflict was called his war, in a way, to pass the blame, or at least remove the English from it. The name itself portrays the struggle as a fight of the English for their land, assuming the settlers' right to the territory, all in accordance with the mythology surrounding the creation of the United States.
Slavery in the English Colonies 1619--First Africans. Prior to 1619, Indians and indentured servants were used to fill the need of labor in the New World colonies. However, as the Indians died rapidly from disease, and indentured servants could run off, or serve their time and receive their headright, the English colonists turned to slave trade in Africa for a work force. The first African slaves were brought to the Virginian colony in 1619. The Africans were taken unwillingly, captured as slaves from their villages, but once in America were originally were treated like indentured servants; after their term of service was over, they were granted their freedom and rights to own land. Freed blacks even themselves owned African and Indian slaves. This would change in just a few short years; hereditary slavery would become law in 1640. Indians were the first slaves in America. They were taken as prisoners of war and forced to work on the lucrative tobacco plantations. Even after the advent of the African slave trade to America and with the subsequent hereditary slavery laws in the 1640's, Indians and Africans worked side by side on white plantations until the 18th century. Virginia and the South thrived on farming; soon "tobacco was king." Lucrative farming became intertwined with slave labor as early as Jamestown.
The English colonies continued to grow in power not only in New England, but down the coast in Virginia as well. 1640--Hereditary Slavery Instituted in Virginia. By 1640, Africans had been brought to Virginia for over twenty years. They came as indentured servants, working for five to seven years and then becoming free land owners. By 1640, the policy of indentured servants led not only to a labor shortage but rising tensions in the increase of free men wanting land. The "solution" to these problems was hereditary slavery - making a person a slave for life and also granting the status of slave to their children and their children's children and so on. Indians had been taken for slaves in Jamestown, but the policy of hereditary slavery most directly applied to Africans, mainly West Africans who had been captured by other Africans and then sold to European slave traders. In just one hundred years, a quarter of a million African slaves would be in America, most of them concentrated in the Chesapeake region. Hereditary slavery was first instituted in Virginia in 1640, and then in Maryland in 1660. Each colony treated slavery differently. South Carolina imported harsh hereditary slavery practices from the Caribbean, and slavery thrived there because of rice profits. By 1675, 40% of all slaves coming to the Americas came through Charleston. During the entire 17th century, the majority of African slaves were still going to the West Indies and not the American colonies yet.
1649--Spain Takes African Slaves Too. By the mid-17th century, the native population in southern America had been decimated by over 100 years of European-brought disease. This included the slaves the Spanish had taken in the southeast United States, particularly in Florida. To replenish their labor force in America, the Spanish begin to bring slaves from Africa. In 1649, the native population in Florida and the Caribbean were further wiped out by yellow fever, and slaves from Africa increased especially in those regions. The horrors and devastations of the institution of slavery as we commonly think of it today was not an instantaneous process; it took fifty years of white hubris and accumulation of governmental laws to create the violent and coercive slavery practices that would then last for over 250 years. Slave laws were formally published in 1700 in Virginia; these laws made it explicitly not a crime to kill a slave and instituted harsh physical punishment for slave transgressions - defiance was 30 lashes on a bare back and escape from a master was dismemberment (chopping off a foot). The violence of the laws were designed to institute fear in slaves to keep them subservient; the formality of the laws were to alleviate personal moral responsibility of whites.
Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African According to his famous autobiography, written in 1789, Olaudah Equiano (c.1745-1797) was born in what is now Nigeria. Kidnapped and sold into slavery in childhood, he was taken as a slave to the New World. As a slave to a captain in the Royal Navy, and later to a Quaker merchant, he eventually earned the price of his own freedom by careful trading and saving. As a seaman, he traveled the world, including the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, the Atlantic and the Arctic, the latter in an abortive attempt to reach the North Pole. Coming to London, he became involved in the movement to abolish the slave trade, an involvement which led to him writing and publishing The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African (1789) a strongly abolitionist autobiography. The book became a bestseller and, as well as furthering the anti-slavery cause, made Equiano a wealthy man.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Where slaves were captured in Africa. The rapid expansion of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade From the 1670s the Slave Coast (Bight of Benin) underwent a rapid expansion of trade in slaves which continued until the end of the slave trade in the nineteenth century. Gold Coast slave exports rose sharply in eighteenth century, but dropped markedly when Britain abolished slavery in 1808 and commenced anti-slavery patrols along the coast. The Bight of Biafra, centered on the Niger Delta and the Cross River, became a significant exporter of slaves from the 1740s and, along with its neighbor the Bight of Benin, dominated the Trans-Atlantic slave trade until its effective end in the mid-nineteenth century. These two regions alone account for two-thirds of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade in the first half of the 1800s. Total: 10,005,700Source: Transformations in Slavery by Paul E. Lovejoy Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-78430-1
Triangular Trade About half of each ship died through the Middle Passage, that the sharks altered their migration patterns to follow the slave ships.