1 The Victorian AgeFrom 1837 to 1901, the greatest symbol in British lifewas Queen Victoria. Although she exercised little realpolitical power, she set the tone for what is now calledthe Victorian age. • Victoria embodied the values of duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and respectability. She embraced a strict code of morals and manners. • Under Victoria, the British middle class — and growing numbers of the working class — felt great confidence in the future. That confidence grew as Britain expanded its already huge empire. “We are not amused!”
Queen Victoria• Came to the throne in 1837 at the age of 18• Reigned for 64 years, the longest monarchy in British history• First Empress of India at the British Raj, or period of British colonial rule in India For the next seventeen years Albert• Granddaughter of George III of was formally titled "HRH Prince the Hanoverian Dynasty Albert" until, on 25 June 1857,• Preceded by William IV, and Victoria formally granted him the title Prince Consort. succeeded by Edward VII Hemophilia—the blood clotting disease—can be traced to Victoria’s line. It is a recessive gene that especially affects the male line. Since Vicky is related to almost all of the crowned heads of Europe…Just ask Rasputin in Russia.
By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, Victoria, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831.Marriage of Victoria and AlbertAlbert and Victoria felt mutual affection andthe Queen proposed to him on 15 October1839. For the next seventeen years Albertwas formally titled "HRH Prince Albert" until, on 25 June 1857, Victoria formally granted him the title Prince Consort. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert - photograph taken in 1854.
A Royal Love • Queen Victorias nearly 64-year reign (1837-1901) was the longest in British history. She presided over a period of British industrial progress, artistic successes and political empire-building which became known as the Victorian Era. Victoria was only 18 when she became queen upon the death of her uncle, King William IV. In 1840 she married her first cousin Albert, the German son of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Victoria was shattered by his untimely death at age 42, and she went into a prolonged period of mourning. (She never stopped mourning entirely, wearing black the rest of her life.) Late in the 1860s she re-emerged into public life, and as years passed she became increasingly venerated among her subjects. Victoria celebrated her diamond jubilee -- 60 years on the throne -- in 1897. After her death in 1901 she was succeeded by her son Prince Albert, who became King Edward VII.The first of the royal couples nine children,named Victoria, was born on 21 November1840. Prince Albert, Queen Victoria andtheir nine children. Left to right : Alice,Arthur, The Prince Consort, The Prince ofWales, Leopold ( in front of him), Louise,Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred,Victoria and Helena
• The Prince Consort died of typhoid fever on 14 December, 1861, due to the primitive sanitary conditions at Windsor Castle. • His death devastated Victoria, who was still affected by the death of her mother in March of that year. She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years. • Her seclusion earned her the name "Widow of Windsor."Dash was Victoria’s pet a tricolorCavalier King Charles Spaniel.She was the most painted dog ofthe era. Remy is mine.
1 A New Era in British PoliticsIn the 1860s, the old political parties regrouped undernew leadership: • The Tories became the Conservative party, led by Benjamin Disraeli. • The Whigs evolved into the Liberal party, led by William Gladstone.In the late 1800s, these two parties pushed little bylittle for suffrage to be extended. By century’s end,almost-universal male suffrage had been achieved.In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to limitthe power of the House of Lords. In time, the House ofLords would become a largely ceremonial body, whilethe elected House of Commons would reign supreme.
Disraeli cultivated a publicimage of himself as anImperialist with grandgestures such as conferringon Queen Victoria the title‘Empress of India’. “ India was: “The Jewel in the Crown”Prime MinistersWilliam Gladstone andBenjamin Disraeli served underQueen Victoria.
The British governmentmoved toward greater democracy Introductionthrough evolution rather thanrevolution.•In the 1800s, Britain had a limitedconstitutional monarchy•The Cabinet led by the PrimeMinister held most of the executivepower•Parliament held legislative power•The House of Commons House of Commonsrepresented the people, but middleand working class citizens had novoting rights until the 1800s
Reform • Industrial and farm workers remained disenfranchised (deprived of the right toMovements vote) • the Chartists (reform group of the working class) wrote A People’s Charter, which demanded voting rights for all adult men, a secret ballot, salaries for members of Parliament, and equal electoral districts • Aristocracy supported the Conservative party • Industrial and commercial classes supported the Liberal party
Women Demand Greater Rights • 1850s- women’s rights activists fought to win property rights for married women, which led to the passage of the Married Women’s Property Acts of 1870 and 1882 • 1903- Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which led suffragists in voting rightsEmmeline Pankhurst campaigns and succeed in winning being arrested, voting rights for women over 21 again!
John Bull is the English equivalent of ourUncle Sam. He is a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
2 Votes for Women In Britain, as elsewhere, women struggled for the right to vote against strong opposition.• Suffragists led by Emmeline Pankhurst used aggressive tactics and sometimes resorted to violent protest. But passive resistance and hunger strikes were more effective.• Many middle-class women disapproved of such radical actions. Yet they, too, spoke up in increasing numbers.• Some women, including Queen Victoria, opposed suffrage altogether.• Despite these protests, Parliament refused to grant women’s suffrage. Not until 1918 did Parliament finally grant suffrage to women over age 30. Younger women did not win the right to vote for another decade.
Democratic Reforms in Britain 1800s– Early 1900s
Social and Economic Reforms in Britain 1800s– Early 1900s
Canada, Australia, & New Zealand
• Mid 1800’s Canada was • In 1867 the British Parliament passed one part French, another the British North American Act and established Canada as a dominion. The immigrant British and a voters elected their first parliament and third part descendants of prime minister, John A. Macdonald. the Loyalists. • At first the Dominion of Canada consisted of four provinces in the southeast, extending from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. Then, in 1869 the dominion acquired the Northwest Territory. • Most of the Northwest Territory was populated by Native Americans and European and American fur traders.
• Divided Quebec into two colonies: Lower Canada and Upper Canada.• Lower Canada-- French speaking•• Upper Canada--English speaking• Each colony had an assembly whose laws were subject to veto by the British government.• By the late 1830’s, the French began to feel threatened by the English-speaking people.
Lord Durham was sent to Canada in 1838 to investigate the uprisings between upper and lower Canada. He wrote the “Report on Affairs of British North America” in 1839 in which he recommended a self- government and legislative union in Canada. The First Prime Minister andJohn was born in Glasgow, second longestScotland and his family serving ofemigrated to Canada in Canada.1820. He became a lawyerin Kingston, Ontario in1836.
3 Canada, 1867–1914
3How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule?1. Canada’s first European rulers were French.2. When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French- speaking settlers remained.3. In 1791 Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces: English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada.4. During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies.5. In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and given control over their own affairs.6. In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward self- government.7. As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George Étienne Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces.8. Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self- governing nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union.
Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800–1870• The Industrial Revolution and a wave of liberal nationalist revolutions transformed Europe during the nineteenth century. A weakened old order gave way, and a number of unified European states emerged.• Canada gained its independence, and the northern and southern United States reunited after a bloody civil war.
Geography of Australia and New Zealand 3
• Australia was initially established as a penal colony (Botany Bay), but after a gold rush increased the population, transporting prisoners there was stopped. • Many Europeans treated the Aborigines badly and killed many of them.• By the late 1800’s Australia was made up of six British colonies. » New South Wales » Victoria » Queensland #1 Prime Minister » Tasmania Edmund Barton 1 January 1901 » Western Australia » South Australia• By 1901, Parliament made Australia a dominion that included the colonies and a region known as the Northern Territory.
3 Europeans in Australia• In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain.• At that time, it was too distant to attract European settlers.• Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called Aborigines.• When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously.• In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony. The overflow of Britain’s full prisons were transported to Australia—Botany Bay Penal Colony.• In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines.• In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom.• By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy. Sheep and cattle, mainly. Odd side effect—rabbits!!!
NewZealandThe first Europeans tosettle in the NewZealand were fromCaptain James Cook’sexpedition in 1770.Firearms brought toNew Zealand byforeigners broughtmany problems to theMaori. Kiwi
3 New In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain.Zealand Missionaries arrived to convert the localNew Zealand people, the Maoris, to Christianity.pioneered inseveral areas of In 1840, Britain annexed Newdemocratic Zealand.reform.In 1893, it White New Zealanders wonbecame the first independence.nation to givesuffrage to By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled.women. Many Maoris died in the struggle.Later, it was in theforefront of other Colonists took over Maori land and engaged insocial reforms. fierce wars with the Maoris.
Treaty of Waitangi in 1840• Concluded by the British Naval officers and Maori Chiefs, the treaty• protected the Maori rights, including property rights and gave the British sovereignty over New Zealand.
• Americans loyal to Great Britain during the Loyalists American Revolution who fled to Canada • Self-governing territory owing allegiance toDominion the British king or queen • First Canadian prime minister John A.Macdonald • A Scottish-born lawyer
• The original people of Australia Aborigines • The original inhabitants of New Maori Zealand • Ordered by British Parliament toLord Durham investigate Canada after the uprisings
They call their ranches stations for some odd reason
Jackrabbits had no naturals predators in Australia, which led to a population explosion. photograph was taken in Adelaide, Australia on This 11/27/1961. Its common to see wild rabbits in the Outback gathering around a waterhole!
2 The Irish QuestionThe Irish never accepted English rule:• They resented English settlers, especially absentee landlords.• Many Irish peasants lived in poverty while paying high rents to landlords living in England.• The Irish, most of whom were Catholic, were forced to pay tithes to the Church of England.Irish nationalists campaigned for freedom and justice.In 1845, a disease destroyed the potato crop, causing aterrible famine called the “Great Hunger.” At least onemillion Irish died while the British continued to ship healthycrops outside Ireland. The Great Hunger left a legacy of Irishbitterness that still exists today.The Irish struggled for years to achieve home rule, orlocal self-government. However, Parliament did notpass a Home Rule Bill until 1914. It then delayedputting the new law into effect until after World War I.
Potato Famine in Ireland • 1840s- “Great Hunger” potato famine struck Ireland, but Britain sent inadequate aid to the Irish, and many emigrated to the US, Canada, and Australia • Charles Stewart Parnell (Irish-born to a Protestant family) led nationalists in hope of home rule (self-government) • Gladstone tried to pass legislation for Irish home rule, but it split the Liberal party and was defeated • 1914- Parliament passed home rule bill, but it never went into effect
Charles Darwin• While traveling, Charles Darwin became curious about the great variety of plants and animals and wondered why some had become extinct• Charles Darwin wrote the book On the Origins of Species and stated that most animal groups are constantly struggling for survival. These animals that survive are better adapted for their habitat• In his controversial book, The Descent of Man, Darwin traced human evolution from animal species• Darwin’s books angered religious leaders because they contradicted the creation story and other Biblical accounts
The publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin’s masterpiece The Origin of Species changed forever the way we think about life on Earth, but also the human condition. One hundred and fifty years later—and 200 years after his birth— Darwins big idea has never been more relevant or more challenging.The Rough Guide to Evolution provides a readable introduction toevolution and its influence on almost all aspects of human thought.
Development of Genetics • Gregor Mendel wondered how plants and animals pass characteristics between generations. • In the 1860s, he experimented with pea plants and concluded that characteristics are passed from one generation to another by tiny particles (genes) • his work became the basis of genetics, the study of heredity
Clara Barton is the US equivalent.
Medical Advances – Fighting Diseases• Smallpox was one of the most dreaded diseases at the time• In 1796 Edward Jenner noticed that workers who had caught cowpox (a mild disease) never caught smallpox• Once proven right, he began injecting people with cowpox so they would contract smallpox; this was the first vaccination.
Louis Pasteur• 50 years later, Louis Pasteur learned why this vaccination worked• In the 1850s he discovered bacteria and proved that they cause infectious diseases• He also concluded that they don’t appear spontaneously but reproduce like any living being and could therefore be killed, preventing many diseases
Marie and Pierre Curie • These beginning steps led scientists to frame modern physics • In 1898 Marie Sklodowska Curie and Pierre Curie discovered the highly radioactive element radium • They also proved that this new element emits energy.
Social Sciences• Meanwhile other scientists used the scientific method to study human behavior• Sociology – study of human behavior in groups• Psychology – study of human behavior in individuals
Ivan Pavlov and Sigmund Freud• Ivan Pavlov experimented with animals to see what effects outside stimuli had on their behavior• His finding suggested that human actions were unconscious reactions and could be changed by training• Sigmund Freud’s theories (that an unconscious part of the mind governs human behavior) led to psychoanalysis, a method of treatment to discover people’s motives