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  • 1. Chapter 8 Absolutism & Divine Right in Europe
    Spain, England, France, Germany, & Russia
  • 2. Chapter 8 : Royal Power and Conflict
    During the 1500s and 1600s, European monarchies created powerful central governments.
    Wars over religion and power engulfed many European countries, including Holland, Spain, France, and Sweden.
    In England the Tudor monarchies brought England peace and stability, increasing royal power but allowing Parliament a share in the government.
    England was building an overseas empire based on trade.
    The monarchs of Europe based their reach for expanded royal power on the theory of absolute monarchy, which held that kings and queens ruled as representatives of God and were responsible to God alone, not to parliaments and citizens.
    In Russia, rulers like Peter the Great were enhancing the country's military power and increasing contacts with western Europe.
    Internally, however, they were increasing the gap between the upper and lower classes.
  • 3. Chapter 8 Royal Power and Conflict
    Section 1: Spain
    Section 2: England
    Section 3: France
    Section 4: The German States
    Section 5: Russia
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  • 6. Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
    Philip was the most powerful monarch in Spanish history!
    He was smart, handsome, well-educated, hard-working, prudent, cautious, and a devout Catholic—Defender of the Faith.
    He supported the arts, music, etc.
    Well-connected—the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, great grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand.
    His capital was El Escorial, but he will move it to Madrid.
    He will feature Castile—most of his advisors, etc. came from there and Castillian will be the court language.
    He will try to root out heresy in Spain, and that includes the Protestant minorities—Marranos and Moriscos.
  • 7. Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
    He supported the Spanish Inquisition.
    He was married four times:
    a) Maria Manuela of Portugal
    b) Mary Tudor of England
    c) Elizabeth of Valois (in France) and
    d) to Anne of Austria.
    From 1550-1650 Spain’s Golden Century—El Siglode Oro
    Spain will become embroiled in a series of European wars, mainly defending Catholicism vs. the Protestant countries.
    Philip’s successors will face Spain’s ultimate decline—fiscally and physically.
  • 8. :