Hua Mulan is a heroine who joined an all-male army, described in a famous Chinese poem known as the Ballad of Mulan. The poem was first written in the Musical Records of Old and New from the 6th century, the century before the founding of the Tang Dynasty; the original work no longer exists, and the original text of this poem comes from another work known as the Music Bureau Collection, an anthology of lyrics, songs, and poems, compiled by GuoMaoqian during the 12th century. The author explicitly mentions the Musical Records of Old and New as his source for the poem. Whether she was a historical person or whether the poem was an allegory has been debated for centuries—it is unknown whether the story has any factual basis.<br />The time setting of the story is uncertain. The earliest accounts of the legend state that she lived during the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534) but there has been no proof. However another version reports that Mulan was requested as a concubine by Emperor Yang of Sui China (reigned 604–617). <br />Evidence from the extant poem suggests the earlier interpretation.<br />Mulan<br />
Chapter 7 : Empires of Asia<br />From the late 1400s to the 1700s, three Muslim empires-the Ottoman, the Safavid Persian, and the Mogul-flourished in parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa.<br /> At the same time in China the Ming dynasty encouraged the development of agriculture and sponsored some overseas explorations. For a long time under the Chinese Qing dynasty, there was internal peace, prosperity, and an increase in population. During the 1700s, however, corruption, internal revolts, and threats from European explorations weakened the government.<br /> In the 1500s, Japan saw the warrior classes come under the rule of military leaders known as shoguns. During this period, Europeans, including Catholic missionaries, arrived in Japan. Fearing foreign influence, Japan closed its borders. Effects of the European presence were felt everywhere in East Asia. <br />Only Thailand (Siam) remained free of European control.<br />
SECTION 1The Ottomans Build a Vast EmpireTrace the origins, growth, and decline of the Ottoman Empire.<br />SECTION 2 Case Study: Cultural Blending—The Safavid EmpireAnalyze how cultural blending resulted in new cultures and how the Safavid Empire developed.<br />SECTION 3 The Mughal Empire in IndiaAnalyze the rise and decline of the Mughal Empire and the achievements of Akbar.<br />
SECTION 2 China Limits European ContactsDescribe the Ming and Qing dynasties, their effect on foreign countries, and what life was like in China during this time.<br />SECTION 3 Japan Returns to IsolationDescribe feudalism in Japan, life in Tokugawa Japan, and contact between Europe and Japan in the 16th century.<br />SECTION 4 Southeast Asia faces European Incursion<br /> The Thai kingdom kept its independence while other parts came under European control.<br />
This was a big deal! Many artists used it as a subject.<br />“The Capture of Constantinople”<br />The Turks re-named it Istanbul. Located perfectly At the Bosporus Strait, linking the Mediterranean with the Black Sea.<br />
Control of the Middle East had changed hands several times.<br /><ul><li>By the 1300’s, it was the Ottomans’ turn.</li></ul>The Ottoman Empire was begun by a Turkish warrior king, Osman I, who successfully laid siege to several Byzantine forts.<br /><ul><li>He was succeeded by his son, Orkan I, who conquered the important Byzantine city Adrianople.
Subsequent sultans kept expanding the borders, usually at Byzantine expense.</li></li></ul><li>Tamerlane (Timur the Lame) threw a kink in Ottoman expansion.<br /><ul><li>He claimed descent from Genghis Khan and may at least have been married into the Khan family.
He conquered a great deal of territory in central Asia and into the Middle East.
He’s actually considered a hero to many in central Asia, such as in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, etc., while he’s a villain to Persians and Arabs since he overthrew their rule and destroyed their cities.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>He wars with the Ottomans and even captures the Ottoman sultan, Bayezid, in the Battle of Ankara.
Tamerlane wanted to restore power to the Seljuks who he thought were the rightful rulers of Anatolia because they had been granted rule by the Mongols.
He was called “the Lame” because of a leg wound he sustained as a child.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>To say Tamerlane was brutal is being too kind. He laid waste to cities and slaughtered their inhabitants: 70,000 people in Isfahan (and stacked their skulls into pyramids), another 100,000 prisoners executed in Delhi, 70,000 in Tikrit, 90,000 in Baghdad.
It’s estimated that Tamerlane’s conquering claimed anywhere from 7 million to 20 million lives.</li></li></ul><li>Tamerlane’s tomb<br />
After recovering from Tamerlane and settling out who was going to be the new sultan, the Ottomans went back on the offensive.<br /><ul><li>Constantinople was the prize the sultan Mehmet II wanted. It was wealthy, it controlled the Bosporus Strait sea and land traffic, it wasn’t Muslim, it had resisted conquering for nearly a thousand years, and it was the continuation of the Roman Empire. Conquering it would be good for bragging rights alone.
We already know the story of its fall in 1453 when the massive walls were finally penetrated.</li></li></ul><li>Mehmed II – <br />He was only 12 when he became sultan and he conquered Constantinople at age 21<br />
Selim the Grim comes along in 1512<br /><ul><li>He overthrew his father and then executed all his brothers and nephews.
The family killing was to eliminate the possibility of anyone else with a possible claim to the throne trying to overthrow him. It was risky to be in the Ottoman royal family.
Selim was known to have a fiery temper and executed several viziers who he didn’t think were doing well enough.
One vizier jokingly asked to be told when he was going to be executed so he could put his affairs in order. Selim responded that he had been thinking about it for awhile, but just hadn’t found a good replacement yet. When he had, he’d make sure to tell the vizier.</li></ul>Selimwent on to conquer Egypt, which was under control of the Mamluke dynasty and also Mecca and Medina.<br />
Suleiman the Magnificent/Lawgiver<br /><ul><li>Sultan from 1520 to 1566.
The most powerful sultan and under whom the Ottoman Empire reached its peak of power.
He continued conquering into Europe, including the Balkans and most of Eastern Europe – nearly to Vienna. Once again, Europe seemed seriously threatened by the Muslims from the east (they should have given the Byzantines more help in 1453).</li></li></ul><li>
<ul><li>Suleiman also formed a legal code covering instances falling outside Islamic sharia, hence his title of ‘lawgiver.’
He was a good ruler who promoted people based on merit rather than wealth or contacts.
Also allowed for religious tolerance. Jews were not to be oppressed and Christians could continue practicing their own religion.
This was more practicality than high-mindedness. People tend not to care who governs them so long as they can live their lives the way they want. A content populace is one which won’t rebel.
In a break with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married a harem girl, Roxelana, who became Hürrem Sultan; her intrigues as queen in the court and power over the Sultan made her quite renowned. Their son, Selim II, succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule.</li></li></ul><li>You can’t pull off this look.<br />Suleiman could.<br />He was magnificent.<br />
Military<br /><ul><li>There were different levels of the military, but the elite corps were the Janissaries.
They were non-Muslim boys who were taken from their families at a young age: about 12-16. This was part of the devshirme tax.
The boys would be trained in fighting and cultural arts and to think of the sultan as a father.
They were cut off from their biological families and their new family was the Janissaries. While not forced to convert to Islam, the vast majority did.
Since they converted, their sons would be Muslims and ineligible for the devshirme and the Janissaries. This prevented a powerful hereditary class from developing, like what happened with the Mamlukes and Seljuks.</li></li></ul><li>The Decline<br /><ul><li>After Suleiman, a series of bad sultans have control of the Empire.
They get pasted at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, for example.
Lepanto was a naval battle between Ottoman forces and a loose alliance of Europeans, led by the Venetians under Don Juan. The Ottomans were commanded by Ali Pasha.
The Ottomans had been gobbling up territory and seemed nearly unstoppable. They threatened to take the island of Cyprus, which the Venetians owned (though the Venetians had previously made agreements with the Ottomans).
Venice appealed for aid, but not many were interested – Venice was a republic, which the monarchies didn’t like, wealthy, and powerful.
The pope eventually answer because he can’t allow a Muslim entity to dictate to a Christian one.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Ottomans had 230 galleys and 60 galliots, while the Holy League had just 206 galleys and 6 galleasses.
A galley wasn’t all that much more advanced from ancient triremes. They were oar powered and relied and ramming or boarding to defeat enemy ships.
Galliots were small, light, maneuverable galleys.
Galleasses were a new innovation. They were a hybrid between sail and oar power, were larger, and, most importantly, used cannons.</li></ul>Venetian galleasses<br />
Venetian galleys<br /> The battle started out with the galleasses at the front, just hammering the Ottoman ships, which couldn’t even get in range of the new ships.<br /><ul><li>Most of the battle gets fought on the flanks and it was ugly. Ultimately, Ali Pasha is captured, killed, and his head displayed on a pike.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The whole commander’s head on a pike thing seriously demoralized the rest of the Ottomans who withdrew from the battle. The Holy League had won.