Chapter 4 Absolutism & Divine Right in EuropeSpain, England, France, Germany, & Russia
Chapter 4 : Royal Power and Conflict• During the 1500s and 1600s, European monarchies created powerful central governments.• Wars over religion and power engulfed many European countries, including Holland, Spain, France, and Sweden.• In England the Tudor monarchies brought England peace and stability, increasing royal power but allowing Parliament a share in the government.• England was building an overseas empire based on trade.• The monarchs of Europe based their reach for expanded royal power on the theory of absolute monarchy, which held that kings and queens ruled as representatives of God and were responsible to God alone, not to parliaments and citizens.• In Russia, rulers like Peter the Great were enhancing the countrys military power and increasing contacts with western Europe.• Internally, however, they were increasing the gap between the upper and lower classes.
Philip was the most powerful Philip II of Spainmonarch in Spanish history!He was smart, handsome, well- (1556-1598)educated, hard-working, prudent,cautious, and a devout Catholic—Defender of the Faith.He supported the arts, music, etc.Well-connected—the son of HolyRoman Emperor Charles V, greatgrandson of Isabella and Ferdinand.His capital was El Escorial, but he willmove it to Madrid.He will feature Castile—most of hisadvisors, etc. came from there andCastillian will be the court language.He will try to root out heresy in Spain,and that includes the Protestantminorities—Marranos and Moriscos.
Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)He supported the Spanish Inquisition.He was married four times:a) Maria Manuela of Portugalb) Mary Tudor of Englandc) Elizabeth of Valois (in France) andd) to Anne of Austria.From 1550-1650 Spain’s GoldenCentury—El Siglo de OroSpain will become embroiled in aseries of European wars, mainlydefending Catholicism vs. theProtestant countries.Philip’s successors will face Spain’sultimate decline—fiscally andphysically.
The House of Habsburg or Hapsburg (also known as House of Austria)was an important royal house of Europe and is best known for being anorigin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1452and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian and Spanish Empire and severalother countries. Originally from Switzerland, the dynasty first reigned inAustria, which they ruled for over six centuries. A series of dynasticmarriages brought Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and otherterritories into the inheritance. In the 16th century the senior Spanish andjunior Austrian branches of the family separated.As royal houses are by convention determined via the male line, theSpanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and wasreplaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person ofhis great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch went extinct in 1780 withthe death of Empress Maria Theresa and was replaced by the Vaudemontbranch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. Thenew successor house styled itself as House of Habsburg-Lorraine(German: Habsburg-Lothringen).
Catherine of Aragon, • Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, was born in 1485. Henry VII was worried that England might be invaded by Spain, the most powerful country in Europe. In 1488 Henry signed a treaty with King Ferdinand of Spain. By this treaty Henry agreed that his eldest son, Arthur, should marry Catherine. • On 14 November 1501, Arthur, who was just fifteen, married Catherine at St Pauls Cathedral in London. Five months later Arthur died of tuberculosis. Henry VII was keen that England and Spain should remain united and arranged for his other surviving son. Henry, to marry Catherine. At that time, Christians believed it was wrong for a man to marry his brothers wife. Henry VII therefore had to gain special permission from the Pope before the marriage could go ahead.In 1509 Henry VII died. His son Henry now became king of England. It was very important toHenry VIII that his wife, should give birth to a male child. Without a son to take over from himwhen he died. Henry feared that the Tudor family would lose control of England. Catherine gavebirth to six children but five died within a few weeks of being born. Only one child, Mary,survived into adulthood.By 1530 Catherine was too old to have any more children. Therefore, Henry decided he wouldhave to have another wife. His choice was Anne Boleyn, the 20-year-old daughter of ViscountRochford. Before he could marry Anne, Henry had to gain permission from the Pope.
Henry VIII sent a message to the Pope arguing that his marriage toCatherine had been invalid as she had previously been married tohis brother Arthur. When Catherine discovered Henrys plans sheinformed King Charles (Carlos) of Spain and Emperor Charles (Karl) Vof the Holy Roman Empire. Unwilling to have his aunt lose herposition, Charles warned the Pope that he would be very angry if hegranted Henry a divorce. The Pope knew that once he made adecision, he would upset one of these two powerful monarchs. In anattempt to keep the peace, the Pope put off making a decisionabout Henrys marriage.In January 1533 Henry discovered that Anne Boleyn was pregnant.As it was important that the child should not be classed asillegitimate, arrangements were made for Henry and Anne to getmarried. King Charles V of Spain threatened to invade England if themarriage took place, but Henry ignored his threats and the marriagewent ahead. In September Anne gave birth to a daughter called Elizabeth. While Henry was furious about having another daughter, the supporters of Catherine were delighted and claimed that it proved God was punishing Henry for his illegal marriage to Anne. Catherine was sent into retirement at Ampthill, Bedfordshire. Later she moved to Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire. Catherine of Aragon died in 1536.
• Anne Boleyn, the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn and Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, was born in 1501. Her father had high ambitions for his daughter and when she was only seven she was sent to Paris to be educated with the children of the French royal family. • At thirteen she became one of the Queens maids of honor. There was great competition to become a maid of honor as it offered the opportunity of meeting members of the nobility. Parents hoped that this would eventually lead to a good marriage. As maid of honor, Anne entertained the Queen by playing musical instruments and singing songs. She was also expected to make polite conversation with important guests at the royal court. Anne Boleyn • In 1521 Sir Thomas Boleyn arranged for Anne to be brought home because England and France were on the verge of war. Boleyn hoped that Anne would now become a maid of honor to Catherine of Aragon, the wife of Henry VIII. However, Anne had to wait until 1526 before being granted the post. Anne was a great success as a maid of honor. She was a good musician and a talented singer. She was also extremely intelligent and her time in the French court provided her with a great deal of interesting conversation. •Henry seemed to find her very entertaining and was often seen dancing with her. It was not longbefore Henry VIII had fallen deeply in love with Anne. Ever since 1524 Henry had been planningto divorce Catherine of Aragon. Now he knew who he wanted to replace her with.
• Henry sent a message to the Pope arguing that his marriage to Catherine had been invalid as she had previously been married to his brother Arthur. When Catherine discovered Henrys plans she informed King Charles (Carlos) of Spain and Emperor Charles (Karl) V of the Holy Roman Empire. Unwilling to have his aunt lose her position, Charles warned the Pope that he would be very angry if he granted Henry a divorce. The Pope knew that once he made a decision, he would upset one of these two powerful monarchs. In an attempt to keep the peace, the Pope put off making a decision about Henrys marriage..• In January 1533 Henry discovered that Anne Boleyn was pregnant. As it was important that the child should not be classed as illegitimate, arrangements were made for Henry and Anne to get married. King Charles V of Spain threatened to invade England if the marriage took place, but Henry ignored his threats and the marriage went ahead. The child who was born was Elizabeth.• Anne had strong opinions about religion. She tried to persuade Henry to give permission for Bibles to be published in English. Anne also introduced Henry to the books of Protestant writers such as William Tyndale.
• In March 1534, the Pope eventually made his decision. He announced that Henrys marriage to Anne Boleyn was invalid. Henry reacted by declaring that the Pope no longer had authority in England. In November 1534, Parliament passed an act that stated that Henry VIII was now the Head of the Church of England, the Anglican Church.• In January 1536, Anne had a son but unfortunately he was born dead. What is more, the baby was badly deformed. This was a serious matter because in Tudor times Christians believed that a deformed child was Gods way of punishing parents for committing serious sins. Henry feared that people might think that the Pope was right when he claimed that God was angry because Henry had divorced Catherine and married Anne.• Henrys solution to this problem was to claim that he was not the father of this deformed child. Soon afterwards, five men, including Annes brother, were accused of committing adultery with the queen. Anne and the five men were found guilty and executed. Ten days after Anne was beheaded, Henry married Jane Seymour.
Jane Seymour• Jane Seymour, the daughter of Sir John Seymour, was born in 1509. She was lady in waiting to both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn and married Henry VIII in 1536.• In 1537 Jane Seymour gave birth to Edward but she died of septicemia ten days later.
Family of Henry VIII The following year, 1537, Jane died giving birth to a son. Henry now at last had a male heir, Edward VI. But the boy was sickly and frail.Mark Twain will useEdward in his bookThe Prince and the Pauper
Anne of Cleves • Anne of Cleves, the daughter of John, Duke of Cleves, was born in 1515. Jane Seymour, the 3rd wife of Henry VIII died in 1537. Henry now began to look for another wife. His Lord Chancellor, Thomas Cromwell, wanted England to form an alliance with the Protestants in Saxony. One way Henry could do this was by marrying Anne of Cleves. •• In 1539 Henry was sent paintings of Anne but he suspected that the artist had exaggerated Annes beauty. Henry therefore sent Hans Holbein to Saxony to paint her picture. On the evidence of Holbeins painting. Henry decided to sign the marriage contract. However, when Anne arrived in England for the wedding Henry was very disappointed with her. Although he agreed that Holbein had captured her physical likeness. Henry did not like her personality.• Henry divorced Anne in 1540 and married Catherine Howard. Anne was granted a pension and lived in England until her death in 1557.
Kathryn Howard was the daughter of Lord EdmundHoward, a younger brother of Thomas Howard, Dukeof Norfolk. She was also first cousin to Anne Boleyn,Henrys ill-fated second Queen. She was brought upin the household of the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk.As part of the Duchess household, she would havespent most of her time at Lambeth and Horsham.Kathryn came to court at about the age of 19 as alady in waiting to Anne of Cleves and there is nodoubt that the spirited young girl caught Henrysattentions. Kathryns uncle probably encouraged thegirl to respond to the Kings attentions and saw it as away to increase his own influence over the monarch.The Duke of Norfolk also took advantage of thedebacle of the Anne of Cleves marriage as a chanceto discredit his enemy, Thomas Cromwell. In fact, CatherineCromwell was executed shortly after the marriage Howardwas nullified.
• Sixteen days after he was free of Anne, Henry took his fifth wife, Kathryn Howard, on July 28, 1540. Henry was 49 and his bride was no older than 19.• For all that can be said against this match, Kathryn did manage to lift the Kings spirits. Henry had gained a lot of weight and was dealing with the ulcerated leg that was to pain him until his death. The vivacious young girl brought back some of Henrys zest for life. The King lavished gifts on his young wife and called her his rose without a thorn and the very jewel of womanhood.• Less than a year into Kathryns marriage, the rumors of her infidelity began. In a way, one couldnt blame her for seeking the company of handsome young men closer to her own age. But to do so, even if only in courtly flirtations, was dangerous for a Queen, especially one who came from a powerful family with many enemies. Kathryn didnt help matters much by appointing one of her admirers as her personal secretary.• By November 1541, there was enough evidence against the Queen that Archbishop Cranmer informed the King of Kathryns misconduct. At first Henry did not believe the accusations, but he agreed to allow further investigations into the matter. Enough evidence was gathered that the Queen had been promiscuous before her marriage and may have had liaisons after becoming Henrys wife. She was executed on the Tower Green on February 13, 1542 and laid to rest near her cousin Anne Boleyn in the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London.
• Catherine Parr, the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal, was born in 1512. • Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, in 1540. The following year she was charged by Thomas Cranmer of having sexual intercourse before her marriage with Henry Catherine Mannock, Francis Dereham and Thomas Parr Culpepper.Henry now sought a new wife and in 1543 married Catherine Parr. Shewas a good stepmother to Henrys two daughters Mary and Elizabeth.Catherine also helped to moderate Henrys religious persecutions.Soon after Henry VIII died in 1547, Catherine married ThomasSeymour of Sudeley, but died in childbirth the following year.
British Timeline1486 - Henry VII (Tudor) married Elizabeth of York uniting houses of York and Lancaster.1487 - Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses, Henry VII, defeats Yorkistarmy.1502 - Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, marries James IV of Scotland.1509 - Henry VIII, becomes king.1513 - Battle of Flodden Field Scots are defeated by the English1515 - Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Popes consent to hisdivorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the"Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome1530 - Thomas Wolsey dies1532 - Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIIIs divorce1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmerappointed Archbishop of Canterbury1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England1535 - Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy
• 1536 - Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539. 1537 - Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI 1540 - Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason 1542 - Catherine Howard is executed 1543 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France• 1544 - Henry VIII and Charles V invade France 1547 - Edward VI, King of England: Duke of Somerset acts as Protector 1549 - Introduction of uniform Protestant service in Edward VIs Book of Common Prayer
• Edward VI Edward was Henry VIII’s youngest child but first heir by the rules of primogeniture, but because he was so young at the time of both his own and his father’s death, he had a council of regency ruling for him during his entire life. His reign was extremely important in the religious conflicts of the time because he was the first truly Protestant ruler of England. He was taught nearly exclusively by Protestants for his whole life.• One of the reasons that Protestantism flourished in this time was because of the power that Edward’s main advisors had over him. One of his main advisors was the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer who virtually redesigned the English Protestant service in order to separate it from Catholicism. Cranmer achieved this with acts such as writing the “Book of Common Prayer” and appointing John Knox as a court Chaplin. The publication of this book caused the Prayer book Rebellion in Cornwall which lead to the slaughter of the Cornish rebels. The Earl of Warwick was another one of Edward’s influential advisors. He supported the destruction of Catholic Churches, the forced use of the Book of Common Prayer in all churches, and the burning of all religious rebels. Soon all unauthorized worship was outlawed. Before Edward died at age fifteen he changed his will so that instead of his Catholic sister Mary inheriting the throne, his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey would be crowned queen. Unfortunately for Jane Grey, she was not supported by the English people (because regardless of her religion and Edward’s wishes her reign was against English law) who had her declaration of royalty revoked after nine (or thirteen) days. Her cousin, Mary had her executed for treason shortly thereafter.
Religious Pandemonium in the House of Tudor• In the course of one hundred years the English monarchy changed Englands national religion five times, an unprecedented development in European history. Each monarch changed a whole population’s religion to match their own beliefs; burning, beheading, and deporting anyone who stood in their way. This website is looking at why and how each monarch changed their subject’s religion, in the most concise and simplest manner possible.
1553 - On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England, herreign lasts nine days; Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon,Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England1554 - Execution of Lady Jane Grey1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted andabout 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake1558 - England loses Calais, last English possession in France; Death of Mary I;Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal ofCatholic legislation in England1560 - Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland1567 - Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earlof Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced toabdicate; James VI, King of Scotland1568 - Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I atFotheringay Castle1577 - Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around theworld (to 1580)
The Execution of Lady Jane Greyby Paul Delaroche
• The Execution of Lady Jane Grey is an oil painting by Paul Delaroche completed in 1833. It is currently housed in the National Gallery in London. The painting portrays, erroneously in some regards, the moments preceding the death of Lady Jane Grey, who, on July 10 1553, was proclaimed Queen of England, only to be deposed nine days later and executed in 1554. Jane is sometimes known as "Nine Days Queen" due to the brevity of her reign.• Lady Jane Grey was the niece of Henry VIII of England and cousin to his son, the short-lived Edward VI. After the latters death she was proclaimed queen, being given precedence over Henrys daughters, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth. Two weeks after the death of her brother, Mary, who had the support of the English people, claimed the throne, which Jane relinquished, having reigned for only nine days. Jane, her husband Lord Guilford Dudley, and her father, were imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of high treason. Janes trial was conducted in November, but the death penalty handed to her was temporarily suspended.• In February 1554, Janes father, who had been released, was one of the rebel leaders in Wyatts rebellion, and on February 12, Mary had Jane, then aged 16, and her husband beheaded. Her father followed two days later.
Elizabeth I• Elizabeth I was queen of England for forty five years. She is remembered as the virgin queen, and the savior of England. Her long reign stabilized England after the constant changes of her father and siblings reigns. She restored the treasury after her fathers extravagance destroyed the royal funds. Elizabeth I also made England a major naval power by building the fishing and boat building industries. For all of these things she is remembered fondly, but she is also remembered for being the most religiously tolerant member of her family.
Good Queene Bess• Elizabeth’s reign marked the Golden Age of England. The arts flourished, England blossomed, the people loved her, and she was the best monarch—so much better than a son.
Elizabeth I• Elizabeth I was queen of England for forty five years. She is remembered as the virgin queen, and the savior of England. Here long reign stabilized England after the constant changes of her father and siblings reigns. She restored the treasury after her fathers extravagance destroyed the royal funds. Elizabeth I also made England a major naval power by building the fishing and boat building industries. For all of these things she is remembered fondly, but she is also remembered for being the most religiously tolerant member of her family.• Unfortunately, given the rest of her family, this is not saying much. Elizabeth I was a moderate Protestant, so when she came to the throne the Protestants in England were sorely disappointed when she refused to persecute the Catholics who had flourished under her sisters rule. On the other hand, she wasnt totally unbiased. She made church attendance and the use of a revised copy of Thomas Cranmers “Book of Common Prayer” mandatory, but she also lessened the punishments for disobeying these laws. So while she wasnt a saint, she also wasnt as fanatical as the rest of her family, and her long reign gave England a chance to stabilize and heal in several areas.• One of the major worries during her reign was her heir, or lack thereof. She never married and therefore had no direct heir. Her closest relative was the extremely Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth spent a fair amount of her rule finding ways to keep Mary from usurping her power, until Elizabeth I finally had her cousin Mary beheaded after a lengthy stay in the Tower of London. When Elizabeth finally died she was seventy years old and her closest heir was Mary, Queen of Scots only son, James Stuart. He was the first of the House of Stuart, which was plagued to an even greater extent by religious turmoil.
Combine the Cross ofSt. George (England)with St. Andrew’s Cross ofScotland, then add the Irish flag,and you have the Union Jack
Mary, Queen of ScotsMary Stuart, also known as Mary, Queen of Scotsis a fascinating player in the Tudor dynasty mostlybecause she wasnt in it. She fought her cousin,Elizabeth bitterly for the English throne severaltimes, but each time she failed. Her cousin finallyjailed her in the Tower until executing her in 1587.Mary was thought by many to be the rightful heirto the English throne due to the manner in whichElizabeth’s parents were married. They weremarried after Henry divorced his first wife, so tomany in the Catholic Europe Elizabeth was abastard and Mary Stuart was the legitimateQueen. Her son, James, would become the firstKing in the House of Stuart in 1603,long afterher death.
1587 - Execution of Mary Queen of Scots; England at war with Spain; Drake destroysSpanish fleet at Cadiz1588 - The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English fleet under Lord Howard ofEffingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins: war between Spain and Englandcontinues until 16031597 - Irish rebellion under Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)1600 - Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company1601 - Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essexattempts rebellion, and is executed1603 - Elizabeth dies; James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England1605 - Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attemptto blow up Parliament and James I.1607 - Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland; colony ofVirginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith; Henry Hudson begins voyage to easternGreenland and Hudson River1611 - James Is authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; Englishand Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster
A portrait of KingJames of Englandpainted around 1619gives no hint of themonarch’s frequentclashes withParliament.
James I (Reigned from 1603-1625)• In 1603, Queen Elizabeth (last of the Tudors) died, leaving no children. She was replaced by her near relative James, who became the first of the Stewart Kings of England.• James was considered educated, and authored a popular book on witchcraft. He also directed the publication of the Bible that remains in use to this day.• The famous Gunpowder Plot occurred during his reign, only serving to increase the persecution of Catholics in England.• A number of scandals during his administration, as well as his much- rumored homosexuality, brought suspicion on his rule.• James reigned until 1625, when he died of natural causes.• His ill-fated son, Charles I, was next in line to the throne.• Jamestown was named for him and Shakespeare wrote “Macbeth” to honor his ancestors and mix in some witchcraft.
Guy Fawkes Fawkes is notorious for his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He was probably placed in charge of executing the plot because of his military and explosives experience. The plot, masterminded by Robert Catesby, was an attempt by a group of religious conspirators to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the aristocracy, by blowing up the House of Lords in the Palace of Westminster during the State Opening of Parliament.• Fawkes is notorious for his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He was probably placed in charge of executing the plot because of his military and explosives experience. The plot, masterminded by Robert Catesby, was an attempt by a group of religious conspirators to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the aristocracy, by blowing up the House of Lords in the Palace of Westminster during the State Opening of Parliament.• The plot itself may have been occasioned by the realization by Protestant authorities and Catholic recusants that the Kingdom of Spain was in far too much debt and fighting too many wars to assist Catholics in Britain. Any possibility of toleration by Great Britain was removed at the Hampton Court conference in 1604 when King James I attacked both extreme Puritans and Catholics. The plotters realized that no outside help would be forthcoming. Fawkes and the other conspirators rented a cellar beneath the House of Lords after having failed in their attempt to dig a tunnel under the building. By March 1605, they had hidden 1,800 pounds (36 barrels, or 800 kg) of gunpowder in the cellar.
• A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would have been present at Parliament during the opening. On the evening of 26 October Lord Monteagle, received an anonymous letter warning him to stay away, and to "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for ... they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament". Despite quickly becoming aware of the letter—informed by one of Monteagles servants—they resolved to continue with their plans, as it appeared that it "was clearly thought to be a hoax". Monteagle had been made suspicious, however, and the letter was shown to King James.• The king ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of 5 November. Shortly after midnight, Fawkes was found leaving the cellar the conspirators had rented and was arrested. Inside, the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal.
• Remember, remember the fifth of November, The gunpowder treason and plot, I know of no reason Why the gunpowder treason Should ever be forgot.”• Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson, and was tortured over the next few days in an effort to extract from him the names of his co-conspirators. King James directed that the torture be light at first, but more severe if necessary. Sir William Wade, Lieutenant of the Tower of London at this time, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkess confession. For three or four days Fawkes said nothing, nor divulged the names of his co-conspirators. Only when he found out that they had proclaimed themselves by appearing in arms did he succumb. The torture only revealed the names of those conspirators who were already dead or whose names were known to the authorities. On 31 January, Fawkes and a number of others implicated in the conspiracy were tried in Westminster Hall. After being found guilty, they were taken to Old Palace Yard in Westminster and St Pauls Yard, where they were to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Fawkes, weakened by his torture, was the last to climb the ladder to the gallows, from which he jumped, breaking his neck in the fall and thus avoiding the gruesome latter part of his execution
1614 - James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass anylegislation1618 - Thirty Years War begins, lasts until 16481620 - Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the"Mayflower1622 - James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs1624 - Alliance between James I and France; Parliament votes for war against Spain;Virginia becomes crown colony1625 - Charles I, King of England (to 1649); Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sisterof Louis XIII of France; dissolves Parliament which fails to vote him money1628 - Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliaments statement of civilrights in return for finances1629 - Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 16401630 - England makes peace with France and Spain1640 - Charles I summons the "Short " Parliament ; dissolved for refusal to grantmoney; The Long Parliament begins.1641 - Triennial Act requires Parliament to be summoned every three years; StarChamber and High Commission abolished by Parliament; Catholics in Ireland revolt;some 30,000 Protestants massacred; Grand Remonstrance of Parliament to Charles I
Charles I• Charles I, (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649), the second son of James VI of Scotland and I of England, was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Charles famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. He was an advocate of the divine right of kings, which was the belief that kings received their power from God and thus could not be deposed. Many of his English subjects feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. Many of his actions, particularly the levying of taxes without Parliaments consent, caused widespread opposition.• Religious conflicts permeated Charles reign. He married a Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria of France, over the objections of Parliament and public opinion.
• His last years were marked by the English Civil War, in which he fought the forces of the English and Scottish Parliaments, which challenged his attempts to augment his own power, and the Puritans, who were hostile to his religious policies and supposed Catholic sympathies. Charles was defeated in the First Civil War (1642–45), after which Parliament expected him to accept its demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked the Second Civil War (1648–49) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason.• The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. Charless son, Charles II, became king after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.• In that same year, Charles I was canonized by the Church of England.
1642 - Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects ParliamentsNineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers(Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians)1643 - Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament1644 - Battle of Marston Moor; Oliver Cromwell defeats Prince Rupert1645 - Formation of Cromwells New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated byParliamentary forces1646 - Charles I surrenders to the Scots1647 - Scots surrender Charles I to Parliament; he escapes to the Isle of Wright; makes secrettreaty with Scots.1648 - Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at battle of Preston Prides Purge:Presbyterians expelled from Parliament (known as the Rump Parliament); Treaty of Westphaliaends Thirty Years War1649 - Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth, in which; England is governed as arepublic, is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions inIreland1650 - Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.1651 - Charles II invades England and is defeated at Battle of Worcester; Charles escapes to France;First Navigation Act, England gains virtual monopoly of foreign trade1653 - Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector1658 - Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes,England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk
Oliver Cromwell, Lord ProtectorOliver Cromwell’s battle helmet
Oliver Cromwell (1599 - 1658)• English soldier and statesman who helped make England a republic and then ruled as lord protector from 1653 to 1658.
• Oliver Cromwell (born April 25, 1599 Old Style, died September 3, 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.• He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.• Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. At times his lifestyle resembled that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.• An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides"), he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Cromwell was one of the signatories of Charles Is death warrant in 1649 and was an MP in the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On April 20, 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653 until his death. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.• Cromwell has been a very controversial figure in the history of the British Isles---a regicidal dictatorto some historians and a hero of liberty to others . In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland itself he is widely hated.
1659 - Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored1660 - Convention Parliament restores Charles II to throne1661 - Clarendon Code; "Cavalier" Parliament of Charles II passes series of repressivelaws against Nonconformists; English acquire Bombay1662 - Act of Uniformity passed in England1664 - England seizes New Amsterdam from the Dutch, change name to New York1665 - Great Plague in London1666 - Great Fire of London1667 - Dutch fleet defeats the English in Medway river; treaties of Breda amongNetherlands, England, France, and Denmark1668 - Triple Alliance of England, Netherlands, and Sweden against France1670 - Secret Treaty of Dover between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France torestore Roman Catholicism to England; Hudsons Bay Company founded1672 - Third Anglo-Dutch war (until 1674); William III (of Orange) becomes ruler ofNetherlands1673 - Test Act aims to deprive English Roman Catholics and Nonconformists of publicoffice1674 - Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands
Charles II • Charles II was King of England, Scotland and Ireland, whose restoration to the throne in 1660 marked the end of republican rule in England.Notice the ear/hairsimilarities!
The Diary of Samuel Pepys is perhaps the most well known collection of reminiscences. He maintained it, in secrecy, from 1660, the year of the Restoration, until 1669 when fear of blindness prevented his daily labours. Though it covers less than a decade, it offers a lively and detailed insight into a period and a personality – for he noted events in both public and private life. Famous passages include descriptions of The Plague and the Great Fire of London.
1677 - William III, ruler of the Netherlands, marries Mary, daughter of James, Duke ofYork, heir to the English throne1678 - Popish Plot in England; Titus Oates falsely alleges a Catholic plot to murderCharles II1679 - Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial; ParliamentsBill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliamentdismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners becomeknown as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories1681 - Whigs reintroduce Exclusion Bill; Charles II dissolves Parliament1685 - James II of England and VII of Scotland (to 1688); rebellion by Charles IIsillegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, against James II is put down1686 - James II disregards Test Act; Roman Catholics appointed to public office1687 - James II issues Declaration of Liberty of Conscience, extends toleration to allreligions1688 - Englands Glorious Revolution; William III of Orange is invited to save Englandfrom Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France1689 - Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchyin Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become jointmonarchs of England and Scotland (to1694), Toleration Act grants freedom of worship todissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and theNetherlands.
James II (1633-1701) (Reigned 1685-1688) James was a Stuart king of England, Scotland and Ireland who in 1688 was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution by William III.In 1685, James II became King after the death of his older brother, Charles II. Like hisbrother Charles, James, who was Duke of York prior to becoming King, had manyexciting adventures in Europe as a wandering prince in exile from 1649 to 1660. Hisfirst marriage was to Anne Hyde, who helped James convert to the Catholic faith inthe late 1660s. Anne Hyde died in 1671. The daughters of James and Anne Hyde,Mary and Anne, would play an important part in the changes to come. In 1673 Jamesmarried another Catholic, Mary of Modena, a young Italian princess.James was stubborn, and only put his trust in a few close conniving advisors andflatterers. Dull witted and pious, he surrounded himself with "yes men." andconspiratorial characters, such as Sunderland, Father Petre , and "Lying Dick" Talbot.James attempts to increase the power of Catholics, through the Declarations ofIndulgence in 1687 and 1688, only served to antagonize Parliament and the Anglicanestablishment. His short reign ended with the Glorious Revolution at the arrival ofWilliam, Prince of Orange. In late Dec. 1688, James, his wife, and their son, ThePrince of Wales, who had been born in June 1688, fled to France. After 13 years ofbitter exile, James died near Paris in 1701.